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the title "ha-kadosh" or "martyr."

During the uprising of the barons in 1266 the " dis-
inherited " attiicked the Jewry of Lincoln, mainly
for the purpose of destroying the deeds of indebt-
edness which tended to put the baronage in the
king's jiower. It is probable that the chest of the
chirographers of Lincoln was burned at this time
("Select Pleas," ed. Rigg, p. 41). Bereehiah de
Nicole liad a son, Hayyim orVives. and a daughter,
Belaset, probably identified witli the Belaset of Wal-



91



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Limoees
Liindo



lingford whose house is tlie better known of tlie two
Jews' liouses at Lincoln. She was executed in 1287
for clipping coin. The betrothal deed of her daugh-
ter still exists, in which an elaborate written copy
of the Hebrew Scriptures is one of tiie most impor-
tant items of the dowry.

At the expulsion in 1290 no less than sixty-six
hou.seholders of Lincoln left deeds, bonds for money,
corn, or wool, aggregating in money £423 15s.; in
corn £601 9s. 4d. ; and in wool £1,595 6s. All of
these fell into the liands of the king, besides thirty
houses the exact value of which can not be ascer-
tained. IMost of the houses were in tlie Braunce-
gate or in St. Martin's parish, where indeed the
ghetto seems to have been. No Jewish community
has been formed in Lincoln since 1290.

Bibliography: Jacobs, Jems of Aiiuevin B?i!;/and. passim ;
M. D. Davis, in Archa'olDyical Jtninial, xxxviii. 178 et seq.;
Freeman, EituHxh Towns, p. 216; Tnxn:<. Jew. Hint. Soc.
England, 11.

LINDAU, BARUCH BEN JUDAH LOB :

German mathematician; born at Hanover in 1759;
died at Berlin



Dec. 5, 1849. He
wrote: " Reshit
L i m ni u d i m , "
a textbook of
natural science
(part i., physics
and geoirraphy,
Berlin,^ 1789;
Brunn, 1796;
Cracow. 1820;
part ii., natural
philosophy,
with additions
by Wolf ben
Joseph [Joseph
Wolf of Des-
sau], Dessau,
1810; complete
e d . L e m b e r g ,
1869); "ShirHa-
tunnah,"epitlia-
lamium in honor
of Judah ben
Solomon of Han-
over (n.d., n.p.).



The hitter drew a draft on Paris for the amount,
but tliis was dishonored on a frivolous pretext, and
Lindo does not appear to have ever obtained his
money. He died in linancial difficulties: his bequest
to the Bevis ]\[arks Synagogiu; was never paid. His
son Abraham Alexander Lindo wrote a pamphlet
entitled " A Word in Season " (London, 1839), but he
was prohibited by the IMahamad from publishing
anything more.

T5iHi,iO(;UAPiiv : Plcciotto, ShelclifKof Anfilo-Jrwish History,
\<]\ L'7;i-:J:,V, London, 1S75.

J.
LINDO, DAVID ABARBANEL : English
conmiunal worker; born in London Aug. 14, 1772;
died there Feb. 26, 1852. He was an uncle of Lord
Beaconstield, wliom he initiated into the covenant
of Abraham, and was intimately connected with the
Bevis ]\Iarks Congregation, representing the rigidly
legal standpoint against the struggle for lleform.
At its beginning in 1838 he helped to found and be-
came chairman of a society called "ShomereMishme-
ret Akodesh," formed to resist all innovations and
oppose Reform




Bibliography:
Furst. Bihl. Jud.
11. 350; Steln-
schnelder, Cnt.
Bodl. col. 1624; Zeltlin, Bibl
D.



Jew's House, Steep Hill, Lincoln.

(From a drawing of the eighteenth century, in the British Museum.)



Post-Mendels. p. 312.

S. Man.

LINDO : One of the oldest and most esteemed of
London Sepiiardic families ; it traces its descent back
to Isaac Lindo, who died in 1712. For eight suc-
cessive generations a member of the family has
been a sworn broker of the city of London. See
family chart on following page.

LINDO, ALEXANDER: English merchant;
died in "London in ISlf^. He was coiniected with
the West India trade, and in this connection entered
into relations with Napoleon after the Treaty of
Amiens, arranging for the shipment of goods to the
value of £260,000 to the French West Indies for the
use of the troops commanded bv General Leclerc.



tendencies; but
the Yehidim
ordered the dis-
solution of the
society as likely
to lead to dis-
union. Lindo
had no less than
eighteen chil-
dren, eight of
whom married
into well-known
Sephardic fam-
ilies.

Bibliography:

Catalogue of the
A Holo-Jeivish
Historical Exhi-
bition, pp. .56, 70;
G aster. Hist, of
Bevis Marks, pp.
171-175, London,
1903.

J.

LINDO,
ELIAS HAY-

YIM : English
author and his-
torian ; born in
1783; died iu
London June 11,
liis life iu the



1865. He spent the first lialf of
island of St. Thomas, where he married and became
one of the leading merchants. He was president of
the Hebrew congregation and acted also in the hon-
orary capacity of mohel for many years.

Lindo settled in England about 1832 and began
a series of literary labors. He translated the "Con-
ciliador " of Manasseh ben Israel (London, 1842). In
1832 he published his "Calendar," a reissue of
which appeared in 1860. The tables are preceded
by an essay on the structure of the Jewish calen-
dar; and appended is a collection of general infor-
mation. His last published work was the " History
of the Jews of Spain and Portugal" {ih. 1849), for
which he visited the Iberian Peninsula and obtained



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93



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Lindo
Linen



much of his information from original sources; it
still retains some value. He furthermore made man-
uscript translations into English of some of the mas-
terpieces of Hebrew literature, including Bahya's
"Hobot ha-Lebabot"; Judah ha-Levi's "Cuzari";
Isaac Aboab's "Menorat ha-Ma'or." The manu-
scripts are now in tlie possession of Jews' College,
London.

Lindo was several times warden of the Portuguese
congregation of London, and compiled a complete
catalogue of all the works in its library, with bio-
graphical memoranda of their authors.



Bibliography: Jeu\ Cln-nn. June 23, 186;").
J.



G. L.



LINDO, MARK PRAGEB : Dutch writer;
born in London Sept. 18, 1819; died at The Hague
March 9, 1879. He went to Holland in 1838 as
teacher of English, first at Arnhem, and then at the
Military Academy at Breda ; and he studied Dutch
literature at Utrecht University (D.Litt. 1854). He
was inspector of schools in South Holland from 1865
until his death. Lindo took a somewhat important
position in Dutch literature as a mediator between
Holland and England. He translated Dickens,
Thackeray, Fielding, Sterne, and Scott in versions
which were more distinguished for vigor than ac-
curacy. He wrote a number of novels under the
pseudonj'in "De Oude Heer Smits," among them
being " Afdrukken van Indrukken " (1854; his most
popular work; written in conjunction with Lode-
wyk Mulder); "Brieven en Ontoezemingen " and
"Familie van 0ns " (1855) ; "Typen " (1871). With
Lodewyk Mulder also he published the weekly
" Nederlandsche Spectator. " Lindo wrote a history
of England in Dutch (2 vols., 1868-74). His col-
lected works, edited by Mulder, appeared in five
volumes (Amsterdam, 1879).

Bibliography : Encyc. Brit. 10th ed., Supplement.

8. J.

LINDO, MOSES : Planter and merchant in
South Carolina ; born probably in England ; died at
Charleston, S. C, April 26, 1774. He seems to have
been considered one of the foremost experts in the
cochineal and indigo trade in London. Becoming
interested in the prospects of the indigo industry of
South Carolina, he removed to Charleston in Nov.,
1756, and at once announced his intention of pur-
chasing indigo for the foreign market. His adver-
tisements appear repeatedly in the " South Carolina
Gazette " for 1756. He soon became a wealthy
planter and slave-owner and ranked among the
prominent merchants of Charleston. He did more
than any other individual to encourage and advance
the indigo industry of the colony, among the most
important industries in South Carolina in prerevo-
lutionary times. His transactions were enormous,
and in 1762 he was appointed "Surveyor and In-
spector-General of Indigo, Drugs, and Dyes," an
office he resigned in 1772.

Lindo seems to have been a man of scientific at-
tainments, and his experiments with American dyes
commenced as early as 1757. He maintained a
correspondence with Emanuel Mendez da Costa, li-
brarian of the Royal Society and one of the foremost
naturalists of his day. The " Philosophical Trans-



actions of the Royal Society " (liii. 238, paper 37)
contains "An account of a New Die from the Ber-
ries of a Weed in South Carolina : in a letter from
Mr. Moses Lindo dated at Charlestown, September
2, 1763, to Mr. Emanuel Mendez da Costa, Libra-
rian of the Royal Society."

An item in the " South Carolina Gazette " (March
15, 1773) states that Lindo purchased a stone which
lie believed to be a topaz of immense size, and that
he sent it to London by the Right Hon. Lord Charles
Greville Montague to be presented to the Queen of
England. A number of Lindo's advertisements and
of items concerning him in the " South Carolina Ga-
zette " have recently been collected by Rev. B. A.
Elzas, and reprinted in the " Charleston News and
Courier," Jan. 18, 1903.

Bibliography : Kayserling, Zur Gesch. der JUdUiche^i Aerzte,
in Mimntsschrift, vli. 105; Hiibner, The Jewn of South
Carolina Prior to 1SOO\ N. Taylor Phillips, Puhlications
Am. Jew. Hist. Soc. 11. 51-52.

A. L. Hu.

LINEN : Cloth made of flax. The Biblical terms
are "bad" (LXX. Xiveor, A. V. "linen"), "shesh,"
and "buz" (LXX. ^vaaog or ^vaaivo^; A. V. "fine
linen "). In the construction of the Tabernacle linen
was used for the inner cover (Ex. xxvi. 1) ; the hang-
ing or screen closing the entrance to the Tabernacle
(Ex. xxvi. 36); the veil which divided the "Holy"
from the "Holy of Holies" (Ex. xxvi. 31); and the
hangings of the court together with the curtain for
the entrance to it (Ex. xxvii. 9, 16, and parallels).
It was used also in the priests' vestments (Ex.
xxviii. 42, xxxix. 27-29; Lev. xvi. 4). According
to II Chron. iii. 14 (comp. ii. 14), a curtain of buz
also divided the Holy of Holies ("debir") from the
Holy in the Temple of Solomon ; and from I Mace,
(i. 22, iv. 51) and Josephus ("B.J." v. 5, §§ 4 et seq.)
it can be seen that in the two succeeding Temples
both the Holy and Holy of Holies were divided by
curtains of byssus.

From Ex. xxxix. 27-29, compared with Ex.
xxviii. 42 and Lev. xvi. 4, it would appear that
"bad" and "shesh," the latter being identified with
Coptic " shens " and first mentioned in connection
with Egypt (Gen. xH. 42), are, if not identical, manu-
factural varieties of the same substance. "Buz,"
again, which occurs only in later books, is assumed
to be a later equivalent of " shesh " (comp. II Chron.
ii. 14, iii. 14, v. 12 with Ex. xxv. 4, xxvi. 31, xxviii.
42, etc.) ; in I Chron. xv. 27 it corresponds to " bad "
in II Sam. vi. 14. It may also be a different local
name for the same fabric (comp. Ezek. xxvii. 7
and 16).

The view of manj^ modern exegeles that the He-
brew terms denote "linen" is sujiported not only
by the Septuagint renderings of Xiveog and ^va-
aoq, which latter generally means "linen" (comp.,
for instance, Herodotus, ii. 86: Thomson, "Mum-
my Cloths of Egypt," in "London and Edinburgh
Philosophical Magazine," 3d series, vol. v., p. 355;
Budge, "The Mummy," p. 190, Cambridge, 1893),
but also by the facts that in the Temple of Eze-
kiel the priests, while ministering, wore linen gar-
ments (Ezek. xliv. 17), and that cotton is mentioned
in the Old Testament under the name of " karpas "
(Esth. i. 6). Still, as the ancients did not always



liinetzki
liipkin



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



94



sharply distinguish between linen and cotton, it is
possible that both were used in the Sanctuary and
that the terms designate in general "white stuff."

It was enacted that garments should be made
of only one kind of stuff (Lev. xix. 19), and later
tradition (Josephus, " Ant." iii. 6, §;§ 1 et seq. ; 7, §§ 1
etseq. ; idem, "B. J." v. 5, § 7; Pliilo, "De Vita Moy-
sis," ii. 151 ; idem, "Duo de Monarchia," ii. 225 [ed.
Mangey]) and the Talmud have it that only wool
(for the variegated ornaments) and linen entered
into the textiles used in the Tabernacle and Temple
(conip. Yoma 34b; Kil. ix. 1; comp. also Ibn Ezra
on Ex. XXV. 4). Accordingto Josephus ("Ant." xx.
9, t^ 6), Agrippa II. permitted the Levites also to
wear linen garments (comp. II Chron. v. 12; see
Sha'.\tnez).

Bibliography : John Braun, De VestUu Sncerd. Hebr.i., ch.
vi., Amsterdam, 1680; J. R. Forster, De Bysso Antiqiwrum,
London, 1776; Haneberg, Die ReliffiOsen AUerthiimer der
Bibel, p. 536, Munich, 1869; Tristram, Nat. HM. pp. 440, 465,
London. 1867; Yates, Textrinum Antiquorum, London, 1843.

E. O. H. I. M. C.

LINETZKI, ISAAC JOEL: Russo-Yiddish
humorist; born at Vinnitza Sept. 8, 1839, in which
town his father, Joseph Linetzki, was a Hasidic
rabbi. At the age of eighteen Isaac ran away from
home and went to Odessa. Thence he intended to go
to Breslau to study at the rabbinical seminary, but
was intercepted at tlie frontier by his father's fanat-
ical friends, who forced him to return home. Li-
netzki then attended the rabbinical school at Jito-
mir (1862-63); and while there he wrote his first
poems. Avliich were published in his " Beizer Mar-
shelik" (Odessa, 1868). Zweifel and Slonimsky
took a great interest in Linetzki, who on the latter's
recommendation obtained a position in the office of
M. Weinstin at Kiev.

In 1866 Linetzki became a contributor to "Kol
Mebasser," a Yiddish weekly published in Odessa,
and in 1868 he began the publication of his famous
novel " Das Polische Jiingel." The success of this
work was unprecedented in Yiddish literature. Be-
ing a true account of the life of a Hasidic youth
and entirely based upon actual experience, " Das
Polische Jiingel " is, in the opinion of the most emi-
nent critics, one of the best humoristic works in
Yiddish (L. Wiener, "Hist, of Yiddish Literature,"
p. 165).

In IHTo Linetzki published at Lemberg conjointly
with Goldfaden a Judao-German weekl}', "Yisro-
lik." In 1876-77 lie published his " Pritshcpe " and
"Statek,"and the first number of his calendar, which
he continued to issue for a number of years. In the
period between 1882 and 1888 he published several
works, including "Amerika zi Erez Isroel " ; a
geography of Palestine; and translations of Les-
sing's "Nathan der AVeise " and Griltz's "Gesch.
der Judcn." His " Worem Chreiu," a sequel to
"Das Polische Jiingel." was published as a serial
in the "Jlidische Volksbibliotek " (1888, vol. i.).
Shorter sketches from his pen have appeared in the
"Fjiinilienfreuiid," in the "Hausfreuud," and in the
"Volksfreund."

Binr.ior.RAPHY : Linetzhi Yuhileum, Odessa, 1891; Wiener.
Iliyl. «f YiddiHh Literature, New York, 1899; Voskhoa,
1884. No. 2.
H. K. M. Z.



LION. — Biblical Data : There are several names
for the lion in the Old Testament (comp. Job iv. 10 et
seq.): "aryeh," or "ari," which is the most general
name; "labi' " and "lebiyah," for the old lion and
lioness; " kefir " and "gur," for the young, strong
lion and whelp respectively; while "layish" and
"shuhal " occur in more poetic diction.

The lion is one of the most frequently mentioned
animals in the Bible, which would indicate its
former abundance in Palestine. Its favorite haunts
were the bushy environments of the Jordan (Jer.
xlix. 19, 1. 44; Zech. xi. 3), caves and thickets (Jer.
iv. 7, XXV. 38; Ps. x. 9, xvii. 12), in general the
woods (Jer. xii. 8; Amos iii. 8) and the desert (Isa.
xxx. 6). Place-names which may be connected with
the lion are: Arieh (II Kings xv. 25), Lebaoth and
Beth-lebaoth (Josh. xv. 32, xix. 6), Chephirah
(Josh. ix. 17, xviii. 28; Ezra ii. 25; Neh. vii. 29),
and Laish. the original name of northern Dan
(Judges xviii. 29).

Many habits of the lion are incidentally men-
tioned in the Old Testament. The male assists in
the rearing and training of the young (Ezek. xix. 2;
Nah. ii. 13) ; it lies in wait in secret places (Deut.
xxxiii. 22; Lam. iii. 10); growls over its prey (Isa.
xxxi. 4); breaks the bones of its victims (Isa.
xxxviii. 13), and carries them to its lair (Gen. xlix.
9). It not only was the terror of flocks (Mic. v. 8),
but also attacked men (I Kings xiii. 24, xx. 36; II
Kings xvii. 25). It was, however, fought by shep-
herds with sling and staff (I Sam. xvii. 34; Ainos
iii. 12), and was sometimes killed by daring men
(Judges xiv. 5; II Sam. xxiii. 20). From Ezek.
xix. 4, 8 it may be inferred that the usual manner of
catching the animal alive was by pit and net. The
custom of Oriental kings of throwing those fallen
into disgrace to lions which were kept in dens, is
illustrated in Dan. vi. 8 et seq.

The lion is the emblem of strength, courage, and
majesty (Prov. xxii. 13, xxvi. 13, xxx. 30). Judahis
compared to a lion (Gen. xlix. 9) ; so also are Gad and
Dan (Deut. xxxiii. 20, 23), Saul and Jonathan (II
Sam. i. 23). Israel (Num. xxiii. 24, xxiv. 9), and even
God Himself (Isa. xxxi. 4; Hos. v. 14, xi. 10). Sim-
iles are derived from its terrific visage (I Chron.
xii. 9), and especially from its terror-inspiring roar.
The latter is ascribed to enemies (Isa. v. 29; Zeph.
iii. 3; Ps. xxii. 13; Prov. xxviii. 15); to false proph-
ets (Ezek. xxii. 25); to the wrath of a king (Prov.
xix. 12, xx. 2); to God (Jer. xxv. 30; Joel iv. 16;
Amos i. 2, iii. 8). In the Psalter the lion is often
the symbol of the cruel and oppressive, the mighty
and ricii (e.g., Ps. x. 9, xxxiv. 11, xxxv. 17).

As an element of decorative art the figure of the
lion entered into the design of the brazen Lavkk
in the Temple of Solomon and of Solomon's throne
(I Kiniis vii. 29, x. 20, and parallels).

K. r,'. 11. I. M. C.

In Rabbinical Literature : The Talmud

states six names of the lion, namely: "aryeh,"
"kefir," "labi"." "layish." "shahal," and "shahaf "
(Sanh. 95a; Ab. R. N. xxxix.,end). The most gen-
eral terms, Iiowever, are "are," "arya'" (B. K.
4a), and "arveh"; for tlic lioness, "lebij'ah" (B.
K. 161)). "giiryata" (Shab. 67a), and " kalba "
(Yalk. ii. 721); and for the young lion, "gurya"



96



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Linetzki
Liipkin



(Sanh. G4a). In Hul. 59b an animal called " tigris "
is delined as " the lion of Be-'llai " Ok!?>j; UT 'N). By
"Be-'llai " is probably meant a mouutaiu height or
mountain forest, perhaps specially the Lebanon
(comp. "bala," ib. 80a, and see Goat); and if by
" tigris " the tiger is meant, it would appear that
tlie Talmudical writers did not know this animal
from personal observation, and it was therefore en-
dowed by them with fabulous proportions and qual-
ities. Thus it is said in the same passages that the
distance between the lobes of its lungs was nine
cubits, and that its roar at a distance of 400 parasangs
brought down the walls of Rome. Kohut (" Ueber
die Judische Angelologie und Damonologie," etc..
p. 103; comp. also idem, "Aruch Completum," iv.
15) surmises that "tigris " is the Persian "thrigat,"
i.e., the mythical three-legged animal (comp. also
Schorr in "He-Haluz," vii. 32).

The lion is often enumerated among the danger-
ous animals (B. K. 15b and parallels). It is espe-
cially dangerous in rutting-time (Sanh. 106a). It
begins to devour its prey alive (Pes. 49b), carrying
part of it to the lair for the lioness and the whelps
(B. K. 16b; Sanh. 90b). Sometimes, however, the
lion will stay among flocks without injuring them
(Hul. 53a); it attacks man only when driven by
hunger (Yeb. 121b), and never two men when they
are together (Shab. 151b). Though the lion can be
tamed (Sanh. 15b; comp. the expression "ari tar-
but," B. K. 16b), it is, on account of its dangerous-
ness, kept in a cage (Shab. 106b), and when so con-
fined is fed with the flesh of wild asses (Men. 103b).
It is forbidden to sell lions to the pagans because
the latter use them in their circuses (' Ab. Zarah 16a).
In passing a lion's den ("gob") one should recite a
benediction of thanksgiving in memory of the mira-
cle which happened to Daniel when he was thrown
into such a den (Ber. 57b). The term of gestation
of the lion is three years (Bek. 8a). Its tormentor
is the "mafgia'," or little Ethiopian gnat (Shab.
77b). For the medicinal use of the milk of tlie lion-
ess seeYalk. 721.

The Talmud makes about the same figurative
use of the lion as does the Old Testament. The lion
is the king of animals (Hag. 13b) and the symbol of
true mental greatness; and in this regard it is con-
trasted with the fox (Shab. 111b; Ab. iv. 15; Git.
83b); it is the type of strength and awe (Pes. 112a;
Shebu. 22b; B. K. 85a). The sound of God's voice
is likened to the roaring of the lion (Ber. 3a, b).
The name of the lion is applied to God, Israel, and
the Temple (comp. Isa. xxix. 1 : "ariel"; Pe.sik. R.
28 [ed. Friedmann, p. 133J and parallels). The
lion also symbolizes the niighly spirit of tempta-
tion and seduction to idolatry (Sunli. 64a; comp.
I Peter v. 8). The Temple of Ezekiel is compared
to the lion in its structure, both being broad in front
and narrow behind (Mid. iv. 7). The lion is also the
fifth sign ("Leo") of the zodiac, corresponding to
the fifth month, Ab (Pcsik. R. I.e. ; Yalk., Ex. 418).

Bibliography: Tristram, Nat. Hist. p. 115; Lewysohn, Z. T.
pp. 68 and 70.
K. s. I. M. C.

LION, HENRI JULIUS: Dutch journalist :
born March 23, 1806, at Elberfeld ; died Oct. 19, 1869.
In 1824 he entered the Prussian army, and in 1830



that of Holland. In 1834 he went to India, and was
honorably discharged as an oflicer at his own re-
quest in 1841. After this he devoted himself to in-
dustrial enterprises, having acquired a great practi-
cal knowledge of Indian affairs. He was the Nes-
tor of Indian journalism, being the founder of the
"Bataviaaseh Handelsblad." To his great perse-
verance must be ascribed the appointment of a com-
mittee to consider the establishment of a railway in
Java.

Bibliography : Van der Aa, Biographisch Woordenboek,
xxi.
s. E. Si-.

LION, ISAAC JACOB: Dutch journalist;
born at Amersfort Dec. 17, 1821 ; died at The Hague
Aug. 27, 1873. Settling in Amsterdam, he occupied
himself with literary work, and became in 1840 edi-
tor of the "Handelsblad." In 1849 he applied him-
self to stenography, and in the following year was
appointed shorthand writer to the Second Chamber
(Tweede Kamer der Staten Generaal). Jointly with
the lawyer D. Leon he established in 1850 the
weekly "De Gemeente Stem." He was also corre-
spondent for several weeklies and dailies. In 1856
he became editor of the "Indier," and in 1860 pro-
prietor of the " 'sGravenhaagsche Nieuwsbode,"
which paper he combined with the "Indier" and
published as the "Dagblad van 'sGravenhage en
Zuid-HoUand." This paper is still (1904) in exist-
ence.

Bibliography: Van der Aa, Bwaraphisch Wt.oiih-.iiboek,
xxi. (gives list of works covering 3 pages); Dagblad vayi
'sGravenhage, Aug. 28, 1873.
S. E. Sl.

LIPINER, SIEGFRIED : Austrian poet ; born
at Yaroslav, Galicia, Oct. 24, 1856; educated at the
gymnasia in Tarnow and Vienna and at the univer-
sities of Leipsic and Strasburg. In 1881 he was ap-
pointed librarian to the Austrian Reichsrath, which
post he still occupies (1904). In 1894 the title of
" Regierungsrath " was conferred upon him. Lipi-
ner has written: "Der Entfesselte Prometheus"
(1876); "Renatus" (1878); "DasBuch der Freude "
(1880); "Totenfeier" (1887), all published at Leip-
sic. In 1883 he translated the " Pan Thaddeus " of
Mickiewitz, and in 1886 wrote the libretto for Gold-
mark's "Merlin."

Bibliography : Meyers Konversation,<i-LexUi<>iu
s. F. T. H.

LIPKIN : Russo-Jewish family which derives
its origin from Dob Bar Lipkiu, rabbi of Plungian
in the first half of the eighteenth century (see Eze-
kiel Katzenellenbogen, " Keueset Ezekiel," No. 7).
The pedigree of the most important members of the
family will be found on the following page.

Israel Lipkin (known as Rabbi Israel Sa-
lanter, after his place of residence, Salaty): Rus-
sian rabbi; born at Zhagory at the beginning of
the nineteenth century; died at Konigsberg, Prus-



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