Isidore Singer.

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sia, Feb. 2, 1883. He received his first training from
his father, Zeeb Wolf, who was rabbi at Zhagory.
After his marriage Lipkiu settled at Salaty, where
lie continued his studies under Rabbi llirsch Broda
and Rabbi Joseph Zundel (died in Jerusalem 1866).
Zundel exerted a deep influence on the development
of Lipkin's character; and the latter sliowed his ap-




preciation of bis teacher by referring to bim in the
preface to his periodical "Tebunab" as the light
which he followed all his days.

In 1842 Lipkin was called to Wilna as bead of the
yeshibah Tomeke Torah. During his incumbency
he established a new yeshibah at Zarechye, a suburb
of Wilna, where he lectured for about three years.

Lipkin's great service lay in his insistence on the
practical application of the moral teachings of Ju-
daism and in his emphasis of the necessity of manual
labor on the part of the Jews. He established socie-
ties for the study of religious ethics, with but little
regard for worldly affairs; and at his suggestion the
works on religious ethics of Moses Hayyim Luz-
zatto, jVIendel Lefin, and Solomon ibn Gabirol were
reprinted at Wilna.

When, in 1848, the Russian government estabhshed
the rabbinical school at Wilna, Lipkin declined an
invitation to become instructor in Talmud and rab-
binical law. He settled in Kovno and established a
yesbibah, connected with the bet ha-midrash of
Hirsch Naviazsky, of which be retained charge un-

leaders urging tliem to keep lists of recruits so as to
leave no pretext for the contention that the Jews
shirked such service. He was considered one of the
most eminent Orthodox rabbis of the nineteenth
century because of his broad Taimudic scholarship,
his deep piety, and his personal iniiuence for good;
and he was probably the only rabbi of his time that
exerted a wide influence on his fellow rabbis and on
the Jewish communities of Russia. His disciples
collected and published some of his sayings, com-
mentaries, and sermons in " Eben Yisrael " (Warsaw,
1853) and in " 'Ez Peri" (Wilna, 1880).

Bibliography ; Fuenn, Keneset Yisrael, p. 697, Warsaw, 1886 ;
H. M. Steinschneider, 'Ir Wilna, p. 128 ; Feldberg, in ICedosh
Yisrael, Wilna, 1884.
H. R. J. G. L.

liipmann Lipkin : Russian mathematician ; born
at Salaty, government of Kovno, 1846; died at
St. Petersburg Feb. 9 (21), 1876; son of Israel Sa-
lanter. Lipkin's early training consisted in tlie
study of the Bible, the Talmud, and other religious
books. At an early age he began to show a deci-

Samuel, rabbi at Plungian

Zeeb Wolf

daughter =
David of


daugliter =

Jacob Neii-


daughter =
Samuel Hasid
of Rossiena



daughter —


rabbi at Ritawe




rabbi at Polotsk

Nathan Nata,

rabbi at'


Israel = Ida Birkhahn,

(d. 1847)

Jacob, rabbi
I at Bausk

Elijah Kalischer (1862)

d. 18.50)

Zeeb Wolf,
rabbi at Telshi


Israel (Salan-

ter) Lipkin

(d. 1883)

Llpmann Lipkin
(d. St. Peters-

Reuben Goldberg
(d. Riga)

Asne = Itzig



Jacob of Propoisk
(d. 189.'))

David Rabinowitz,
rabbi at (ilusk

Joshua, rabbi at
Kletzk and Neshwizh
(d. 1887)

Mordecai Zebi,
rabbi at DubVovna
(d. Grodno 1899)

H. R.

Pedigree of the Lipkin Family.

til 1857, when failing health compelled him to re-
move to Germany for medical treatment. He re-
mained in the house of the philanthropists, the
Hirsch brothers of Halberstadt, until liis health im-
proveil, and then (in 1861) began the publication
of the Hebrew monthly "Tebunab," devoted to
rabbinical law and religious etliics. On account
of his failing health this periodical was dis-
continued at the end of a year, and Lipkin again
lived for a time tiie life of a wanderer, visiting
ycshibot and offering advice to teachers and students
wherever his assistance was sought. Toward the
end of his life Lipkin was called to Paris to organ-
ize a community among the Russian immigrants,
and he remained there for two years.

Lipkin was a singular combination of the ultra-
Orthodox Jew and tlie man of tiie world, particu-
larly in regard to the duties of citizenship. He
preached love for the fatherlaml and respect for the
laws of the country. When tlie ukase milking mil-
itary service universally obligatory appeared, Lip-
kin wrotp an apjieul to the rabbis and community

ded inclination for scientific subjects, particularly
mathematics. Not knowing any European lan-
guage, he liad to derive his information from He-
brew books alone. Notwithstanding the incomplete
nature of such sources, and without other aid, Lip-
kin not only succeeded in mastering the elementary
sciences, but also acquired a knowledge of the
higher mathematics. lie also began the study of
modern languages, especially German and French.
Subsequently he went to KOnigsberg, where through
the influence of Professor Rischelo he was admitted
to the lectures. Somewhat later Lipkin entered the
Berlin Gewerbe- Academic, and then Jena Univer-
sity, where he received the degree of Ph.D., liis
dissertation being " Ueber die Raumlichen Strophoi-
den." From Jena Lipkin went to St. Petersburg,
and because of his great ability was permitted to
take the examination for master of mathematics in
spite of tiie fact that he possessed only tlie degree
of "candidate," had not studied in any Russian
school, and was not even thoroughly conversant
with the Russian language. In 1873 he passed his




examination brilliantly. His dissertation was al-
most completed when he was attacked by smallpox,
of which he died.

Lipkin's name tirst became known in the mathe-
matical world through his mechanical device for the
change of linear into circular motion, this mecha-
nism having been invented by him while he was still
a pupil at the technical high school. He described
his invention in the journal of the Russian Acad-
emy ("Melanges Mathematiques de I'Academie Im-
periale a St. Petersbourg," 1870), under the title
"Ueber eine Gelenkgeradefuhrung von L. Lipkin."
The Russian mathematician Chebyshev had tried to
show that an exact solution was impossible ; and his
views were accepted until Lipkin's discovery proved
the contrary. This invention has been described in
numerous text-books, such as CoUignon's "Traite
de Mecanique, Cinematique " (Paris, 1873), where it
is called "Lipkin's Parallelogram."

A model of Lipkin's invention was exhibited at
the exposition at Vienna in 1873, and was later se-
cured from the inventor by the IVIuseum of the In-
stitute of Engineers of Ways of Communication,
St. Petersburg.

Lipkin never lost his deep interest in purely Jewish
affairs, as is shown by his contributions to "Ha-

Bibliography : Yevreiskaya Bihlioteka, v. 191 (translated
into German in AUg. Zeit. des Jud. 1876, p. 13); Ha-ZefiraJt,
H. R. J- G. L.

LIPMAN, CLARA: American actress; born
in Chicago. She made her debut as an ingenue
with Modjeska in 1888, and subsequently played
similar parts in A. M. Palmer's company. She cre-
ated the principal role in "Incog " (1891), but before
this had interpreted leading parts in classic drama
in various English and German companies. In 1898
she created the part of Julie Bon Bon in " The Girl
from Paris." With her husband, Louis Mann, she
starred for five years, appearing in " All on Account
of Eliza," "The Red Kloof," "The Telephone Girl,"
"The Girl in the Barracks," "Master and Pupil,"
etc. During the season of 1902-3 she withdrew
from the stage on account of an accident to one of
her arms. Clara Lipman is the author of a play
entitled " Pepi " (1898).

A. F. H. V.

jurist; born in London April 27, 1802; died at Hil-
versum July 7, 1871. He was educated at Glueck-
stadt, Hamburg, and Amsterdam; studied law at
Leyden (1819-22), and in 1823 established himself as
a lawyer at Amsterdam, where he soon became fa-
mous as a pleader. In May, 1852, he was converted
to Roman Catholicism. He then removed to The
Hague, and devoted himself after 1862 entirely to

religious study.

Lipman published, besides many pamphlets(a com-
plete list of which is given in " Levensberichten "):
" Geschiedenis van de Staatkunde der Voornaamste
Mogendheden van Europa Sedert den Val van Na-
poleon," 2 vols., Zutphen, 1834; " Het Nieuwe Tes-
tament 'Vertaald." 's Hertogenbosch, 1859; "Consti-
tutioneel Archief van Alle Koninklijke Aanspra-

ken en Parlementaire Adressen," 4 vols., 1847-63

(2d ed.. The Hague, 1864).

Bibliography: Dc Tijd, July 18. 1871; De IVachter, Aug.
1, 1871 ; Levensberichten van de Maatuchappij soor Lel-
ierkunde, 1872; Van der Aa, Biographisch ^Voordenhoek,

s. E. Sl.

BEN SOLOMON : Austrian controversialist, Tal-
mudist, and cabalist of the fourteenth and fifteenth
centuries. According to Bishop Bodecker of Bran-
denburg, who wrote a refutation of Lipmann's " Niz-
zahon," Lipmann lived at Cracow. But Naphtali
Hirsch Treves, in the introduction to his "Siddur,"
calls him Lipmann-Mulhausen of Prague, adding
that he lived in the part of the town called " Wys-
chigrod." Manuscript No. 223 in the Halberstam
collection contains a document issued at Prague in
1413 and signed by Lipmann-Mulhausen, asdayyan.
It is seen from his "Nizzahon " that, besides his rab-
binical studies, Lipmann occupied liim-
His At- self with the study of the Bible, that
tainments. he was acquainted with Karaite liter-
ature, that he read the New Testa-
ment, and that he knew Latin. His authority in
rabbinical matters is shown by his circular to the
rabbis warning them against the use of any shofar
not made of a ram's horn (comp. Luzzatto in "Ke-
rem Hemed," vii. 56). There are also responsa ad-
dressed to him by Jacob b. Moses Molln (Neubauer,
"Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS." No. 907, 5), and Israel Is-
.scrlein mentions him ("Terumat ha-Deshen," No.
24) as one of five scholars who met at Erfurt. In
1399 (Aug. 16) Lipmann and many other Jews were
thrown into prison at the instigation of a converted
Jew named Peter, who accused them of insulting
Christianity in their works. Lipmann was ordered
to justify himself, but while he brilliantly refuted
Peter's accusations, as a result of the charges sev-
enty-seven Jews were martyred on Aug. 22, 1400,
and three more, by fire, on Sept. 11 in the same
year. Of the accused Lipmann alone escaped death.

Lipmann was the author of : "Seferha-Nizzahon,"
a refutation of Christianity and Karaism and a
demonstration of the superiority of rabbinical Juda-
ism; "Zikron Sefer ha-Nizzahon," a
His refutation of Christianity, an abstract

"Works. in verse of the preceding work (pp.
107-117 in the "Tela Ignea Satana? "
of Wagenseil, who supplied a Latin translation and
added a long refutation, Freiburg, 1681; Geiger,
in Bresslauer's "Deutscher Volkskalender," iii. 48,
declares Lipmann's authorship of this poem doubt-
ful); a commentary to the "Shir ha-Yihud" (Frei-
burg, 1560). In Samson b. Eleazar's " Baruk slie-
Amar" (Shklov, 1804) there is a cabalistic treatise
on the Hebrew alphabet, entitled "Sefer Alfa Beta,"
the author of which is given as Y^b^ ^ino. Sachs
and Steinschneider concluded that the author was
Lipmann-Ml\lhausen. This work discusses: (1) the
form of the letters, (2) the reason for their form, (3)
the mystery of their composition, order, and numer-
ical value, knd (4) the cabalistic explanation of their
form. In this work the author frequently mentions

cabalistic work entitled "Sefer ha-Eshkol " and

oommcntarv to the "Sefer Yezirah." Menahcm


Ziyyoni's "Zefune Ziyyoni " is ascribed, in a pam-

Lipmann-Miilhau sen
liippmann, Gabriel



phlet quoted by Reuben Hoshke (Yalk., Reubeni,
section " Naso "), to a certain R. Tabyomi, whom
Steiuscbueider ("Cat. Bodl."col. 1411) identifies with
Lipmann-Mulhauson. Lipmann promises, in his
"Nizzahon" (§ 197), a commentary to Pirke Abot,
but sucii a work is not extant. Finally, it may be
added that Manuscript 820 in Oppenheimer's collec-
tion was supposed to be a Biblical commentary by
the author of the "Sefer ha-Nizzahon," but Dukes
("Orient, Lit." xi. 299) declares that it is nothing
else than the "Kizzahon" itself.

Lipmann 's reputation is dependent, mainly, upon
his "Nlzzahon." Tluit a rabbi in the fifteenth cen-
tury should occupy himself with Latin and the
New Testament was certainly a rare thing. Lip-
mann was compelled to justify himself (§ 3) by re-
ferring to the saying of R. Eliezer, "Know what
thou Shalt answer to the heretic " (Abot
Contents of ii. 14). The whole work consists of
the " Niz- 354 paragraphs, the number of days
zahon." in the lunar year, each paragraph,
with the exception of the last eight,
beginning with a passage of the Bible, upon whicli
the author founds his argument. Thus his argu-
ments rest upon 346 passages taken from all the
books of the Old Testament. The last eight para-
graphs contain his dispute with the convert Peter.
In the introduction Lipmann says that he divided
the work into seven parts to represent the seven days
of the week. The part for the first day contains the
arguments against Christians; that for the second
day against the Karaite interpretation of the
Bii)le; those for the remaining five days contain
severally interpretations of obscure Biblical passages
that are likely to mislead students; the reasons for
the commandments ; arguments against atheists ;
arguments against the Karaites and their rejection
of the Talmud ; and an account of the sixteen things
wliich compreliend the whole of Judaism and which,
after being indicated in the Pentateuch, are repeated
in the Prophets and Hagiographa.

Very characteristic is Lipmann's refutation of the
assumed miraculous birth of Jesus, as well as Iiis
demonstration of the falsity of the conclusions of
the Christians who claim that the birtli of Jesus was
foretold by the Prophets. He constantly quotea
Maimonides, Ibn Ezra, Nahmanides, Saadia, Rashi,
Shemariah of Negropont, and otlier ancient schol-
ars. Lipmann must have written his "Sefer ha-
Nizzahon " before 1410, for lie expressed a hope
that the Messiah would arrive in tiiat year (§ 335).
It was first published by Ilackspan (Altdorf, 1644),
who with great difficulty obtained tlic manuscript
from the rabbi of Schneittach. Wagenseil published,
at the end of his "Sota" (Altdorf-
Transla- Nuremberg, 1674), corrections of
tions and Ilackspan's edition under the title of
Refuta- "Correctiones Lipniannianje." Later,
tions. tiie "Nizzahoii" was reprinted, with
tlie addition of Kimhi's "Wikkuah,"
in Amsterdam (1709 and 1711) and Konigsberg(1847).
Sebald Sneile published tlie Hcl)rew text with a Latin
translation and refutation of tlie paragraph (§ 8) de-
nying the miraculous birtli of Jesus (Altdorf, 1643);
and at various dates he published Latin translations
of the paragraphs directed against Christianity. A

Latin translation of the whole work, with the ex-
ception of the passages taken from the Pentateuch,
was made b\' John Heinrich Blendinger (Altdorf,
1645). As will be readily understood, the work gave
rise to many polemics and called forlli replies from
Christians. The first was Stephen Bodecker, Bishop
of Brandenburg, a younger contemporary of Lip-
mann, who wrote a refutation of the " Nizzahon "
(comp. Wolf, "Bibl. Hebr." i. 736). The following
other refutations are published : Wilhelm Schickard,
" Triumphator Vapulanssive Ref utatio, " etc. (Tubin-
gen, 1629); Stephen Gerlow, "Disputatio Contra
Lipmanni Nizzachon" (Konigsberg, 1647) ; Christian
Schotan, " Anti-Lipmanniana" (Franeker, 1659),
giving also the Hebrew text of the "Nizzahon."

Bibliography: Fuenn, Kenesct Yiarael, p. 443: Fiirst, Bihl.
Jud. ii. 403; Gratz, Gesch. M ed., viii. 71-72: Sachs, in Ke-
rem Hcmed, viii. 306 et seq.\ Steinschneider, Cat. Bndl. cols.
1410-1414; Idem, Jewish Literature, pp. 113, 129, 145: Wolf,
Bibl. Hchr. i., iil., No. 13(54 ; Zunz, Z. G. pp. 124, 129, 194, 380.

D. M. Sel.

L.IPOVETZ : Town in the government of Kiev,.
Russia. In 1897 it had a total population of 6,068,
of which 4,500 were Jews. There were 670 Jewish
artisans and 71 Jewish day-laborers; of the latter 25
engaged in field-work during the harvest season.
The economic condition of the Jews there has been
unfavorably affected by the abolition of annual and
weekly fairs, and in 1900 the poverty of the popu-
lation became so great that a mob of several hun-
dred collected at the house of the local police official
and demanded bread and the reestablishment of the
fairs. The Jewish artisans are engaged extensively
in the manufacture of a new kind of footwear, one
variety of which, worn by the peasantry, is known
as "postaly," and another, worn by the more pros-
perous, as " skorokhody." The 25 hadarim afforded
instruction to 475 children, and 59 Jewish pupils at-
tended the city school. The Talmud Torah, found-
ed in 1898, had 97 pupils. In 1768 Lipovetz suffered
with other Ukraiuean towns from the attacks of the

Bibliography: Voskhnd (monthly), 1890, ii. 94; Vo^khod
(weekly), 1900, Nos. 12, 17.
H. H. S. J.

LIPPE (Lippe-Detmold.) : Small sovereigii
principality in northwest Germany, with a Jewish
population of 750; total population (1895) 123,515.
The earliest traces of Jewish settlement in Lippe
date back to the beginning of the fourteenth cen-
tury. The Jews in the principality of Lippe seem
to have enjoyed more privileges and greater security
than in other German states. Thus the town coun-
cil of Lemgo in a document dated 1419 refers to a
Jew named Moses as "our fellow citizen." The
contribution of the Jewry to the city treasury
amounted in 1507 to one hundred florins ($40), a con-
siderable sum in those days. Besides, it had to
pay a Jew-tax, which in 1511 was fixed at eighteen
gulden. In the year 1500 the "Edelherrn" Bern-
hard VII. and Simon V. (father and son) permitted
Antzell the Jew, with his wife and servants, to re-
side in Detmold.

A Jewish community was not formed in Detmold
until the second half of the seventeenth century.
Religious differences seem to have led to a split in



Liippmann, Gabriel

the comiminity, for in 1723 the Jews of Detmold
asked permission to build a second s3^nagogue.
These synagogues, however, were merely rented
rooms. In 1742 the community evidently reunited,
for it acquired a house and a barn, and con-
structed out of the latter a synagogue, wliich is still
in use. In 1810, during the regency of the princess
Pauline, the Jews in Lippe received family names
and were regularly registered. At this time there
were 175 Jewish families in Lipi)e; twenty-seven
of these families were resident in Detmold, luider
Rabbi Abraham Lob Furnbach, succeeded by his
sou Dr. Enoch Fiirnbach (Fahrenbach), who offici-
ated until his death (Oct. 5, 1872). The civic riglits
of the Jews, as well as their systems of school and
synagogue, were regulated afresh by the laws of
1858 and 1879. From 1872 (Oct.) to 1879 (March)
the rabbinate was provisional!)' tilled by the teacher
Leseritz of Detmold and, afterward, by Rabbi Klein
of Lemgo.

After this period, consequent upon the steady de-
crease in the size of the community, the rabbinical
position was left vacant. The supervision of relig-
ions instruction in the twelve congregations of the
principality, comprising about 900 members, some
250 of whom belonged to Detmold, was entrusted to
the teacher and preacher Abraham Plant of Detmold.
Detmold is the birthplace of Leopold Zunz and
of Dr. Abraham Treuenfels, while Dr. Hermann
VoGELSTEiN, at present (1904) rabbi in Stettin, is
a native of Lage in the principality of Lippe.

As a benefactor to the Jews in Lippe, and, partic-
ularly, of the Detmold community, may be men-
tioned the court commissioner Solomon Joel Her-
ford (d. Sept. 21, 1816). He was the founder of the
Joel Herfordsche Schule, the Joel Herfordsche Mil-
den Stiftungen, and the Jiidische Militar-Unterstiit-

D. A. Pt..

LIPPE, CHAIM DAVID : Austrian publisher
and bibliographer; born Dec. 22, 1823, at Stanisla-
wow, Galicia; died Aug. 26, 1900, at Vienna. For
some time he was cantor and instructor in relig-
ion at Eperies, Hungary, but he left that town for
Vienna, where he conducted a Jewish publishing-
house, which issued several popular works. He
himself edited a bibliographical lexicon of modern
Jewish literature ("Ch. D. Lippe'sBibliographisches
Lexicon der Gesammteu Jiidischen Literatur der
Gegenwart imd Adress-Anzeiger," Vienna, 1881;
2d ed. 1900).

s. E. J.

lilPPMANN, EDOITARD : French engineer ;
born at Verdun Feb. 22, 1833. Educated at his na-
tive town, the lycee at Metz, and the Ecole Centrale
des Arts et Manufactures at Paris, he graduated as
engineer in 1856. Joining the firm of Dcgouse &
Laurent, architects, he resided in the French capital
and took an active part in the defense of Paris as
captain of the volunteer engineer corps during the
Franco-Pussian war. In 1878 he established him-
self in Paris, founding the house of Edouard Lipp-
mann &, Company. He became especially inter-
ested in the boring of deep wells (one bored by his
firm at the Place Herbert at Paris was 718 meters

deep), especially petroleum-wells, and in the build-
ing of bridges, canals, and roads in various parts of
the world.

Lippmann has published several essays in the pro-
fessional papers, especially in the "Genie Civil,"
and is the author of "'Petit Traitede Sondage." He
has received several honorable mentions at the inter-
national exjiositions; e.f/.. at Amsterdam in 1883, and
at Paris in 1867, 1878, 1889, and 1900.

Lippmann is an ofiicer of the Legion of Honor.
BiBMOORAPiiv : Curinier, Diet. Xat. ii. 12T.

s. F. T. II.

LIPPMANN, EDUARD: Austrian chemist;
born at Prague Sept. 23, 1842; educated at the
gymnasium of Vienna and the universities of Leip-
sic and Heidelberg (Ph.D. 1864). He took a post-
graduate course at Paris, and in 1868 became privat-
docent at the University of Vienna. During 1872
he took charge of the classes of Professor Jjinnemann
at the technical high school at Briinn; in 1875 he
was appointed assistant profes.sor of chemistry at
Vienna University and chief of the third chemical
institute; and in 1877 he was appointed i)rofessor of
analytical chemistry at the Vienna Handelsaka-
demie, wliich position he resigned in 1881. He is at
present (1904) lecturer of chemistry at the Vienna
technical high school.

Lippmann has contributed many essays to the

reports of the Vienna Imperial Academy of Sciences

and to the professional journals of Europe.

BiBLiOGRAPUY : EisenbCFg, Das Gcistige Wien, ii., Vienna,

s. F. T. H.

LIPPMANN, GABRIEL: French physicist;
born at Hollerich, Luxemburg, in 1845. After being
educated at the Ecole Normale and in Germany, he
went to Paris, taking the degree of D.Sc. in 1875.
During his stay in Germany he had given special
attention to electricity, and subsequently invented
the capillary electrometer, an electrocapillary mo-
tor, etc. In 1891 he discovered the process of color-
photography, which discovery he amplified in 1892.
He prepared glass slides, which were covered with
a very finely granulated bromid-of -silver solution,
and which, when dried, were placed in a concave
frame filled with quicksilver, giving a mirror-like
surface to the solution. When the photograph is
taken the light-rays form a wave of light in the so-
lution in conjunction with the rays from the quicksil-
ver-mirror, giving light "maxima" and dark "min-
ima." These when reproduced give, by reflected
light, a true picture in the original colors. How-
ever, the very long exposure necessary (about ten
minutes) makes the process unsatisfactory. This
discoverj' won him recognition. In 1883 he succeeded
Briot as professor of physical mathematics at the
Sorbonne, and in 1885 he became professor of exper-
imental physics at the same institution. In 1886 he
was elected member of the Academic des Sciences,
succeeding Dessain. Lippmann has contributed
many essays to the professional journals, and is the
author of "Cours de Thermodynamique," Paris,
1886, and "Cours d'Acoustique et d'Optique," ib.
Bibliography : Nouveau Larousse Illustre.

8. F. T. H.



Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 26 of 169)