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100



LIPPMANN, GABRIEL. HIRSCH : German
rabbi ; boru at ^Icmmelsdorf, Bavaria ; died at Kis-
singen May 26, 1864. He weut in his early youth
to Burgpreppacli, where he studied the Talmud un-
der Kabbi Abraham Moses JMayliinder. He contin-
ued his studies at the yeshibah at Fiirth and, under
the guidance of Chief Rabbi Hillel Sondheimer, at
Aschaflfenburg ; he received his Ph.D. degree from
the University of Wiirzburg. He then accepted a
call as preacher to Aurich, and later became dis-
trict rabbi in Kissingen.

Lippmann was the editor of: " Safer Zahot. Ueber
die Feiuheiten der Hebraischen Sprache. Gramma-
tische Forschungen von Abraham ibn Esra. Neue
Ausgabe mit Hebraischem Commentar," Fiirtli, 1827 ;
" Sefer ha-Shem. Ueber das Tetragrammaton," «6.
1834; "Safah Berurah. Ueber Hebr. Grammatik
. . . Abr. ibn Esra, mit Hebr. Commentar," ib.
1839; "Sefat Yeter. Beleuchtung Dunkler Bibel-
stellen . . . von Abraham ibn Esra, mit Hebr.
Commentar und Vorwort von I. M. Jost," Frank-
fort-on-the-Main, 1843.

Bibliography : Bamberger. Gesch. der Juden in Aschaffen-
burg, p. 78 ; Ben Chananja, 1864, No. 22.
8. M. L. B.

LIPPMANN, MAURICE: French engineer;
born at Ville d'Avray (Seine-et-Oise) Sept. 27, 1847.
He received his diploma as bachelor of law in 1869.
During the siege of Paris in 1870 he served in the
artillery. In 1874 Lippmann was appointed director
of the state manufactor}' of weapons ("manufac-
ture nationale d'armes ") at St. Etienne, which posi-
tion he held for ten years. Resigning in 1884, he
retired to private life, living at Bracquemont, near
Dieppe. In 1889 he was appointed a member of the
commission of military art for the French Exposi-
tion of 1890.

Lippmann has published: "L'Art dans I'Armure
et dans les Amies." He is an officer of the Legion
of Honor.

Bibliography: Curinler, Diet. Nat. It. 144.
s. F. T. H.

LIPPOLD : German pliysician and financier;
born at Prague ; lived at Berlin in the sixteenth cen-
tury. He was in great favor with the elector Joa-
chim II., acting as his financial adviser and as ad-
ministrator of Jewish affairs. After the sudden
death of Joachim (1571), his son and successor, Jo-
hann Georg, accused Lippold of having poisoned
the elector. Being put to the torture of the rack,
he confessed tiiis crime ; and, altliough he afterward
retracted, he was executed Jan. 28, 1573, the Jews
of Berlin and of the province of Brandenburg being
expelled from the country in the same year.

Bibliography: Ludwig (ieigtr, Oesch. der Juden in Berlin,
p. vl.. Berlin, 1871 ; Gratz, (fench. 2d ed.. Ix. 474.

r». S. Man.

LIPSCHITZ, RUDOLF: German mathemati-
cian; born May 14, 1832. at Konigsberg, East Prus-
sia; died at Bonn Oct. 8, 1903. Educated at his na-
tive town (Ph.D. 1853), he established himself in
1857 as privat-docent in the University of Bonn,
becoming professor of mathematics in the Univer-
sity of Breslau in 1862. and in tJiat of Bonn in 1864.

Lipschitz was tlu- author of: " Wissenschaft und



Staat," Bonn, 1874; "Die Bedeutung der Theore-
tischen Mechanik," Berlin, 1876; "Lehrbuch der
Analysis," Bonn, 1877-80; "Untersuchungen iibcr
die Summen von Quadraten," ib. 1886.

Bibliography: Brockhaus Knnvergntinnx-Le.rikon .
s. F. T. II.

LIPSCHUTZ (LtfPSCHUTZ, LIPSCHITZ,
LIBSCHITZ) : Name of a family of Polisli and
German rabbis; derived from "Liebeschitz," name
of a town in Bohemia.

Aryeh Lob Lipschiitz : Austrian rabbi and
author; lived in the second half of the eight-
eenth and in the first half of the nineteenth cen-
tury ; died in Brigul, Galicia, before 1849. He was
the pupil of Arych Lob (author of "Kezot ha-Ho-
shen ") and son-in-law of IMoses Teitelbaum, rabbi
at Ujhely. He held the office of rabbi in several
cities in Galicia, and at last went to Brigul, where he
remained till his death. He was the author of " Ari
She-be-Haburah " and "Geburot Ari," novelloe on
Ketubot, mentioned in " 'Emek Berakah," by Joseph
Saul Nathanson. Besides these works he wrote
"Aryeh debe-'Ilai," containing novdlaj on Kiddu-
shin, Yoma, Menahot, Kiunim, and Niddah, as well
as responsa on the four parts of tlie Shulijan 'Aruk.
This work was published in Lemberg.

Bibliography : Walden, Shew ha-Gedolim he-Hadash, i. 82,
11. 16; Eliezer Cohen, Kin'al Soferim, p. 104b (note 1733),
and p. 110a.
s. s. N. T. L.

Baruch. Isaac Lipscliutz : Son of Israel Lip-
schlitz ; born in Dessau ; died in Berlin Dec. 18, 1877.
He was at first rabbi at Landsberg, and then district
rabbi in Mecklenburg-Schwerin, but was obliged
to resign both positions in consequence of dis-
agreements with his congregations. Thereafter lie
lived in private at Hamburg. He wrote "Torath
Sch'muel, ein Erbauungsbuch f iir Israeliten " (Ham-
burg, 1867).

s. M. K.

Baruch. Mordecai b. Jacob Lipschitz (Lib-
schitz): Russian rabbi and author ; born about 1810 ;
died at Siedlce, Poland, March 30, 1885. At an
early age he became known for his wide Talmudical
learning; and later he ranked with the leading rab-
binical authorities of his time. Rabbis from all
parts applied to him for decisions in regard to difli-
cult questions, and his responsa were characterized
by clearness and sound sense. He officiated as rabbi
for forty -three years in various cities, including
Semiatitz, Wolkowisk, Novogrudek, and finally
Siedlce, where he remained till his death.

Lipschitz was the author of: "Berit Ya'aljob"
(Warsaw^, 1876-77), responsa on the four parts of the
Shulhan 'Ariik; "Bet Mordekai," sermons; "Min-
l.iat Bikkurim," novella? on the Shulhan 'Aruk; and
novellne on the Jerusalem Talmud. The last three
works remain in manuscript.

Bibliography: Ha-?e/irah, 1885, No. 14; Ha-Asif, 1885, p.
7')8; H. N. Stelnschnelder. 7r Wilna, p. 164.
8. 8. N. T. L.

Eliezer ben Solomon Lipschutz : German
rabbi ; died at Neuwied about 1748. At the age of
thirty he became rabbi at Ostrow, where he gathered
many pupils about him. Several years later he ac-
cepted a rabbinate elsewhere, but differences with



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Xiisbon



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



102



his congregation soon compelled him to resign. He
-wandered about until finally he went to Cracow,
-where he obtained a rabbinate through the influence
of his wife's uncle, Simon Jolles. There, too, he
had many enemies, and on the death of Jolles he
-was obliged to leave Cracow. After some time he
became rabbi at Neuwied, where he remained until
his death. He wrote " Heshib R. Eli'ezer we-Siah
ha-Sadeh," responsa, published together with a
number of responsa by his son Israel Lipschiltz
(Neuwied, 1749), and " Dammesek Eli'ezer," novella'
(to Shulhan 'Aruk, Yoreh De'ah and Hoshen Mish-
pat) and responsa, among the latter being some
written by his brother Epliraim Lipschutz {ib. 1749).

Bibliography: Preface to Heshih R. EWezer we-Siah ha-
Sndch ; Dembitzer, Kelilat Yofi, ii. 133, Cracow, 1893.
s M. K.

Gedaliah ben Israel Lipschutz : Rabbi at
Obrzizk, near Posen ; flourished in the eighteenth
and nineteenth centuries (d. 1826). He was the au-
thor of the following works: "Regel Yesharah "
(Dyhernfurth, 1776), explanations of Rashi and tosa-
fot to the section Nezikin, notes on Abot de-Rubbi
Natanand on the small tractates of the Talmud, with
two supi>lements treating of weights, measures, and
geometry in tlie Talmud, and explaining the calcula-
tions found in Kilayim iii., v.; "Humre Matnita"
(Berlin, 1784). divided into six parts ("kinnim"),
containing a commentary on the Talmud, explana-
tions of all the foreign words found in the Talmud,
a commentary on Asheri (Rosh), notes on Alfasi, a
commentary on Targum Onkelos, and explanation of
the difficult mishnayot ; " Keneset Yisrael " (Breslau,
1818), notes on the Mishnah and on various Talmud-
ical subjects, extracted from several works left by
Gedaliah in manuscript, and published by his son
Israel Lipschiitz.

Biblioorapiiy: Steinschneider, Cat. Bndl. col. 1003; Furst,
BiW.Jud. Ii. 275; Fuenn, iieiieset risraeZ.s.v.

s. s. I- Br.

Gedaliah ben Solomon Lipschiitz : Polish
scholar; lived at Lublin in the sixteenth and
seventeenth centuries. He was a relative and also
a pupil of Mei'r of Lublin, whose responsa he
edited, adding to them an index (Venice, 1618).
He wrote a commentary to Albo's '"Ikkarim,"
entitled "'Ez Shatul" {ib. 1618). This commen-
tary may be considered a double one; in "Slio-
rashim " the commentator explains the text of Albo,
•while in the part called '"Anafim" he gives an ex-
position of Albo's views, comparing them with the
views of other philosophers. In the preface, Lip-
9chl\tz says that he composed the commentary in his
twenty-sixth year, but that for various reasons he
could not publisli it. Later, at tlie retiuest of
friends, lie revised his work, which revision lie com-
pleted at Lublin, Fel). 12, 1017. He compiled an
index to the Bil)lical and Midrashic passages in Al-
bo's text.

Bibliography: Fuenn, KmcMit TisracJ, p. 213: Fiirst. Tiihl.
Ju<l. li. :i:JO; Niss«nbauiu, Lr-Kmnt li((-Yrliii(lim hc-Lnh-
(H,, p. 46.
s. s. >I. Skt,.

Hayyim ben Moses Lipschutz: Pnjisli rabbi
of the seventeenth (■cnluiy ; Imrn ai Ostrog about
1620. He wrote " Derek Hay vim " (Sulzbach. 1702).
a book containing prayers jind riln;il laws for per-



sons who are traveling, published by some of his
l)upils. Although the book contains prayers which
show that the author was a follower of Shabbethai
Zebi, it is interesting to know that it had the ap-
probation of eight of the most renowned rabbis of
the time.

Bibliography : Wiener, KchiUnt Mntthch. p. 297 ; Einden, To-
rat ha-Kena'ot, p. 141, LemberK, 1870; Steinschneider, Cat.
Bodl. col. 830. ^ ^

D. B. Fr.

Israel Lipschutz : Son of Eliezer Lipschiitz ;
rabbi at Cleve. There he became notorious in con-
nection with a "get" controversy -which attracted
the attention of a large number of contemporary
Jewish scholars. The dispute arose over a divorce
granted by him in August. 1766, which was de-
clared invalid and which the rabbinate of Frankfort-
on-the-Main opposed with such persistence and ve-
hemence that it became a "cause celebre." Israel
Lipschiitz was severely criticized and stoutly de-
fended. Toward his own defense he published
(Cleve, 1770) seventy-three similar decisions, under
the title " Or Yisrael," to counterbalance the " Or ha-
Yashar " published by Simon Kopenhagen in the
previous year at Amsterdam.

Bibliography: M. Horovitz, Frnnkfurter Rahhiner, lil. 67
etseq., Fraiil<fort-on-the-iMain, 1884.

Israel Lipschutz: Son of Gedaliah Lipschiitz;
born 1782; died Sept. 19, 1860. He was rabbi first
at Dessau and then at Danzig. He led the life of an
ascetic, frequently fasted three days in succession,
and studied incessantly. He wrote " Tif 'eret Yis-
rael," a commentary on the Mishnah, in which he
applied to the orders a nomenclature of his own:
Zera'im he called " Zera' Emunah " ; Tohorot, " Ta-am
wa-Da'at" (Hanover, 1830); Nezikin, " Kos Ye-
shu'ot" (Danzig, 1845). His ethical will ("Zaw-
wa'ah"; 1861) contains twenty -eight paragraphs,
consisting chiefly of moral and ascetic precepts. He
left in manuscript many notes (" derashot ") to Caro's
Shulhan 'Aruk and to Maimonides' Yad ha-Hazakah,
a comprehensive treatise on the order Tohorot, and
many responsa.

I?iBLioGRAPiiY : Walden, Slicm hn-GcdoUm he-Hadash, i. 406,
Warsaw, 1804; Steinschneider, Hehr. Bihl. iv. 27.

Joshua Aaron Lipschutz : Rabbi at Blitzow,
Mecklenburg-Schwerin; born in Poland in 1768.
He was a correspondent of Jacob Enulen ("She'elat
Ya'abez," pp. 50 et serj.).

8. M. K.

Judah Lob b. Isaac Lipschutz : Austrian
raljbi and author of the .seventeenth century; rab-
bi at Eidlitz, Bohemia. He wrote: "llaniiagot
Adam," a collection of rules from other works,
on daily religious jiractises (Fiirtli. 1691; Amster-
dam, 1717; Zolkiev, 1770); " Zaddik Tamim," a re-
daction of the former work witii many additions
(Fiirth, 1699; an abridgment of the book was seen
in manuscript by Xepi. in Padua); "We-Zot li-
Ychudah." explanations added to Jacob AVeil's
"Sliehitot u-Bedikot," on tlie rules of slaughtering
cattle (Fiirth, 1699; Frankfort-on-thc-Main. 1S'30).

niBLiOGRAPHY: Fiifst. Bihl. Jiid. i. 2i-), 22G; Zedner. Caf.

Hihr. BoiiUri Brit. Mm*, p. 4459; Benjacol), Ozar ha-f^efn-
vim, pp. 141, 500, .571.
I,. <; N. T. L.



103



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



LipschUtz
Lisbon



Moses ben Noah Isaac Lipschtitz : Polish
rabbi, and the author of the commentaiy "Lehem
Mishneh,"on tlie orders Zera'im, Mo'ed, andKoda-
shini (publislied, according to Azulai, in 1596). He
•wrote a commentary also to the treatise Abot (Lub-
lin, 1612; reprinted at Cracow in 1637 and included
in the edition of the Mislmah published at Amster-
dam in 1726).

Bibliography : Azulai, Shem ha-GedoUm, il. 71.
s. M. K.

Noah b. Abraham liipschiitz (called Noah
Mindes) : Polish rabbinical scholar; died in Wilna
Dec. 22, 1797. He was a prominent member of
the Jewish community of Wilna, and married a
daughter of Elijah Pesseles. Lipschutz's daughter
married Abraham, son of Elijah, gaon of Wilna.
Lipschiitz was the author of two cabalistic works,
"Parpera'ot le-Hokmah " (Shklov, 1785), on the
Pentateuch, and " Nifla'ot Hadashot" (Grodno, 1797),
which latter includes cabalistic explanations by K.
Samson Ostropoler. Both works were published
anonymously. Noah died about three months after
Elijah Gaon and was buried near him.

BiBLiooRAPHY : Fuenn, Kirmh Ne'emanaK pp. 170-171, Wil-
na, 1860.

H. K. P. Wl.

Solomon ben Moses Lipschiitz : German can-
tor; born at Flirth about 1675; died at Metz after
1708. He studied at Nikolsburg in the yeshibah
of David Oppenheim, and for some time acted as
cantor, shohet, and teacher at Wallerstein. He
then went to Pfersee, and thence to Prague, where
he became chief cantor in the Phinehas and Zi-
geuner synagogues. In 1706 he retired to Frank-
fort-on-the-Main, but in the following year ac-
cepted the position of cantor at Metz, where he
died. Lipschiitz was the author of "Te'udat She-
lomoh " (Offenbach, 1708), a book of morals and laws
for cantors, published with the approbation of the
rabbi and parnas of Metz.

D. B. Fu.

LIPSCHUTZ, SOLOMON: American chess-
player; born at Ungvar, Hungary, July 4, 1863.
At the age of seventeen he emigrated to New York,
where he soon became known in chess circles. In
1883 he was chosen as one of a team to represent
New York in a match with the Philadelphia Chess
Club, and won both of liis games. In 1885 he won
the championship of the New York Chess Club, and
in the following year took part in the international
tournament held in London, where he succeeded in
defeating Zukertorf and Mackenzie, among others.
At the Masters' Tournament at New York in 1889
Lipschutz gained the sixth place, he being the only
American player to secure a prize. In 1890 he won
the champion.shipof the United States, and repeated
his success in 1892. He secured for the Manhattan
Chess Club the absolute possession of the " Staats-
Zeitung " challenge cup by winning it three times in
succession (one tie against Steinitz). Twice pitted
against Lasker, he has drawn his games on each oc-
casion. Several of the games played by Lipschutz
liave been published in " Examples of Chess Master-
Play " (New Barnet. 1898).



Lipschutz revised "The Chess-Player's Manual,"
and he edited "The Rice Gambit," New York, 1901.



Bibliography : Chess Monthly, Dec.. 1890.

A.



A. P.



LISBON: Capital of Portugal. It had the
largest Jewish community in tiie country and was
the residence of the chief rabbi ("arraby mor"). It
had several "Judarias" or Jewish streets, one of
them in the part of the city called "de Pedrcira,"
between the cloisters do Carmo and da Trinidade ;
another, laid out later, was in the quarter da Con-
cei^ao. In 1457 a third Judaria was created, the de
Alfama, near the Pedro gate. In the Rua Nova,
passing through the most beautiful and the liveliest
part of the city, resided the rich and prominent
Jews, the large synagogue being in the same thor-
oughfare. A small synagogue was erected by Jo-
seph ibn Yahya about 1260, at his own expense.

For a long period the Jews of Lisbon were left
undisturbed. The first storm broke upon them dur-
ing the war between Dom Ferdinand of Portugal
and Henry II. of Castile. The Castilian army
forced its way into Lisbon ; several Jews were killed,
and the Rua Nova was plundered and destroyed by
the rapacious soldiery (1373). The grand master
of the Knights of St. Bennett of Aviz, later King
John I., successor of Dom Ferdinand, protected the
Jews in the capital against pillage. As a sign of
their gratitude, the Jews, in addition to their con-
tribution to the gift of 10,000 livres made to the king
by the city, presented to him 70 marks and made
him a loan of 1,000 reis.

The Jews of Lisbon, who in 1462 paid for "ser-
vigo real " alone 50.000 reis (about 3.500 fmncs), were
engaged in various mercantile pureuits and trades.
When Dom Duarte imposed restrictions upon free
intercourse between Jews and Christians, represent-
atives of the Jewish community at Lisbon applied
to the king for the removal of the restrictions, and
the king granted the request in a letter to the com-
munity dated Dec. 5, 1436. The prosperity and
consequent luxury of the Jews aroused the envy and
hatred of the Christians, even to the point of vio-
lence. Toward the end of the year 1449 some young
men maltreated several Jews at the
Outbreaks fish-market, and the royal corregidor

Against had them publicly whipped. This

Lisbon aroused the anger of the people
Jews. against the Jews, who were attacked,
antl a number of whom were killed,
despite their brave resistance. Probably the fight
would have ended in a terrible massacre but for the
armed intervention of the Count de jVIonsanto.
The attack was renewed, and the king was com-
pelled to adopt severe measures against persons con-
victed of aggressions against the Jews. The pro-
found hatred against the latter was increased by
the arrival of immigrants from Castile, who sought
shelter at Lisbon.

In 1482 the populace again assailed the Jews,
plundered their stores, and destroyed their dwell-
ings; it was at this time that Isaac Abravanel lost
his entire possessions, including his valuable library.
To increase their troubles, the pestilence broke out
simultaneously with the immigration of their core-



Lisbon



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



104



ligionists from Spain. By order of the city council
the refugees from Spain were required to leave the
city at once; though, through the intervention of
the king, John II., the city council was compelled to
grant to Samuel Nayas, procurator of the Castiliau
Jews, the right to stay there, and to the Castilian
physician Samuel Judah the right to practise medi-
cine (Rios. "Hist." iii. 338-349). In 1497, by order
of King Emanuel, tlie Jews were driven out of
Portugal; the Lisbon community ceased to exist,
and the large synagogue was transformed into a
church.

The number of Jewish scholars of Lisbon is not
especially large. Besides the members of the old
families Ibn Yahya and Negro, who
liisbon were born in the Portuguese capital
Scholars, and lived and studied there, there were
the chief rabbis Judah and Moses
Navarro, Judah Cohen, and others, as well as the
rabbis Joseph and Moses Hayun and a certain Don
Abraham, who was a physician and, in 1484, became
also rabbi at Lisbon. Lisbon is the birthplace of Isaac
Abravanel and his sous, and of Jacob ibn Habih,
and at Lisbon lived Joseph Vecinho (physician to
King John II.), Abraham Zacuto, and Abraham
Zarzar. The learned Eliezer Toledano in 1485 estab-
lished in this city a Hebrew printing-press, of which
several books were the product. Among these was
the Pentateuch with the commentary of Moses ben
Nahman (1489). In Lisbon Samuel ben Yom-Tob
wrote (1410) a Torah roll now preserved in Bern ;
Samuel de ^ledina, in 1469, a Pentateuch ; and Elie-
zer, son of lyioses Gagos, in 1484, a ritual vi^ork for
Isaac, son of Isaiah Cohen.

After their expulfiton from Lisbon no Jews resided
tliere openly, but there Avas a large number of " se-
cret Jews," or **Obristaos Novos" (New Chris-
tians), who were compelled to attend the Church
ceremonies, but in secret lived in accordance with
Jewish precepts. Tlie Portuguese people hated
these New Christians, or Mauanos, far more tlian
the confessed Jews, though King Emanuel favored
them in order to win them by kindness to the Chris-
tian faith. But the king was power-
New Chris- less to protect them in face of the iu-
tians at ccndiary speeclies of fanatical priests.
Lisbon. On May 25, 1504, Whitsunday, a
number of New Christians happened
to meet in the Hua Nova, and were chatting to-
gether, when suddenly they were surrounded by a
crowd of turbulent youths who insulted and reviled
them. One of the New Christians finally drew liis
sword and injured some of tlic tormentors. A tumult
ensued, which soon was checked by the appearance
of tlie governor of the city with an armed guard.
Forty of the rioters were arrested and condcnmcd
to be whipped and to be exiled for life to tliei.sland
of St. Thomas, but through the intervention of the
queen they were pardoned.

This uprising was the forerunner of .the terrible
massacre of the secret Jews in Lisbon which oc-
curred in April, 1506. During the celebration of
the Jewish Passover on the night of April 17 in
that year, a party of New Christians was suddenly
attacked and seventeen of them were arrested, but
were set at liberty after two days. The people, en-



raged at tills act, talked of bribery, and were ready to
burn all New Christians at the stake. Two days
later, on April 19, a number of Christians and New
Christians attended a service in the Church of the
Doniinicans, in order that they might beseech God to
stop the terrible, devastating pestilence. Suddenly,
in a side chapel called the "Jesus Chapel," a cnicitix
ratliuting an extraordinary brightness attracted the
attention of the Christians, who saw therein a mira-
cle. One of the secret Jews was incautious enough
to express his lack of faith in the wonder. This
was the spark that caused the conflagration. The
people were excited to the highest pitch and com-
mitted most fearful deeds of violence. The unbe-
lieving New Christian was seized by the hair,
dragged out of the church, and killed forthwith by
the infuriated women, and his body was burned on
a hastily erected pile on the Rocio Prac^a. Two Do-
minican monks, JoaQ IMocho, from Evora, and Ber-
naldo, an Aragonese, marched through the streets
carrying the crucifix, calling aloud "Heresia! He-
resia!" and exhorting the people to extirpate all
heretics. The mob was soon joined by German,
Dutch, and French sailors, and a terrible massacre
began. On the first day, over five Inuidrcd New
Christians were killed and burned; next day the
brutalities were renewed in even worse form. Ba-
bies in the cradle were not spared; women seeking
shelter in the church were dragged from the altar,
outraged, and flimg into the flames. The day's
work ended with the murder of the tax-farmer Joao
Rodriguez Mascarenhas, the richest and most hated
New Christian ; he was dragged to the Rua Nova,
killed by the populace, and burned amid great re-
joicing. Over two thousand (according to other
authorities, four thousand) secret Jews were killed
during the course of forty -eight hours.

The king, who was far frona the capital at the
time, was deeply incensed, and proceeded with se-
verity against the criminals. The ringleaders were
hanged, and many others were quartered or decapi-
tated. The two Dominican monks who stirred up
the people were expelled from their order and gar-
roted, and their bodies were burned. Every resi-
dent of the city of Lisbon (which thereafter was no
longer allowed to call itself " the most faithful ") who
was found guilty of either robbery or murder was
punished corporally and subjected to loss of prop-
erty (Damiao de Goes, "Cron. de D. ]\Ianoel," pp.
141 et scq.; Garcia de Resende, "Miscellanea," xi.
6; Pina, "Chron. de D. Alfonso," v. 130; "Shebet
Yehudah," p. 93; Usque. "Consola(;am," p. 200;
hence the statement in " 'Emek ha-Hakah," p. 90;
Herculano, "Inquisicao cm Portugal," i. 142 ft
wq.; De Mendoga, " Ilistoria de Portugal," vi. 955;
Rios, "Hist." iii. 363 et serj.; Kayseriing. "Gesch.
der Juden in Portugal," pp. 145 et seq. ; Gratz,
"Gesch." ix.).

After the catastrophe a number of secret Jews left



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