Isidore Singer.

The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) online

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the country; the greater part of these fugitives re-
turned to Lisbon, however, and for a time they were
protected by the king, but were always hated by the
lieople. The arrival of David Heubeni at the capital
of Portugal produced a feverish excitement among
the secret Jews. They believed him to be their savior
and h<mored liim as the expected Messiah. A New












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Page from the "Abudarham," Lisbon, 1489.

(From the Sulzberger collection la the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York.)




Christian of Lisbon, a young man of twenty-four,
Diogo Pires, who held a government position, openly
confessed the Jewish faith and, calling
Visit of himself "Solomon Molko," became
Reubeni. an adherent of Reubeni. By means
of large money payments, the rich
New Christians in Lisbon wore able to postpone,
but not prevent, the introduction of the Inquisition.
Lisbon was the scat of a congregation called
"The Brotherhood of San Antonio," which existed
among the secret Jews; it met in the Rua de
Moneda, in a house which contained a secret syna-
gogue, where Diaconus Antonio Homem conducted
the service. He suffered for his attachment to Ju-
daism by death at the stake on May 5, 1G24. Not
a few of the secret Jews who were distinguished as
poets, physicians, and scholars, and who in Italy and
Holland openly avowed themselves to be Jews,
called Lisbon their birthplace, or resided there at
some time. In this city Duarte Pinhel, or Abraham
Usque, wrote his Latin grammar (1543), and Ama-
tus Lusitanus and Abraham Farrar practised medi-
cine. Moses Gideon Abudiente, Manuel de Pina,
and others were born at Lisbon (see Auto da Fe;
Inquisitio.n ; Portugal).

Bibliography: Kayserling, Gesch. der Juden in Portugal,
Leipsic, 1867; J. Mendes dos Reniedios, Os Judens em Fi>r-
tugal, 1., Coimbra, 1895; Rios, Hist. ii. 274, 281; iii. 179, 337.

G. M. K.

Modern : Besides the Maranos who continued

to reside in Lisbon after the expulsion, the city has
at all times contained a certain number of avowed
Jews also, mainly from neighboring Africa. This
is evidenced by the edict issued Feb. 7, 1537, by
John III., in which the Jews were ordered to wear
badges so that they might be distinguished from
Christians. A greater spirit of tolerance toward the
Jews began to prevail in government circles v/ith the
accession of the Braganza dynasty (1640), which had
been considerably assisted by Jewish financiers in its
struggles against Philip IV. of Spain. But, owing
to the fear of the Inquisition, which continued to
persecute the Neo-Christians or Maranos, and to the
fanaticism of the populace, only a few Jews ventured
to settle in Lisbon. It was only toward the middle of
the eighteenth century that a Jewish community be
gan to be formed by the inflow of Jews from Gib-
raltar, who, as British subjects, could practise their
religion freely, though privately. The
Eighteenth decrees of 1773 and 1774, which were
Century, issued by King Joseph under the influ-
ence of his minister, the Marquis de
Pombal, and which deprived the Inquisition of all
tyrannical and arbitrary powers, gave a new impulse
to tiie settlement of Jews at Lisbon, and toward the
close of the eighteenth century there were a con-
siderable number of them in the Portuguese capital,
and the need of a near-by burial-place began to be
keenly felt. For tliis purpose a small piece of
ground was leased, in IHOl, in the English cemetery
situated in the Rua da Estnlhi, and tlie first to be
buried there was a certain Jose Amzalaga (d. Feb.
26, 1804). The lease, wliich had been made privately
without special legal sanction, was renewed, in 1833,
at an annual rental of 1,000 reis.

At the beginning of the nincteentii century there

were in Lisbon several widely known Jewish firms,
which rendered great services to Portugal by sup-
plying grain during a famine that occurred about
1810. In recognition of these services the govern-
ment agreed to permit the foundation of a synagogue,
although hitherto the laws of the country had not
permitted the practise of any form of religion other
than the Roman Catholic. The synagogue, under
the name "Sha'ar ha-Shamayim," was
Synagogue founded in 1813 by R. Abraham Da-
Founded bella ; the Jews, however, had no legal
1813. status; they were only tolerated. Ac-
cording to the information given in
1825 by the prelate Joaquim Jose Feireira Gardo to
the French historian Capefigue, there were in Lis-
bon at that time about 500 Jews, the majority of
Avhom were engaged in brokerage and in foreign
trade, and they owned three private synagogues.

Although by the law the Jews were considered as
foreigners, some of them took part in the political
movements of the country. Levy Bensabath and
his sou Marcos Bensabath distinguished themselves
by their struggles against the absolute
Distin- government of Dom Miguel I. (1828-
guished 1834). Later Marcos Bensabath became
Jews of an officer in a regiment of light infan-
Lisbon. try. In 1853 R. Abraham Dabella
died, and his synagogue was managed
by a committee composed of Leao Amzalak, Levy
Bensabath, Abraham Cohen, Fortunato Naure, and
Mair and Moises Buzaglo. Several years later oc-
curred the death of Salamao Mor Jose, and the two
congregations then existing were united (about
1855). The union was of short duration, and a new
synagogue was erected in 1860 in the Alley dos
Apostolos; it is still the principal prayer-house in
Lisbon. About that time Jacob Toledano of Tan-
giers was called to the rabbinate of Lisbon and offi-
ciated there until 1899. An important event for the
Jews of Lisbon was the recognition of their religion
by the government Oct. 30, 1868, when the commu-
nity was authorized to use as a burial-place a plot
of ground it had acquired for the purpose in 1865.
On June 30, 1892, the government sanctioned the
constitution of the charitable society Gemilut Ha-

In 1890 a plan for the complete organization of
the community of Lisbon was adopted, according
to which all the Orthodox Jews, both Sephar-
dim and Ashkenazim. were to form one congrega-
tion. An interesting article (No. 31) of their
constitution runs as follows: "Should the Portu-
guese Jews disappear from this town and from the
kingdom, the German Jews here at that time may
lake under their care and for their own use the syn-
agogues, estates, portable objects, and other things
of value then in the possession of the Portuguese
Jews or accruing to them later; but the German
Jews shall restore the whole to the Portuguese
congregation should it be reestablished." Besides
the Gemilut Ilasadim Society, there exists at Lisbon
a useful benevolent association known as the Somej
Nophlim, founded in 1805; this institution, in 1900,
established a kasher restaurant for the poor, and is
now (1904) contemplating the establishment of an
iisyluin for Jewish travelers. ' On ]\Iay 25, 1902, was




laid the corner-stone of the new Sha'are Tikwali
svnagogue, whicli has replaced the various syna-
gogues formerly in use. In accordance with the
law, .the new building is situated in an enclosure
and bears no outward sign of being a place of wor-

The community of Lisbon now numbers about 400
persons in a total population of 337,000; they are
mo tly natives of Gibraltar, Morocco, or the Azores,
and the majority of them are ship-owners and mer-
chants. Among those Jews who have become
widely known in connection with science, letters, or
the arts are the following: Alfred Benarus, pro-
fes.sor of tine arts; Bensaude, professor at the In-
dustrial Institute; Joseph Benoliel, professor at the
Marques de Pombal Industrial School; Jacob Ben-
saude, professor of English at the College du Porto ;
Salancao Saragga, a distinguished Hebraist; Dr.
Raul Bensaude, consulting pliysician to the King
of Portugal, and officiating rabbi since the death of
Jacob Toledano in 1899. The hazzan of the com-
munity is Levy ben Simon of Jaffa.

Bibliooraphy : Kayserling, Gesch. der Juden in Portugal,
pp. 338 et seq.; Lindo, Hi»torii nf the Jews in Spain and
Portugal, PP. 374 et seq.; Bail, LesJuifs au Dix-Neuvieme
Steele, p. 136, Paris, 1816; Re rue Orientale, i. 274; Allg.
Zeit. dex Jud. 1841, p. 681; Cardozo de Bethencourt, In J. Q.
F. XV. 251 et seq.
n. I. Br.

Typography : Hebrew printing flourished in

Lisbon for the three years from 1489 to 1492, the first
work, the commentary of Nahmanides on the Pen-
tateuch, being produced by Eliezer Toledano in July,
148!). The next year he produced a " Tur Orah Hay-
yini " and two sections of the Bible. Eliezer Alan-
tansi, who had a printing-press also at Ixar, printed
the "Abudarham" at Lisbon, and two other works
were produced here— Joshua Levi's " Halikot '01am "
and an edition of the Proverbs ; the printer of the last-
named is not known, Toledano was one of the
earliest to use borders. It has been suggested that
the printer Ibn Yal.iya carried the Lisbon types to
Constantinople and either printed from them there
or used them as models for new types. J.

LISBONNE, EUGENE : Lawyer, and a mem-
ber of the French Senate ; born at Nyons, near Avi-
gnon, Aug. 2, 1818; died at Montpellier Feb. 6, 1891.
He was a lawyer at Montpellier under the govern-
ment of July, 1830, and became attorney of the re-
public at Beziers. On Dec. 10, 1848, he was dis-
missed, and at the coup d'etat (Dec. 2, 1851) was
deported. After the accession of Napoleon III. he
returned to Montpellier and took an active part in
the struggles of the republican party against the
empire. From the revolution of Sept. 4 to April
23, 1871, he was prefect of the department of He-
rault, where he energetically opposed the "Govern-
ment of Moral Order." On Feb. 20, 1876, he was
elected to represent the second district of Montpel-
lier in the Chamber of Deputies, where he was one
of the leaders of the Republican Union. After the
crisis of May 16, 1877, he was reelected (Oct. 14).
In 1887 he introduced the measures which established
almost complete freedom of the press in France.
The elections of Aug. 21, 1887, compelled Lisbonne
to retire from public life: he soon reentered it, how-

ever (Jan. 5, 1888), and as senator from Herault in-
troduced a measure in restriction of those of 1887.
This was carried by the Senate, but was defeated in
the Chamber of Deputies.
Bibliography : La Orande Encyclopedie,

s. J. Ka.


Russian rabbi of the seventeenth century; native
of Brest-Litovsk. After studying in the yeshibot of
Lublin and Cracow, Lisker was called to the rabbin-
ate of Rossiena, in the government of Kovno. He
was the author of "Be'er Abraham," a commentary
on the six orders of the Mishnah and based upon
preceding commentaries, to which he added his own
novella under the title "Me Be'er." Only that part
of his commentary that deals with the first three
orders has been published: Zera'im (Frankfort-
on-the-Oder, 1665) and Mo'ed and Nashim {ib.

Bibliography : Benjacob, Oifar ha^Sefarim, p. 381 ; Michael,
Or ha-Hayyim, No. 95.

S. S. M. Sel.

LISSA (called formerly Polnisch Iiissa) :

Town of Prussia. Originally a village, it was in-
corporated in 1534; and soon afterward the first
Jews settled there, with the authorization of Count
Andreas Lescynski (1580-1606). Many of these Jew-
ish settlers were probably of German origin, as the
names " Auerbach " and " Oldenburg " frequently
occur. The first privilege granted to them is dated
March 10, 1626. In tliat year there already existed
a synagogue at Lissa, also a cemetery, the plot for
which had been presented by Count Lescynski.
The earliest extant tombstone is dated 1662. At
that date the community was fully organized and
the schedule of taxation determined. Communal
expenses were defrayed by taxes on slaughtering,
dowries, the sale of houses, the ritual bath, and leg-
acies. The Jews of Lissa not only engaged in com-
merce, but also followed trades: there were tailors,
furriers, shoemakers, goldsmiths, lacemakers, lock-
smiths, tanners, barbers, embroiderers in gold, jew-
elers, buttonmakers, dyers, and turners. Most of
these trades were organized into gilds, each of which
generally had its own rabbi. The strong competi-
tion between the Jewish artisans and merchants and
the Christians often led to sanguinary conflicts.

The Jews of Lissa suffered much during the wars
in which Poland engaged, and more especially from
the Cossack persecutions under Bogdan Chmiel-
NiCKi. On the partition of Poland Lissa was an-
nexed to Prussia.

In its most prosperous days Lissa contained be-
tween 4,000 and 5,000 Jews. It became the seat of
a famous yeshibah which attracted students even
from distant parts of Germany ("Memoiren der
Gluckel von Hameln," ed. Kaufmann, pp. 231-234).
The first rabbi of Lissa was Isaac Eilenburg (1648),
whose successors were: Jacob Isaac ben Shalom (d.
1675) ; Isaac ben Moses Gershon (d. 1695) ; Ephraim
Kalisch; Mordecai ben Zebi Hirsch (d. 1753);
Hirsch's broth?r, Abraham b. Zebi Hirsch (died as
rabbi of Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1768); Phoebus
Ileilman (rabbi of Bonn; died at Metz); Aryeh
ben Samuel ; Tebele Horachow (d. 1792) ; and Jacob




Lissa (died at Stry in 1832). After Jacob Lissa's
death the rabbinate remained vacant until 1864,
when the present incumbent, Dr.^ S. Back, was
elected. Among the many Talmudic scholars of
Lissa was Akiba Eger, the younger (subsequently
rabbi at Poseu), who lived there from 1770 to 1791.
The present (1904) population of Lissa is about
14,000, including about 1,200 Jews.
D. S. B.

LISSACK, MORRIS : English author and
communal worker ; born at Schwerin-on-the- Wartlia,
grand duchy of Posen, in 1814; died in London Jan.
13, 1895. He emigrated to England in 1835, and in
1839 settled as a "teacher of languages and dealer
in jewelry " at Bedford, where he lived for nearly a
half century. In 1851 he published a book entitled
"Jewish Perseverance, or The Jew at Home and
Abroad," an autobiography with pious meditations
and moral reflections. Lissack became a trustee of
the Harpur Charity, Bedford, and took advantage
of his po.sition to secure concessions in favor of Jew-
ish pupils. He was also an active worker in the
cause of Jewish emancipation.
Bibliography: Jeiv. Chron. and Jew. World, Jan. 18, 1895.

J. G. L.

LISSAUER, ABRAHAM : German physician
and anthropologist; born at Berent, West Prussia,
Aug. 29, 1832; educated at the gymnasium of his
native town and at the universities of Vienna and
Berlin (M.D. 1856). He practised in Neidenburg till
1863, when he removed to Danzig; but gave up his
practise in 1892 upon his appointment as custos and
librarian of the Anthropological Society of Berlin.

Lissauer has written several essays on medical
and anthropological subjects, among whicii may be
mentioned: "Zur Antipyretischen Behandlung des
Typlius Abdominalis," in Virchow's " Archiv," liii. ;
" Ueber den Alkoholgehalt des Bieres," in "Berliner
Klinische Wochenschrift," 1865; " Ueber das Ein-
dringen von Canalgasen in die Wohnrilume," in
"Deutsche Vierteljahresschrift fur Oeffentliche Ge-
sundheitspflege," 1881; "Untersuchungen ilber die
Sagittale Krlimmung des Schadels," in "Archiv fur
Antliropologie," 1885, xv. ; "Die Prahistorischen
Denkmaler der Provinz West-Preiissen," 1887 ; " Al-
tertumer der Bronzezeit in der Provinz West-Preus-
sen. "
Bibliography : Pagel, Biog. Lex. Vienna, 1901.

s. F. T. H.

cian; born at Neidenburg Sept. 12, 1861; died at
Hallstadt, Upper Austria, Sept. 21, 1891; son of
Abraham Lissauer. He studied medicine at the uni-
versities of Heidelberg. Berlin, and Leipsic, receiv-
ing his diploma in 1886. Settling as a physician in
Breslau, he became as.sistant at the psychiatric hos-
pital and fliiiic of the university, whieli position he
continued to hold until liis death.

He wrote several essays in the medical journals,
especially on pliarmarology and on the anatomy
and pathology f)f the nerves. Among these may be
mentioned: "Beitrag zum Fa.serverlauf im Hinter-
horn des Menschlichen BHokenmarks und zum Vcr-
haltcn Desselben bei Tabes Dorsjilis," in "Archiv
flir Psvchiatrie," xvii. ; " Ein Fall von Seelenblind-

heit Nebst eiuem Beitrag zur Theorie Derselben,"
i/j, xxi. ; "Sehhiigelveranderungen bei Progressiver
Paralyse," in "Deutsche Medizinische Wochen-
.schrift," 1890.

Bibliography: Paget, Biog. Lex. Vienna, 1901.

s. F. T. IT.


(ZALMAN) : Polish scholar ; lived at Kleczewo in
the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. He was the
author of a twofold commentary on Jedaiah Bedei-
si's "Behiuat 'Olain," published with the text at
Fiankfort-on-the-Oder (1792). The first part, enti-
tled "Migdenot Eleazar," deals with the interpreta-
tion of the text; the second, entitled "Ha-Mazkir,"
contains the vocabulary. Eleazar wrote twofold
commentaries also, under similar titles, on Benjamin
Musafia's " Zeker Rab " and on Abraham ibn Ezra's
"Hidah," which he published with the text, the
former at Altona (1807), and the latter, under tlie gen-
eral title "HomatEsh," at Breslau (1799), with an ap-
pendix containingliterary essays by Eleazar and also

Bibliography : Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 914 ; Zedner,
Cat. Hehr. Books Brit. Mils. p. 439; Fuenn, if Cdfistt Yir-
racl, p. 142.
H. R. I. Br.

LISSER, JOSHUA EALK : Prominent rabbi
and Talmudist of tiie second half of the eighteenth
century; a descendant of Joshua Falk Kohen of
Lemberg and of R. Liwa (MaHRaL) of Prague, and a
pupil of R. Moses Zarali Eidlitz of Prague, author
of "Or la-Yesharim." He was dayyan or judge at
Lissa while R. David Tebele was chief rabbi there,
and was, therefore, a member of the council which
in 1782, under the presidency of David Tebele, con-
demned and burned Naphtali Herz Wessely's letter
entitled "Dibre Shalom we-Einet." Lisser wrote
commentaries on the minor tractates Abot de-Rabbi
Natan, Semahot, and Derek Erez Rabbah we-Zuta,
with textual emendations ("Binyan Yehoshua',"
Dyhernfurth, 1788); the commentary on the Abot
de-Rabbi Natan was reprinted in the Wilna(l897)
edition of the Talmud. In the preface he apol-
ogizes for his textual emendations by referring to
Solomon Luria and Samuel Edels, who had likewise
suggested variants in their commentaries.

s. 8. J- Z. L.


OiilKNT, DkU.

LITERATURE, HEBREW : Under this des-
ignation may be comprised all the works written by
Jews in the Hebrew and the Aramaic tongue.
Works written in Hebrew by non-Jews are too few
to require consideration here. The term "Jewish
literature" should be used in a broader sense, as in-
cluding works written by Jews uj)on Jewish sub-
jects, irrespective of the language in which they may
he expressed, while the term "Judaica" should be
apiilied to works written by Jews or non-Jews upon
Jewish subjects, but in languages otiier tlian He-
brew. An exception is made in the case of Aramaic,
not only because of its intimate philological connec-
tion with Hebrew, but also because at an early date
it became practically a second mother tongue for
the Jews, and was used in the Bible, in many of tlie
Talmudic discussions, in the prayer-book, and in the




Cabala. Works written by Jews but not upon Jew-
ish subjects and not in Hebrew are treated under the
names of their respective authors. See also Jud/EO-
Oekman ; Jud/eo-Gkkek ; Jud.eo-Sp.\nish.

The most signiticant characteristic of Hebrew lit-
erature is that the greater part of it is directl}- or indi-
rectly tiie outgrowth of the Bible. There is a marked
continuity in the development of the later from the
earlier literary forms, all of them going back to the
first source — the Bible. In other words, Hebrew
literature is chiefly a religious literature, secular
writings, produced mostly under the influence of
foreign literatures, forming but a minor part of it.
It seems, therefore, that, aside from dividing Hebrew
literature into periods, as is usually done in histories,
it will be best to give a sketch here under the cate-
gories into which the Bible itself may be divided,
showing what part of the literature may be traced
back to the Bible and what must be traced to foreign
influence. These categories are "Law," "Prophecy
and Wisdom Literature," "History," and "Psal-
mody. " For more detailed information see subjects
referred to throughout this article.

The Law as a literature has continued its develop-
ment from the earliest times down to the present day,
and has been of greater influence upon
The Law. the life of the Jews than any other
branch of literature. It owes its
growth chiefly to the doctrine, long inculcated in the
Jewish mind, that along with the written law Mo-
ses received also an oral law, which was faithfully
lianded down by an tuibroken chain of teachers and
leaders to the men of the Great Synod and by them
to succeeding generations. This gave rise to the
Talmudic law, or Halakah, which deals, like the
Biblical law, not only with man's civil and public
life, but also with his private habits and thoughts,
liis conscience, and his morality. Traces of the
Halakah are discoverable even in the Later Proph-
ets, but its period of full development lies between
300 ij.c. and 450 c.E. (see Mishnati ; Taf.mud). In
the latter half of the fifth century the Babylonian
schools declined and the teachers of the Law no
longer assumed authority. They confined their
teachings to the comparison and explanation of the
laws that came down to them from previous gen-
erations, allowing themselves to introduce only
methodological and mnemonic signs into the Tal-
mud. This sums up literary activity in the line of
the Law during the period following the close of the
Talmud. See Sabokaim.

The development of the Halakah in the subse-
quent period received impetus from the fact that
the Babylonian schools once more raised themselves
to an important position, owing, perhaps, to Arabic
dominion in that country. The Geonim, as the
teachers of this period are called, did not produce
independent halakah, but continued to promote the
study of the Talmud. What the Bible was to the
Tannaim and Amoraim that the Talmud became, in
its turn, to the Geonim and later teachers. It lay
before them as an object of exposition, investiga-
tion, and discussion. The succeeding period was one
of systematizatiou, condensation, and elucidation;
introductions, commentaries, compendiums, and
dictionaries were the outcomi' of the study of the

Talmud in those days. A new epoch commenced
with the activity of Maimouides. His "Mishneh
Torah " embraces the whole field of Halakah, and be-
came an object of much discussion and explanation.
In the fourteenth century the halakic literature be-
gan to deteriorate, and instead of being the guide of
conduct it became a mere play of the intellect. In
the sixteenth century, however, it again received a
fresh impetus through the Shulhan 'Aruk of Joseph
Caro, which is still the standard work of traditional
Judaism. Works on the Halakah are to be foimd
in various forms, viz., in the form of commentaries
(Perushim ; Kuntresim), glosses (Nixnukim),
additions (Tosefot), novellas (HiDi)fsniM), collec-
tions (Likkutim), compilations (Kobezim), com-
pendiums (Kizzuritn), decisions (Pesakim), and
judgments (Dinim), as well as in independent
codes and responsa.

From the prophetic utterances to the preachings

and homilies of later days was but a short step, and

accordingly public preaching for gen-

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