Isidore Singer.

The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) online

. (page 3 of 169)
Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 3 of 169)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

Erdc, p. 106.

15. M. (P.) de Leon: Lived in Surinam. In

collaboration with others, he wrote in 1791 " Ge-

schiedenis der Kolonie van Suriname " (Amsterdam,

1791 ; 2d ed. ib. 1802).

Bibliography: Publicationfi Am. Jew. HiM. Snc. iv. 6.

16. Manuel de Leon
(Leao) : ]\Iarano ; writer
of Spanish and Portu-
guese poems; born in Lei-
ria; died in Amsterdam
after 1712. IIispul)lished
works are: "Triunipho
Lusitano Aplausos Fes-
tivos . . . Xos Augustos
Desposorios do InclytoD.
Pedro Segundo com a Ser.
]Maria Sofia Isabel de Ba-
viera, JNIonarcas de Portu-
gal" (Brussels, 1688), a
poem consisting of nine-
ty-three verses, with a
description of festivities
held at Lisbon Oct. 11-25,
1687, and dedicated to D.
Geronimo Nuiiez da Cos-
ta, Portuguese agent in
Amsterdam; "El Diielo
de los Aplausos, y Trium-
pho de los Triumphos,
Retrato de Guilielnio III.,
MonarchaBritanico " (The
Hague, 1691); " Examen
de Obriga(;oens. Testifica
hum Filho, que os Pays Engendrao, Amao, Dou-
trinuo os Filhos por Dependencia. Di-scursos Mo-
rales Deduzidosda Sagrada Escritura " (Amsterdam,
1712); "Gryfo Emblematico, Enigma Moral. Dedi-
cado a Diego de Chaves" (lb. 1712). His "Certa-
men de las Musas en los Desposorios de Francisco
LopesSuasso, Barflo de Auverne" is extant in manu-
script in Amsterdam.

Bibliography: Barbosa Machado, Bibl. Lumt. 111.293; Kay-
serling, Scphardim, pp. 315 ct seq.; idem, Bibl. Esp.-Port.-
Jud. p. 57.

17. Meir de Leon : Lived in Amsterdam; trans-
lated Verga's " Shebet Yehudah " into Spanish under
the title "La Vara de Juda" (Amsterdam, 1640; 2d
ed. ib. 1744).

18. Samuel de Leon (Liao) : Memlier of tlie
college Keter Torah in Amsterdam. Hf' was the au-
thor of the "Questoins [Questoes] com Suas Repos-
tas, ([ue Projjor na Academia dt Queter Tora,"
Hamburg, 1679, and of a writing preserved in mauu-
scrii>t, under the title " Libro de Diversas Questoins
e Suas Repostas, Comp. por my . . . y Respond,
em Yesiba."

BiBiifOGRAPHY: Stelnschneldpr, CntaloQ der Hcbrilischen
Jfnnd.ivhriftcn in der StadtlnbJiothek zn Hamburg, p. 167;
Kuyserllng, Bibl. Esp.-Port. -Jud. p. .59.

19. Samuel Judah Leon Templo : Brother of
Solomon Rapliael Judah (No. 20), mentioned by



Leon, Ed'win de

Daniel Levi de Barrios. lu 1682 lie was teacher at
tlie scliool, fouuded by Abralmiu da Fouseca, of the
society Maskil cl Dal in Ainstenlam.

20. Solomon Raphael Judah Leon Templo :
Hakani, preacher, and press-corrector in Amsterdam ;
(lied c. 1733. lie was a sou of Jacob Judah Leou
(Xo. 10); and a pupil of Isaac Aboab da Fouseca.
Together with David Nunes Torres, he corrected
the enlarged edition of IMaimonides' '' Yad ha-Haza-
kah " which appeared in Amsterdam in 1703. His
published works include, besides several sermons in
Portuguese: "Resit Ilohmii, Principio da Sciencia,
on Grammatica Hebrayca por hum JNIethodo Breve,
Facil e Distiucto para Uzo das Escolas " {ib. 1703) ;
"Orden de las Oraciones y Rogativas Compuestas
para Pedir Piedades Sobre las Enfermedades. Tradu-
zido por Selomoh R. J. Leon Templo" (ib. 1737).

After his death his son Isaac published a little
book by him entitled " Masseket Ilalakah le-Mosheh
mi-Sinai" (Amsterdam, 1734), on the hermeneutical
rules of the Talmud, at the end of which the regu-
lations for the Passover feast are given in rimes of
four lines.
Bibliography : KayserlinR, Bihl. E.sp.-Porf.-J?«J. p. 58.

D. M. K.

LEON DE BAGNOLS. See Levi b. Geksiiox.

phvsician and surgeon; born in South Carolina in
I8i8; died at Sante Fe, N. M., Sept. 3, 1873;
brother of Edwin de Leon. He was educated in
South Carolina and at the University of Pennsyl-
vania (M.D. 1836). Shortly after graduation he en-
tered the United States army as assistant surgeon
(1838) and served with distinction in the Seminole
war. For several years afterward he was stationed
on the Western frontier. He served throughout the
Mexican war, and was present at most of the bat-
tles. At Chapultepec he earned the sobriquet of
"the Fighting Doctor," and on two occasions led a
charge of cavalry after the officer commanding had
been killed or wounded. For his distinguished
services and for his gallantry in action he twice re-
ceived the thanks of Congress. He was then as-
signed to frontier duty, and in 1856 he became
surgeon, with the rank of majoi.

De Leon was personally opposed to secession ;
but, like most Southern officers in the regular army,
he resigned his commission at the outbreak of the
Civil war and tendered his services to the Confed-
eracy. De Leon organized the medical department
for the Confederate government and was its first
surgeon-general. At the close of the war he went
to Mexico, but soon returned to New Mexico, where
he had been stationed for several years, and where
he owned property. He continued in practise there
until his death. He was a man of considerable gen-
eral culture and was esteemed as a writer.

Bibliography : American Annual Encuc. 1S72, p. 627, New
York, 1873 ; Appletnn's Cmiopedia nf Americaii Biog.
New York, 1894; Wolf, The American Jew as Patriot, Sul-
dier, and Citizen, p. 114, New York, 1895; idem, in Puhl.
Am. Jew. Hist. Sac. p. 34; American Bioyraphii, lii.. New
York ; Lamb, Biog. Diet, of U. S. edited by John H. Brown,
ii. 416, Boston, 1900.

A. L. Hu.

LEON, EDWIN DE : American diplomat and
journalist; born at Columbia, S. C, 1818; died in

181)1 ; brother of David Camden de Leon. His
father, a physician, removed to Columbia, S. C,
autl was mayor of that city for several years. De
Leon graduated from South Carolina College and
studied law, but soon turned to literature and poli-
tics. He became an active collaborator on the
"Southern Review," the "Magnolia," the "Southern
Literary Messenger," and other periodicals. Re-
moving to Savannah, Ga., he took editorial charge
of the "Savannah Republican" and made it a polit-
ical factor in the state; his next charge was the
Columbia (S. (;.) "Telegraph," a daily.

At the invitation of a committee of Southern
members of Congress, De Leou established, in Wash-
ington, D. C, "The Southern Press," which soon
became the organ of the Southern people and se-
cured a large circulation during the early fifties.
For his services during the Pierce campaign, that
presitlent appointed him consul-general to Egypt,
which position he tilled for two terms Avith marked
success. At the connnencement of the Crimean war,
an Older was issued by the Porte expelling all Greeks
from the Ottoman dominion. The Greeks in Egypt
appealed to De Leon, who took them under the pro-
tection of the American flag, guaranteed their good
behavior, and insisted that they should not be inter-
fered with. The home government approved his
course, and Congress paid him the compliment of
ordering the printing of his despatches. The King
of Greece tendered him the grand cross of the Order
of San Sauveur, but Leon declined on the ground
that it was antirepublican.

De Leon rendered conspicuous services in protect-
ing American missionaries at Jaffa, and for this he
received for the second time the thanks of the State
Department. Through his influence American com-
merce with Egypt was largely extended and Amer-
ican machinery introduced into that country. It
was during his incumbency of the consul-general-
ship that he heard of the secession of his native state
from the Union. He at once forwarded his resigna-
tion. Returning home, he ran tiic blockade and
made his way to New Orleans. Thence lie pro-
ceeded to Richmond and reported to Jefferson Davis,
volunteering for military duty. Davis sent him in-
stead on a confidential mission to Europe to secure
the recognition of the Southern Confederacy by for-
eign powers. De Leon refused any salary or remu-
neration for his services, but advanced from his own
purse considerable sums for the use of the Confed-
eracy. He again ran the blockade, reached Nassau,
and arrived in England in July, 1863. As diplo-
matic agent he was received in the highest circles,
both in England and in France, and personally
pleaded the cause of the Confederacy with Lord
Palmerston and the emperor Napoleon.

His despatches to the Southern government were
intercepted, liowever, and were published by order
of Lincoln's secretary of state, Seward.

Through his friend Thackeray, De Leon became a
member of the Garrick Club and a contributor to the
" Cornhill Magazine. " After the Civil war De Leon
returned to America and settled in New York. He
frequently contributed to the leading magazines,
chiefly on Eastern topics. Among his works are:
"Thirty Years of My Life on Three Continents";

Leon Joseph of Carcassonne
XiBon of Modena


"The Khedive's Egypt"; '-Under the Star and
Under the Crescent"; "Askaros Kassis, the Copt,"
a novel, republished in England.

Bibliography : American BioijrapJni, lii., New York; Oscar
Fav Adams, A DictUnuiry of Ainei-ican Auth(>r!<, p. 95,
New York. 19(il ; Lamb, BUm. Diet, of U. S. edited by John
H. Brown, ii. 41ii, Boston, HXH); AUi\Mne, Diet, of Aitlhors,
suppl. vol., p. 47;J.

A. L. Hij.


siciau; livi-d toward tlie end of the fourteenth cen-
tury and at the beginning of the fiftecntli. He de-
voted himself to the translation from the Latin into
Hebrew of medical works. Among his numerous
translations three are still extant in manuscript: (1)
a commentary on the ninth book (Pathology) of
Razi by Gerard deSolo; (2) "Meyashsher ha-Mathi-
lini," a manual of medicine by Gerard de Solo; (3)
a chapter on tlie rehition between astronomy and
medicine, attributed to Hippocrates.

Bibliography : Stelnschneider, Cat. Munich, p. 209; idem,
Hcltr. I'eljers. p. 794; idem, Hehr.nibl.viii.iS; Renan-Neii-
bauer, Lc* Ecrivains Jiiifs Fran(;ais, pp. i2i et seq.; Gross,
Gallia Jiuiaiea, p. 61G.
G. I. Bk.

LEON, LEONTIN. See Judah ben Meir ha-


LEON HA-LEVI: Provencal Jew who wrote
a Puriiu parod)' under the pseudonym Labi ha-
Levi because he feared that the Orthodox Jews
woukl condemn his work. The treatise, called
"Megillat Setarim," ou">Iidrash lia-Nabi ha-Labi
ha-Lewi " (Venice, 1552), contains three sections, en-
titled respectively " Perek Habakbuk," "Hakkol
Hayyabin," and "Mi-she-Niknas Adar,"and is sinn-
lar in plan to a Talmud treatise with so-called Kashi
and Tosafot. It is full of humor. Another work
of his, " Sefer Habakbuk " {ib. 1552), is a parody of
the Pentateuch and the prophetic style, represent-
ing a contest between " Karmi " (wine) and " Be'eri "
(water). This work was likewise intended for

Bibliography: Benjacob, Ozar ha-Sefarim, p. 202; Furst,
Rilil. Jud. ii. 21.5; idem. Die Pi(rim-Lite7'atxir. in Orient,
Lit. 1849, p. I.jT; Sommerhaiisen, Die Purimlitcrat7ii; ili.
lH.yi, p. 8.51; Steinschnelder, Cat. Bodl. col. ^) ; UU'm, Purim
und Parodie, in Itn-aeliettselte Letterhode, vil. 7, No. 18.

G. M. L. B.


Sec HuiNswH II, Lkon Lkvv.

(known also as David ben Judah) : Italian rabbi;
flourished in the tifteenth and sixteenth centuries.
He studied at Naples in the school of his father,
Messer Leon, author of "Libnat ha-Sappir," and re-
ceived at the age of eighteen his raljbinical diploma
from German and French Talmudic authorities.
Soon afterward he went to Padua, where he studied
under Judah Minz, who granted him a new rabbin-
ical diploma. He then betook himself to Turkey, and
while sojourning at Salonira, where he prepared for
publication his "•Eii liu Kore." he was called to the
rabbinate of Avlona at a salary of 70 florins a year.
The community pos.sessed tiuce congregations of
various nationalitit-s, and Leon olliciated succe.s.sively
in tiie three synagogues on every third Saturday.
In the very first year of his rabliinate dissensions on
account of a ritual ((uestion arose wiiicJi caused the

separation of the Portuguese aiul Catalonian Jews
from the Castilians. Toward the end of his second
year in Avlona a quarrel broke out among llie
Sephardim and the Portuguese. Leon, who sided
with the Portuguese, had for antagonists Abraham
Harbon and Abraham de Collier. Excommunica-
tions were launched by both parties even on the
Day of Atonement.

Leon was a prolific writer, and produced works

in many branches of secular science, as well as on

distinctively Jewish subjects. With

His the exception of two, all remained un-

Works. published. Most of tliem are no
longer extant, and arc known onl)-
from quotations. Leon preferred to clothe his phi-
losophy in the garb of the Cabala, in which he was
an adept; but he was too much of a philosopher to
become involved in the abysses of mysticism. In
his cabalistic work "Magen Dawid," still extant in
manuscript, he freelj' quotes the Greek and the
Arabic philosophers. For him Plato was the great-
est cabalist. This philosopher, Leon claimed, lived
at the time of the prophet Jeremiah, who was his

Leon wrote also the following works: "Abir
Ya'akob," on medicine and other sciences; "Sefer
ha-Derashot," sermons arranged in the order of the
sections of the Pentateuch (according to Neubauer,
it is identical with the "Tif'eret Adam" quoted in
Leon's commentary on Lamentations); "Menorat
ha-Zahab," also extant in manuscript, probably a
haggadic commentary on Lamentations; "'En ha-
Kore," a commentary on the " Moreh Nebukim,"
criticizing the commentary of Isaac Abravanel;
"Miktam le-Dawid,"a cabalistic work mentioned in
the " 'En ha-Kore"; "Sod ha-Gemul," in which he
shows that the Israelites, unlike other nations, are
not under a special sign of the zodiac ; refutations
of Albo's criticisms of Aristotle; " Shebah ha-
Na.shim," still extant in manuscript (according to
Steinschnelder, " Hebr. Bibl." xix. 83, identical with
the commentary on Prov. xxxi.); "Tehillah le-
Dawid" (i)ul)lished by the author's grandson Aaron
le-Bet David, Constantinople, 1577), in three parts:
(1) on the excellence of the Law; (2) on the elements
of faith, which latter is superior to speculative rea-
soning; (3) on the principles of God, the divine at-
tributes, providence, free will, etc. ; a halakic de-
cision on the ritual question which caused the
division of the various congregations of Avlona,
published by S. Bernfeld, under the title " Kebod
Hakamim," Berlin, 1899 (Mekize Nirdamim).

Leon was considered as a high Talmudic author-
ity, and was consulted on halakic questions. Two
of his decisions have been preserved (Elijah Mizrahi,
Responsa, No. 47; Neubauer, "Cat. BodI, Hebr.
MSS." No. 834). In one of his works Leon men-
tions a commentary of his own on of Coucy's
" Sefer Mizwot Gadol " (" Semag "). Parma MS. de
Rossi No. 1395 ("Cat. Perreau," No. 19) contains a
scientific treatise by Leon. In the introduction to
this Leon says that he wrote many poems
in Hebrew and in the "Christian language," mean-
ing thereby Latin or Italian. Shabbethai Bass,
without indicating any source, gives, in his"Sifte
Yeshenim," tlie following titles of works attributed


Leon Joseph of Carcassonne
Leon of Modena

to Leon: "'Bet Duwid"; " Kisse Dawid " ; "Ncfesli

Davvid": "Kol Adouai ba-Koah"; and "Nal.ial


BIBLIOOKAPHY : Rossi, Dizimuirii), s.v.; Nepi-Ghirondi, To/c-
(liit Getl'ilc Yisrarh p. 78; Steinschiieiiier, Cat. liixll. col.
WT; idem. Helir. Bihl. viii. ti4 : idem, in Lettcrlxulr, \\\. oT
rt xcq.: NeuVmiier. ih. x. llib it seq.; Scherhter, in },'. K. J.
xxiv. 118 et xcii.\ Michael, Or hn-Hnuuim, No. 7~'7 ; Cariiioly,
Histoirc ilc.f Mi'(i('Ci)is Jxiif,i, % ciii.; S. Bernfeld, Introduc-
tion to Kcbod Ilahamiin.
t.. I. Bl!.


Italian .sfliolar, rabbi, and poet; son of Isaac of
Modena and Diana Rachel; born April 23, 1571, at
Venice ; died there March 24, 1648. He was a de-
scendant, of a prominent Frencli family. His grand-
father Mordecai became distinguished both as a
physician and as a philanthropist, and was raised by
Charles V. to the rank of Knight of the Order of the
Golden Fleece. Leon was a precocious child. His
father, Avho was then in good circumstances, gave
liim a complete education, not neglecting even sucli
worldly accomplishments as singing and dancing.
Leon's masters weie successively Azriel Bassola,
Hezekiah Galico. Hezekiah Finzi, and Samuel Arche-
volti. At the age of twelve Leon translated into
Hebrew verse tlie first canto of Ariosto's " Orlando
Furioso," and about a year and a half later he wrote
his dialogue against gambling, which passed through
ten editions and >vas translated into Latin, French,
German, and Juda?o-German. Even at this early
age he was not only well versed in Hebrew and rab-
binical literature, but was conversant with the
classics and possessed a fair knowledge of mathe-
matics, philosophy, and natural history.

There was, however, one thing that nature had
denied to this highly gifted youth^a stable char-
acter. Like all poets, he lived upon his emotions.
By the irony of fate, Leon, who had fulminated
against gambling, developed a passion for all games
of hazard, and, being too weak to overcome it,
attributed the fault to the astral influences under
which he had been born. This passion, which is
probably accountable for his inconsistencies, had a
large share in the misfortunes which tilled his life.
He had scarcely reached maturity when his father
became impoverished, and Leon had to seek his own
livelihood. In 1590 he married, and won a living by
teaching. After the death of his father, in 1592, lie
settled at Venice, where he was appointed (1594)
member of the rabbinate and preacher. In the lat-
ter capacity he was especially successful ; Ins ad-
dresses in Italian attracted large audiences, inclu-
ding Christian priests and noblemen. Leon's suc-
cesses as an orator and poet won for him the con-
sideration of the Christian scholastic world, and
admitted him to the highest Venetian circles. He
had among his pupils Louis Eselin (a nobleman of
the French court), the Archbishop of Lodeve, John
Plantanit, Jacob Gaffarelli, and Giulio Morosini.

Besides preaching and teaching, Leon exercised
not less than twenty-six professions (press-corrector,
notary, bookseller, etc.); but all his resources were
swallowed up in gaming, and his material condition
was rendered thereby a source of perpetual anxiety.
To his monetary troubles was added a series of
family disasters. Of his three sons, Mordecai, who
was endowed with great ability, died at the age of

twenty-six; Zebulon was killed in a brawl with
his comrades; the third, Isaac, after having led

a life of dissipation, emigrated to Bra-
Family zil, and Avas never thereafter heard
Misfor- from. Of his two daughters, one died
tunes. during his lifetime ; the second lost her

husband, and she and her family be-
came thereby dependent upon Leon for support.
In 1641 Leon's wife became insane, and remained in
that state until her death. Amid all these trials
Leon continued to study, write books, compose
poems, relieve the distresses of otiiers, so far as that
was in his power, and — gamble. This last occupa-
tion involved him, in 1631, in a struggle with the
leaders of the community, who launched an excom-
nuinication against any that should play cards, or
take part in any other game of hazard, within the
period of six years. On this occasion Leon wrote a
brilliant dissertation, in which he demonstrated that
the leaders had acted against
the Law ; the excommuni-
cation was accordingly re-

The community of Ven-
ice in the seventeenth cen-
tury must have been ani-
mated by a spirit of toler-
ance, for Leon continued to
remain a member of the
rabbinate until his death,
although no doubt could
be entertained as to his Leon of Modena.

anti-Talmudic sympathies

after the publication, in 1635, of liis "Bel Yehudah "
(known also under the title " Ha-Boneh "). This
work contains all the haggadot omitted bj' the " 'En
Ya'akob " ; in the accompan3ing commentary Leon
points out the differences between the religious cus-
toms of the Jews of Palestine and of those living in
other countries, showing thereby that the rabbis and
scholars of anj' period have the right to modify
Talmudic institutions (Shab. i.). He derides the
haggadot, although he concedes that some of them
contain salutary moral teachings. In the "Bet Ye-
hudah," Leon went no further than to show his
preference for religious reform; but lie attacked
traditional Judaism in a pseudonymous work en-
titled " Kol yakal " ; this work, either because in the
meantime he had actually changed his views, or be-
cause he desired more thoroughly to conceal its
authorship, he later endeavored to refute in another
work entitled "Sha'agat Aryeh," which remained

The "Kol Sakal " comprises three treatises, sub-
divided into chapters. In the first treatise the
author deals with the existence of God, the Crea-
tion, the purpose of the world, reward and punish-
ment, and the divine origin of the Law. In the

second treatise lie criticizes rabbinical
Attacks interpretation of tlie Law. He con-
Tradition- tends that, like the Karaites, the Rab-
alism. bis often followed tlie letter of the

Law to the neglect of its spirit. He
asserts that the use of phylacteries is not com-
manded by Biblical law; that the operation of cir-
cumcision is not performed in the manner pre-

lieon of Modena



scribed; and that rabbinical interpri'tation is often
in direct opposition to the Law. That tliere was
no traditional interpretation before Antigonus is
seen from the existence of various sects during
the time of the Second Temple. The third treatise
enumerates the laws which must be reformed in
order to bring the later Judaism into harmony witii
the Law, and render it spiritual and Biblical. The
author proposes the simplification of the prayers
and synagogal service, tlie abolition of many rites,
the relaxation of Sabbath festivals, of Passover.^and
even of the ritual of the Day of Atonement. Fast-
ing should not be carried beyond the ordinary
physical and spiritual powers of the individual con-
cerned. The dietary laws should be abrogated, or
at least simplified: tiie prohibition against drinking
wine with those of other creeds, obedience to whicli
exposed Jews to derision, should be abolished.

The "Kol Sakal" and "Sha'agat Aryeh " were
publisiied bv Isiiac Keggio under tiie title "Behinat
ha-Kabbalah " (Goritz, 1852). A di.scussion arose at
tiie time of its appearance as to whether the "Kol
Sakal " was written by Leon himself or whether, as
is pretended in the "Sha'agat Aryeh," it proceeded
from a certain Amittai ibn Raz of Alkala. It has
even been suggested with some plausibility tliat
both these works, instead of being written by Leon,
were merely attributed to him by L S. Reggio (see
Dcutsch, "Theory of Oral Tradition," p. 89; "Ep-
ochs of Jewish History," pp. 23 et seq.. New York,
1^94). But a comparison between the ideas ex pressed
by Leon in his " Bet Yehudah " and elsewhere and
those expounded in the "Kol Sakal" leaves little
doubt as to his authorship. Indeed, several of the
criticisms, as, for instance, those concerning circum-
cision and the second day of festivals, are found
exi)ressed in the same terms in Leon's "Magen we-
Ziiinaii" (published by A. Geiger, Breslau, 1856),
which contains answers to eleven objections to tiie
rabbinical interpretation of the Law brought, ac-
cording to Leon, by a Marano of Hamburg.

Though brilliantly written, these works are of
comparatively little value; neitiier criticisms nor
refutations are profound enough to
Attacks survive tliorougii investigation. Far
Cabala. supeiior is Leon's " Ari Noheni " (pub-
lisiied by Fiirst, Leipsic, 1840), wliidi
contains an attack upon the Caijala. It is divided
into tiirce parts, comprising altogetlier thirty-one
diapters. Ia'ou first demonstrates tiiat Cabala can
not be considered as a science, and then sliows that
llie Zoliar, on wiiicli it is ba.sed, is a modern coniposi-
tinii. In addition to tiie works cited, Leon wrote;

Stir mp-Ua*. A tllnloKUP hotween Eklad and Medad on Rame.s
of hazard. VphIcp. I.lilO; I'rajriU", 1015 : I.^ydpn, 1656. Tnins-
liiti'd Into Latin by Aup. rfplfer (WltU-nliprg, ltJ<i5) and liy
Thiiinii.s Hyde (Oxford. HiOH. ITitJ. 1767); Into German, with the
Hflirpw title ■' /•"'.'kin Mflliiinad we-MltharPt." by Fr. Abb.
Chrl.stianl (l,<'ipslr, KSKl ; Kninkfort-on-thc-Main. 17i:t; Fiirlh.

Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 3 of 169)