Isidore Singer.

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Abinu Malkenu in antiquity see ib. pp. 101, 118).
The second and the fifth day of the week (comp.
Luke xviii. 12) were set apart even in antiquity as
lesson-days, on which the people went to the syna-
gogue. In the early Middle Ages the pious began to
consider these as penitential days. Penitence con-
sisted in prayer and fasting, there being no fast -day
withouta prayer of atonementC'SELiHAH "), while to
utter this without fasting was considered unseemly.
The ten days of penance between New- Year and the
Day of Atonement were observed, however, in an-
tiquity, which, as stated above, possessed a defi-
nitely fixed fast-day liturgy (Zunz, "Ritus," pp.
120-130; idem, "S. P." p. 83).

Toward the end of the Middle Ages there were
many changes in the form of worship, for reasons
both internal and external. "Guten-
Changes berg and Luther no less than the Cab-
in the ala and the Inquisition influenced the
Prayer- ritual of the Synagogue. After the
Books. first decades of the fifteenth century
the minute regulations of the ritual
manuals allowed scarcely any initiative to the haz-
zan, who had, moreover, lost his former high posi-
tion, being now neither a poet nor a teacher of the




Law, nor was he eitlier of these at auy time in Ger-
many or Poland. When the art of printing made
manuals and prayer-books accessible to all, the editor
took the place of the hazzan. Printing imposed re-
strictions. . . . The similarity of the copies in the
hands of the people produced uniformity ; the
' Minhag ' conformed to the printed editions. Within
forty or fifty years printed Hebrew prayer-books
were current in the coimtries in wliich there were
Jews and printing-presses. The German ritual was
the first one printed (grace at meals, 1480; 'Selihah,'
n.d. and 1496; prayer-book, 1508; Mahzor, c. 1521);
then followed the Roman ritual (prayer-book and
Mahzor, 1486; ' Selihah,' 1487; 'Hosha'na,' 1503),
the Polish (prayer-book, 1512; Mahzor, 1522; ' Yo-
zerot,'1526; 'Selihah,' 1529; all printed at Prague),
and those of Spain (n.d. and 1519), Greece (1520),
Catalonia (1527), Aragon (n.d.), and the Karaites
(1528)" (Zunz, "Ritus," p. 145; for further details
on commentaries, translations, editions of prayer-
books, and the ritual of the Karaites, ih. pp. 1.53-
162; on the last-named see also Zunz, "G. V." pp.
439 ei seq. ; and comp. Lady McDougall, " Hymns of
Jewish Origin," in "Songs of the Church," London,

After the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in
1492 the Spanish ritual was more widely introduced
and became an important factor. The "informers "
caused material changes in the Mahzor. Even in
the Middle Ages they brought charges against the
prayer-books as well as the Talmud, and conse-
quently their owners in alarm erased passages, cut
out entire leaves, and changed single words here
and there. The Kol Nidke and the 'Ai.enu were
special objects of attack as early as the fourteenth
century ; in the second half of the following cen-
tury the persecutions steadily increased, especially
on the part of the preaching friars, and soon the In-
quisition began to act in the same direction. " When
printing and a knowledge of the language facilitated
examination of the liturgical prayers, the Roman
Church being at the same time endangered by the
Reformation, the books were watched more care-
fully, and a censorship which constantly increased
in severity fettered the prayer-books also. Certain
expressions were no longer allowed in the editions.
. . . Since that time some prayers have disappeared
entirely and others have been mutilated. . . . The
Herdenheim edition of the ' Selihah ' (1.546) removed
' all offensive and dangerous matter. ' Thenceforth
not only the Siddur and Mahzor, but all Jewish
printed books, were subject to constant attack from
the Dominicans, who employed converted Jews.
... In the year 15.59 the prayer-books of the com-
munity of Prague were taken to Vienna to be ex-
amined." These mutilations increased in the course
of time (Zunz, "Ritus," pp. 145 etscq., and appen-
dix vi. ; coinp. also idem, "G. S." iii. 239; Berliner,
"Einfluss des Ersten Hebraischen Buchdrucks auf
den Cultus und die Cultur der Juden," Prankfort-
on-the-Main, 1896; Popper, "The Censorship of
Hebrew Books," New York, 1899).

The reform of worship began with Moses Mendels-
sohn asarcsult of tlio general readjustment in Jew
ish life and learning. Wolf Hcidenheim especially
rendered enduring services to this reform by the cor-

rectness of his editions, his excellent notes, and the
translations adapted to his time. The editions of the
Siddur by Landshuth (Kouigsberg,
Reforms in 1845) and Baer (Rodelheim, 1868) are
the Nine- also valuable. Liturgy was and is still
teenth the field on which the different par-
Century, ties within Judaism — Orthodox, Pro-
gressive, and Reform — fight their
battles with more or less bitterness. Among these
conflicts the Hamburg Temple controversy, in 1819,
and the Reform prayer-book controversy of the Ber-
lin community are especially noteworthy. Reform
is still progressing in this department and is not
likely to reach a conclusion in the near future.
Leopold Zunz (1794-1886) investigated all branches-
of the liturgy with astonishing assiduity. In his-
first great work, " Gottesdienstliche Vortrilgc "
(Berlin, 1832), which is the earliest product of
modern Jewish science and which contains a
complete history of the liturgy, he advocates the
abolition of many old prayers and the introduction
of appropriate new ones (pp. 494 et seq.). Reform,
however, was not content with removing external
abuses; it investigated the earliest prayers of the
liturgy, the recitation of which had been declared
to be obligatory as early as the time of the Talmud.
It considered the views which gave rise to these
prayers in connection with modern ideas and has
abandoned the prayers, either partly or entirely.
See Benedictions; Gkace at Meals; Habdalah;
Habinenu; Had Gadya; Haftarah; Haggadah


Happiness; Hazzan; Heidenheim, Wolf; Holi-
ness; Mahzor; Megillot, The Five; Music,
Synagogal; Reform; Siddur; etc.

Bibliography: L. Zunz. G. V.\ idem, Ritus; Idem, S. P.:
idem. Lit eraturgesch. (with Supplement, 1867); Steinschnei-
der, Jlldiache Litteratur, in Ersch and Gruber. Encyc. sec-
tion ii., part 28 ( English ed., Jewish Literature, London, 1857 ;
Hebrew ed., Sifi'ut Yisrael, Warsaw, 1897); Schiirer, Oe»ch.
3d ed.. Leipsic, 1901-2 (see Index, s.v. Oebet); Benjacob, Ozar
ha-Sefarim, iii. 660,722-88.5 (editions of the prayer-books).
Some of the many other worlss on liturgical literature are
quoted in the body of the article.
A. L. B.


mathematician; born in Poland about 1760; died
Jan. 15, 1836; buried at Ouerveen. A disciple of
Moses Mendelssohn, he removed to Amsterdam,
where he became one of the most important mem-
bers of the 'Adat Yeshurun congregation. With
C. Asser and Lemon he was appointed a deputation
to the Sanhedrin at Paris, where he delivered a dis-
course in the German language (Feb. 12, 1807).

Litwack was a member of the Mathesis Artium
Genetrix society. He wrote " Verhandeling Over
de Proefgetallen Gen. 11," Amsterdam, 1817 (2ded.,

Bibliography: Bierens de Haan, Bihlingrnphie Necrlan-
(laise: Cotlectioyt drs Prort's VrrhnuT, ii.: (iratz, Oesch. xi.
2SS: Janrliofhett. 18.36, p. 86; Vaderlayulsche Letternefen-
ingen, 1817, p. 482.
s. E. Sl.

LIVER (13D) : A glandular organ situated, in
man, to the right beneath the diaphragm and above
the stomach. In six passages of the Bible in which
the liver is mentioned the expressicm l^Dn DinV
is met with in reference to the part of the organ
which had to be sacrificed as a fatty piece (Ex.




xxix. 13, 22, et passim). The meaning of this ex-
pression has not been successfully established.
Both Onkelos and pseudo-Jonathan translate it
icnaoi KlVn, or in the Hebrew form 133 H IVn.
which is met with in the Talmud. The Authorized
Version, following Jerome, renders it "the caul
above the liver " ; and it seems that Rashi gave the
same interpretation. But the Septuagint renders it
by "the lobe of the liver," which shows that the
piece sacrificed was a part of the liver itself. The
interpretation "caul" or "tlap around the liver"
seems to be based on the Aramaic ivn, taken in the
sense of "surrounding." But Bochart ("Hierozoi-
con," i. 562, Lcipsic, 1793-96) has proved the error
of such an interpretation, referring to Saadia's Ara-
bic rendering " za'idah " (= "excrescent"). Kohut
("Aruch Completum," s.v. ynVN and IZ^n IVn)
draws attention to a passage in Tamid (31a) in which
" the finger of the liver " is spoken of (see Rashi ad
loc). Kohut therefore supposes that the Aramaic
i<"lSn is the equivalent of the Arabic " khansar " =
"little finger." His supposition is confirmed by
Isaac ibn Ghayyat, who quotes Hai Gaon (Dukes,
in "Orient, Lit." ix. 537) to the effect that the ex-
pression 123n "ivn comes from the Arabic and that
the liver iscomposed of pieces similar to fingers. Ac-
cording to Nahmanides (Responsa, No. 162), if this
part of the liver is perforated, the flesh of the ani-
mal may be eaten (see also Dillmann on Lev. iii.
4; Driver and White, "Leviticus," p. 65; Nowack,
"Archaologie," i. 228; comp. Caul; Fat).

Neither man nor beast can live without a liver
('Ar. 20a). If the liver is missing from an animal,
its flesh may not be eaten (Hul. 42a). Therefore
if any one dedicates to the sanctuary the value of
his head or of his liver, he must pay the value of
his entire person ('Ar. 20a; B. M. 114a). On liver
complaints see Maimonides, "Yad," Shehitah, vi. 1,
8, 9; vii. 4, 19. 21; viii. 16.

The liver is the seat of life. The archers pierced
the liver with their arrows (Prov. vii. 23), thereby
quickly causing death. Johanan (d. 279) says: "He
smote him under the fifth rib" (II Sam. ii. 23), i.e.,
in the fifth partition, where liver and gall are con-
nected (Sanh. 49, above). Johanan does not mean to
imply that liver and gall are in the chest, as Ebstein
infers ("Medicin des N. T. und des Talmuds," ii.
129), but merely that liver and gall were wounded.
The tradition (I Kings xxii. 34; II Chron. xviii.
33) that the arrow struck the king between the
ribs (" debakim ") likewise refers to the fifth partition
(see also Sanh. 63b; Kohut, " Aruch Completum," iv.
182b). A tannaite living at Rome about 150 recom-
mends the membrane of the liver of a mad dog as a
remedy against hydrophobia, and Galen also ap-
proves of this remedy; but the Palestinian teachers
forbade it because its efllcacy had not been proved
(Yoma viii. 5; 84a, b; see Blau, " Altjiidische Zau-
berwesen," pp. 80 et seq.). Tobitvi. 8, viii. 2, how-
ever, shows that fumigating with fish-livers was
considered a means of exorcising evil spirits in

On the functions of the liver there is only a single
passage in the Bible, namely, Lam. ii. 11: "Mino
eyes do fail with tears, my bowels are troubled, my
liver is poured upon the earth, for the destruction of

the daughters of my people." On the functions
of the several organs of the human body this obser-
vation is found in the Talmud: "The liver causes
anger; the gall throws a drop into it and quiets it"
(Ber. 61, above).

The augural significance of the liver, hepatoscopy,
is mentioned only once in the Bible, and then as a
foreign custom. Ezekiel(xxi. 21) says of Nebuchad-
nezzar : " For the king of Babylon stood at the part-
ing of the waj', at the head of the two ways, to use
divination : he made his arrows bright, he con-
sulted with images, he looked into the liver " (see
Jew. Encyc. iv. 624a, s.r. Divination). Levi (3d
cent.) remarks on this passage: "as the Arabian,
who slaughters a sheep and inspects the liver"
(Eccl. R. xii. 7).

s. s. L. B. — M. Sel.

LIVERPOOL : Chief seaport in the northwest of
England, situated on the Mersey, and in the county
of Lancashire. There was a primitive settlement of
Jews in the town about 1750, but this later became
extinct. Tombstones with Hebrew inscriptions were
discovered beneath some structures between Derby
street and Cumberland street, an old portion of the
city. The synagogue with cemetery attached is
marked in a map of Liverpool for 1796 ; but at the
time of Harwood's large survey in 1803 it had dis-
appeared. It became a Sandemanian chapel (W.
Robinson, "History of Liverpool," 1810, p. 388).

It seems that the first Jewish settlers were mainly
recruited from the Portuguese Jews
Early Set- of Be vis Marks, London, and were of
tlements. those who were about to proceed to
Ireland, Dublin being then an estab-
lished Jewish center.

About 1780 the Jews again assembled for worship
in Turton Court, on the site of the present custom-
house. From their names, as given in a Liverpool
directory of 1790, they appear to have been a med-
ley of Germans, Poles, and Londoners, mostly itiner-
ant dealers and venders of old clothes. Here and
there a Sephardi is recorded as a merchant; but the
Polish element must have predominated, as the early
minute-books of the community are written in Ju-
daeo-German with square, not cursive, characters.

The next removal, in Dec, 1789, was to Frederick
street, the Liverpool corporation assigning to the
Jews for religious purposes a building with a gar-
den in the rear for a cemetery. At the extreme end
of this synagogue, which could hold sixty or seventy
worshipers, was a glass roof evidently intended for
a sukkah or tabernacle. In the basement was a
"mikweh," or ritual bath. In 1806 the corporation
presented the Jews with another site in Seel street,
where the Old Hebrew Congregation met from 1807
until 1874, when it removed to the present hand-
some building on Prince's Boulevard. In 1835 the
town had encroached on the cemetery in Oakes
street, and a burial-ground was purchased in Fair-
field (Deane road), then quite rural ; this in turn be-
came inadequate, and a new one in Broad Green
was opened in June, 1904.

The Seel street synagogue was the first in the
United Kingdom in wiiich sermons were delivered
in English ; this happened in 1806, the preacher be-
ing Tobias Goodman. D. W. Marks acted as secre-




tary and preacher to tlie congregation in 1833. lie
subsequently became ciiief minister of the Berlie-
ley Street (London) Congregation of British Jews.
There were probably 250 Jewish families in Liver-
pool in 1838, when a secession took place in the com-
munity. At first the seceders held divine service in
a small building in Hardman street.
New Con- now used as a temperance hall. In 18o7
gregation. they erected a handsome building in
Hope place. They also purchased a
cemetery in Green lane, Tuebrook, which is still
(1904) in use.

Jn 1846 a few numbers of a monthly Jewish maga-
zine entitled " Kos Yeshu'ot " appeared in Liverpool.

The first organization in Great Britain in con-
nection with tjie x\lliance Israelite Universelle was
founded in Liverpool in 1868, three years before the
Anglo-Jewish Association was established in Lon-
don, with which, however, it later amalgamated.
In 1882 the extensive enngralion to America was
organized and directed from Liverpool ; and during
the year of the Russo- Jewish persecutions 6,274
persons were sent, at a cost which amounted to over
£30,000 ($150,000), to the United States and Canada
in thirty -one steamships.

It is computed that there are at present about
1,500 Jewish families in Liverpool in a total popu-
lation of about 685,000. Owing to the great influx
of Russian and Polish Jews, a number of hebras
have sprung into existence, as well as two consider-
able congregations: (1) Bet ha-Midrash, situated in
Crown street; (2) the Fountains Road Congregation,
situated in the suburb of Kirkdale.

A Hebrew school was founded in 1842, commen-
cing with ten pupils. Subsequently a building was
erected in Hope place to accommodate eighty pu-
pils; it has since been enlarged so as to provide
room for more than 700 children.

Among the many Jewish organizations may be
mentioned: the Philanthropic Society, Provident
Society, Tontine Benefit Society, Board of Guar-
dians, Jewish Shelter, Ladies' Benevolent Charity,
Branch of the Anglo-Jewish Association.

Bibliography: B. L. Benas, in Pmceedinf/s of the Historic
Society of Lancashire aiid Cheshire (1900), vol. xv.

J. B. L. B.

LIVONIA. See Riga.

LIVORNO. See Lkohorn.



LIZARD: A saurian or lacertilian reptUe.
About forty species and twenty -eiglit genera of liz-
ards found in Palestine have been enumerated, tiie
most common of which are the green lizard {Ln^erta
mndin) and its varieties, and the wall-lizard belong-
ing to the genus Zootora. It is therefore gener-
ally agreed that besides "leta'ah," traditionally ren-
dered by "lizard," the following terms, enumerated
among the "creeping things that creep upon the
earth" (Lev. xi. 29 f« seq.), also denote some kinds
of lizard: "zab" (Arabic, "dabb"). identified with
the Uromnfitix spiniprs (\. V. "tortoise"; R. V.
"great lizard"); "anakalr" with the gecko, of
which .six species are found in Palestine (A. V. "fer-
ret " ; R. V. "gecko"; see Ferret); "koah"( Vul-

gate and Kiinhi, "stellio") with the monitor (A.
V. "chameleon"; li. V. "land-crocodile; see Cua-
MKi.EON); ■• hornet" with the sand-lizard (A. V.
"snail"; R. V. ".sand-lizard"); "tinshemet," by
reason of the etymology of the name (= "breath-
ing," "blowing"), with the chameleon (A. V.
"mole"; R. V. "chameleon"; see Chamei.eon) ;
"semamit" (Prov. xxx. 28), the same word which
the Targum Yerushalmi uses for "leta'ah," and tlie
Samaritan version for "anakah," the meaning of
the passage being that the lizard may be held in the
hand with impunity (A. V. "spider"; R. V. "liz-
ard ").

In the Talmud "leta'ah " is the general term for
the Ldcertilia. It is described as having a thick but
soft and separable skin (Shab. 107a, b; Hul. 122a),
and its eggs have the white and yolk unsepa-
rated ('Ab. Zarah 40a [Hashi]). A case of resusci-
tation of an apparently dead lizard by pouring cold
water on it is related in Pes. 88b. In Shab. 77b
the semamit is mentioned as inspiring terror in the
scorpion and also as serving as a cure for its bite,
with which may be compared Pliny, "Ilistoria
Naturulis," xxix. 4, 29. In Sanh. 103b it is related
that King Amon, after abolishing the Temple serv-
ice, placed a semamit upon the altar. The cha-
meleon is considered to be intended by "zekita" in
Shab. 108b. This may be connected with "zika"
(="wiud"), meaning properly "the windy," the
ancients believing the chameleon to live on air
(comp. Pliny, I.e. viii. 33, 35).

BiBMOGRAPHY : Tristram, Nat. Hist. pp. 266 et seq.; L. Lewv-
sohn, Z. T. pp. 221 et seq.
E. G. H. I. M. C.

LOANS : In the commonwealth of Israel, as
among other nations of antiquity, loans of money, or
of corn or like commodities, were made as a matter of
favor by the wealthy to those standing in need, and
but seldom, if ever, in the way of furnishing capital
necessary for enterprises in trade or agriculture.
At least in all passages of Scripture lender and bor-
rower stand, at the time of the loan, in tlie attitude
of benefactor and dependent (Ps. cxii. 5) ; after the
loan, in that of master and servant
In the (Prov. xxii. 7); and, Avhen the lender
Bible. enforces his demand, in that of tyrant
and sufferer (II Kings iv. 1). It is
made the duty of the well-to-do Israelite to lend of
his affluence to his poor brother (i.e., fellow Israel-
ite) according to the borrower's wants, at least when
a pledge is offered (Ex. xxii. 25; Dent. xv. 8), and
that without claiming interest (see Usuuv); and he
slioidd not refuse even when the approach of the
year of release endangers the recovery of the loan
(Deut. XV. 9), anil though the security of the pledge
is much weakened by the lender's duty of returning
it when the debtor needs it (see Pledge). In truth,
to lend is regarded in Scripture (ih. 1-11) as an act
of benevolence the reward for which must be ex-
pected only from God.

R. Ishmael, of the time of Hadrian (see Mek., Ex.
xxii. 25), reckons the command to lend to the poor
as one of the atlirmativc; precepts; and the Talmud
(B. M. 71a) derives from Ex. xxii. 25 the rule that
between the Gentile who offers interest and the
Israelite from whom it is not allowed to be accepted,




the latter should have tiie prefcreiuo ; between the

rich and the poor, one should lend to the poor :

between kinsmen and townsmen, lend

In the to kinsmen first, but give the prefer-

Talmud. ence to townsmen over those from a

distance. To lend is deemed more

meritorious than to give (Maimonides, " Yad," Mai-

weh, i. 1); for by a timely loan the receiver may be

saved from beggary.

The lender or creditor is bidden also, on inferen-
tial Scriptural grounds {ib. ; Deut. xv. 2-3), not to
press the borrower or debtor when he knows that
the latter can not pay; which admonition was so
extended by the Kabbis that they forbade the cred-
itor to show himself to the unfortunate debtor, in
order that he might not put the latter to shame
("Yad," I.e. xiii. 3).

On the other hand, it is a most sacred duty of the
borrower to pay if he can. To witlihold payment is
wickedness (Ps. xxxvii. 21), and, according to the
Rabbis, the debtor, when able to pay, must not
even put the creditor off, telling him to come again ;
nor must he waste tlie borrowed money or lose il
recklessly, so that he can not repay it.

Under the written law (Deut. x v.) all debts arising
from a loan are canceled b}^ the passage of the year
of release over them, on the last da}^ (last of Elul)
of that year. The text (ib. verse 9) warns earnestly
against the baseness of not lending to the poor from
fear of such release; yet in the days
Cancela- of King Herod this kind of baseness
tion of prevailed among the well-to-do Jews
liOans. to such an extent that Hillel the
Elder, who according to rabbinical
tradition was at that time president of the Sanhe-
drin, in order " that the door might not be shut in the
face of borrowers" thought it best to contrive a
fiction whereby to nullify the Scriptural law (see
Sheb. viii. 2-3; Sifre, ad loc). He authorized the
creditor to execute a deed, known as the " prosbul,"
in some such words as these: "I, A. B., hereby de-
liver to you [giving the names], judges of the court
at [naming the place], all the claims which I own,
so that I may collect them at any time I may
choose " ; which instrument was signed by the
judges and by two witnesses, and the bonds were
then handed over to the court. The act of Hillel
was justified on the ground that the year of release
being indissolubly connected with the year of jubilee
and the restoration of lands to their former owners,
and the latter being in the second commonwealth no
longer feasible, the release of debts ceased to be a
Scriptural and became only a rabbinical law, and
for good cause might therefore be modified, or even
abrogated, by the Great Sanhedrin (see Talmud Ye-
rushalmi on above mishnah). The Sabbatical year,
as far as it affected seed-time and Jiarvest, was
meant only for the Holy Land; neither did it ever
work the release of debts beyond the boundaries of
that country. Joseph Caro says, in his code, that
as a rabbinical institution tlie law of the year of re-
lease operates in all times and places; but the gloss
of Moses Isserles declares that in "these countries,"
meaning northern Europe, it had fallen entirely into

A debt arising from the sale of goods or of land

or horn liabiliiy for wrongs done, the wages of
labor, or the hire of lands or of animals, whether
liquidated by the written law or unliquidated, was
not affected by the year of release; but if the par-
lies agreed upon the amount due or that should be
])aid, and upon the length of time of forbearance,
such debt or liability became a loan in the eyes of
the law, and was then regarded as a subject of re-
lease, unless kept alive by the prosbul (Sheb. viii.
2; Sifre, Deut. 15).

The fear that a literal enforcement of tlie Scrip-
tural law against lenders would " shut the door in
the face of borrowers " led to its relaxation in other
respects also. Thus, strictly speaking, creditors
should have the debtors' worst lands (*' zibburil ")

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