Isidore Singer.

The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) online

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allotted to them in satisfaction; but as such a rule
would discourage loans, it was modified .so as to al-
lot middle-grade lands for their satisfaction (Git.
49b; see Appraisement).

s. L. N. D.

MOSES ASHKENAZI : German rabbi and caba-
list; born at Frankfort-on-the-Main 1555; died at
Worms July, 1636. He belonged to the Rashi fam-
ily, and on his mother's side was the grandson of
Johanan Luria, and on his father's of Joselmann of
Rosheim. After having studied in his native city
under the direction of Jacob Ginzburg and Akiba
Frankfort, Loans went to Cracow, where he attended
the lectures of Menahem Mendel. While there he
prepared for publication the " Darke Mosheh " of
Moses Isserles. At the beginning of the seventeenth
century Loans w^as called to the rabbinate of Fulda.
which he left in 1612, occupying sucessively the
rabbinates of Hanau, Friedberg (1620), and Worms
(1630), in which last-named city he remained until
his death.

Loans was a diligent student of cabala, and for
this reason was surnamed "Ba'al Shem." Besides
his great learning he possessed many accomplish-
ments, such as music and calligraphy ; and all kinds
of legends circulated regarding his personality. He
was the author of the following works: " Riunat
Dodim" (Basel, 1600), a commentary on Canticles;
" Miklol Yofi " (Amsterdam, 1695), a commentary on
Ecclesiastes ; "Wikkuah Yayin 'im ha-Mayim "
{ib. 1757), a poem with a commentary; "Ma'agle
Zedek" (Neubauer, "Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS." No.
1832), a commentary on Bahya's " Hobot ha-Leba-
bot"; "Zofnat Pa'aneah" {ib. No. 1830), a com-
mentary on the " Tikkune Zoliar " ; a commentary on
Genesis Rabbah {ib. No. 149); "Adderet Eliyahu "
{lb. 1829), a commentary on the Zohar.

Loans also edited the " 'Ammude Shelomoh " of

Solomon Luria on the " Semag " (Basel, 1599), and

the " Sha'are Dura " of Isaac ben Meir of Dueren, to

which he wrote a preface {ib. 1600).

Bibi.iography: Moses Mannheimer, Die Juden in Wnrmn, p.
61, Fraiikfort-on-the-Main, 1843 : L. Lewysohn, NafKhot ^(kI-
dihiin, p. 59, ib. ia'>5 ; Carraoly, In Jost's Annalen, 1. 94;
Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 942; Zunz, Z. G. p. 402 ; Mi-
chael, Or ha-Hawiim. No. 401.

K. I. Bh.

in ordinary to the German emperor Frederick III.
(1440-93). and Hebrew teacher of Johann Reuchlin :
died at Linz about 1506. Loans rendered lifelong




faithful service to the emperor, by whom he was
knighted. At Linz in 1493 Reuchlin, who had been
sent to the emperor's court by his protector Eber-
hard of Wurttemberg, met Loans; and the latter
became his first teacher in Hebrew grammar.
Reuchlin always held him in grateful remembrance ;
he cites him as "prseceptor meus, mea seutentia
valde doctus homo Jacobus Jehiel Loans Hebrseus "
("Rudimenta Hebraica," p. 249) or "humanissimus
pra?ccptor meus homo excellens " (ib. p. 619). Gei-
ger supposes that Reuchlin took Loans as a model
for the Jewish scholar Simon, one of the three dis-
putants in Reuchlin's "De Verbo Mirifico."

Bibliography : Ludwig Geiger, Johann Reuchlin, pp. 105 et
seq.; Gratz, Gesch. ix. 47, 83, 14" ; Gross, Gallia Judaica, p.
273; Steinschneider, Jewv<h Literature, p. 208 ; Winter and
Wunsche, Die Jildische Litteratur, 11. 225.
G. M. Sc.

LOANZ, JOSEPH. See Josel (Joselmann,
Joselin) of Rosheim.

lOb aryeh ben eliah of bolo-

CHOW : Russian rabbi ; born at Satanov, govern-
ment of Podolia, 1801 ; died at Zaslavl, government
of Volhynia, Sept. 2, 1881 ; a descendant of Rabbi
Joshua HOschel of Cracow (1654-64), author of " Se-
fer Toledot Aharon." Lob Aryeh, in addition to
his studies in rabbinic literature, had a thorough
knowledge of the Bible and of Hebrew grammar,
and he became a fluent writer in Hebrew. He had a
fair knowledge of mathematics also. He was rabbi
of Zaslavl for about twenty years, and published
" 'Arugat ha-Bosem," commentaries to the Yoreh
De'ah, Wilna, 1870, and "Shem Aryeh," commen-
taries to other parts of the Shulhan 'Aruk, Wilna,

Bibliography: Preface to Shem Aryeh; Walden, Shem ha-
Gedolim he-Hadash, pp. 66, 72 ; Ha-?eftrah, 1881, No. 36.
L. G. H. R.


Rabbi at Rozniatow and afterward at Styria ; died in
1813. He was the author of the following works;
"Kezot ha-Hoshen," a casuistic commentary in two
volumes on the Hoshen Mishpat of Joseph Caro's
Shulhan 'Aruk, published in 1788 and later; "Abne
Milhrim,"a similar commentary in two volumes on
the Eben ha-'Ezer of the same work (Lemberg,
1815, and Zolkiev, 1825); and "Sheb Shema'tata,"
novelljE on the Talmud (Lemberg, 1804). The first
volume of the "Abne Millu'im" contains an ap-
pendix, entitled "Meshobeb Netibot," in which the
author defends his first works against the attacks of
Jacob of Lissa.

Bibliography : Walden, Shem ha^Oednlim he-Hada^h, p. 79 ;
Zedner, Cat. Hehr. DookH Brit. Mus. p. 54.
8. 8. I. Br.

L6B aryeh ben MEIR: Lithuanian rabbi ;
lived in tlie sevonteentli and eighteenth centuries.
His notes on Rashi and on Elijah Mizrahi'scommen-
taries on the Pentateuch were published, under the
title "Hiddushe Maharsha " (Hanover, 1716), with
Samuel Edel's novell-P on the Pentateuch, by his
brother Zebi Hirsch b. Me'ir.

BiBLiOGRAriiv: V,'o\t, Iiil>l. Hehr. ill.. No. 353d ; Steinschnei-
der, Cat. Bodl. col. 745.
8. B. M. Sei-.

LOB aryeh ben TOBIAH: Lithuanian
Talmudic scholar and printer; died at Wilna Oct.

24, 1812. He enjoyed great consideration in Wilna
on account of his learning and of the assistance ren-
dered by him to Talmudic students. He was the
first (in partnership with Tobiah b. Abraham Abele)
to establish a Hebrew printing-house at Wilna (1799).
The first work printed there was Saadia's "Ma'amar
ha-Tehiyyah weha-Pedut." Owing to competition
the establishment existed a short time only.

Bibliography : Fuenn, I^irydh Ne^emanaK PP. 199. 225.
J. M. Sel.

L6B ben BARUCH BENDET: Rabbi of
Byelostok, Russia, in the eighteenth and nineteenth
centuries; author of "Sha'agat Aryeh " (Byelostok,
1805), novelise on the treatise Makkot. The author
quotes frequently his father's " Ner Tamid" (Grodno,
1789) ; and in the preface he states that he has writ-
ten novelise on the whole Talmud.

Bibliography : Benjacob, Ozar ha-Sefarim, p. 553 ; Walden,
Shem ha-GedoUm he-Haddsh, p. 79.
H. K. " M. Sel.

LOB, ELIEZER: German rabbi ; born at
Pfungstadt, grand duchy of Hesse, 1837; died at
Altona Jan. 23, 1892. He was educated at the gym-
nasium of Darmstadt and at the University of Gies-
sen, and received his rabbinical instruction chieflj^
under Benjamin H. Auerbach, rabbi of Darmstadt,
whose daughter he married. At first he was prin-
cipal of the Jildische Realschule in his native city,
founded by him (1857-61). Subsequently he was
called to the rabbinate of Ichenhausen, Bavaria,
where he remained until 1873, when he was called
to succeed Jacob Ettlinger as chief rabbi of Altona.
He contributed to the"Judische Presse," and pre-
pared for publication H. J. Michael's bibliograph-
ical work "Or ha-Hayyim," but ill health prevented
him from completing his labor, which was finished
by A. Berliner. A rabbinical work by him, " Dam-
mesek Eli'ezer," remained in manuscript. He was a
devoted worker for Orthodox communal affairs and
was for years a trustee of the Hildesheimer Semi-
nary at Berlin.

Bibliography : Dukesz, Iwoh, Iwoh le-Moshah, pp. 133-136,
Cracow, 1903. „

s. D.


Early Hasidic rabbi; died in Yaltushkov, Podolia,
about 1797. His was the strangest and most mys-
terious character of the many miracle-working rabbis
of the Hasidim of the latter part of the eighteenth
century. He continually traveled from one Polish
city to another, spending money lavishly, but never
accepting anything from his adherents. Most of the
wonderful .stories which are still told about him con-
nect him with kings and princes and with successful
efforts to influence the authorities in behalf of Jews.
This caused Gottlober to suspect that he was in the
secret service of the Polish or the Austrian govern-
ment, a view seemingly absurd, although a letter by
R. Bilr of Meseritz, stating that "R. L6b Sarah's
of Rnvno is to be assisted and implicitly believed,
for he is rendering important services to Jews, and
will himself orally explain things which can not be
put down in writing " (Primislilauer's "Darke Ye-
sharim," Jitorair, 1805), lends some slight support
to the supposition. The story of an eye-witness that
R. L'6h Sarah's passed the guards unnoticed and en-




tered the royal palace of Warsaw on the day of the
coronation of Stanislaus Pouiatowski (1764). and tlie
account of his seven years' struggle with Emperor
Joseph II., on whom he inflicted terrible sufferings,
are characteristic examples of the miracles ascribed
to him by the superstitious people, li. Azriel of
Kozin (near Kremenetz),his pupil (according to Gott-
lober, his driver), was considered as his successor.

Bibliography: Eleazar lia-Kolien, Kiii'at Snfrrim. p. T5a.
Lemberg, 1892 ; (iottlober, in H<t-lif>kcr Or, v. .386-38H, vi. 1-2 :
Sedrr ha-Doriit he.-H(uin.'<h. p'ft. i'i-i^: Walden, Shem ha-
GcdoUm he-Hadnalh p. 81, Warsaw, 1882.
n. K. P. Wi.

LOB JUDAH B. EPHRAIM : Rabbi of the

second half of the seventeenth century; probably
born in Wilna, from which city his father, Ephraim
b. Jacob ha-Kohen, fled to Buda (Ofeu, incorporated
into the present Budapest) during the Cossack \ip-
rising of 1655; died in Palestine after 168G. LiJb
remained in Buda until 1684, when he went to Je-
rusalem, and there, with the assistance of Moses
Galanti the younger, began to prepare for publica-
tion his father's work "Sha'ar Efrayim." When
Charles of Lorraine wrested Buda from the Turks
in 1686, the members of Lob's family lost all their
possessions and removed to Prague. Lob returned
from Palestine to that city; and wealthy people
there assisted him to publish the "Sha'ar Efrayim,"
with his own notes and an appendi.x (Sulzbach,
1686). He went again to the Holy Land, and died
in Safed (according to others, in Jerusalem).

Bibliography: Azulai, S/icm ha-GedoJinu s.v. Epliraint of
Wilna; Fuenn, Kiryah Nc'cmanah, pp. 84-85. Wilna, 1860;
idem, Keneset YU<raeU p. 399, Warsaw, 1880; Eleazar ha-
Kohen, KWat Soferim, p. 55a, Lember?, 1892.
s. s. ■ p. Wi.

LOB JUDAH B. ISAAC : Polish rabbi ; died
in Cracow about 1780; grandson of R. Joshua, au-
thor of "Maginne Shelomoh." He officiated as
rabbi at Shidlow, Poland, being at the same time
a representative of Cracow in the Council of Four
Lands. After 1715 he became rabbi and president
of the yeshibah at Cracow, where he remained till
his death.

Lob Judah is known by bis approbations to many
books, among which may be mentioned "Panim
Me'irot," by Meir Eisenstadt (Amsterdam, 1714),
and "Berit Shalom," by Phinehas b. Pelta (Frank-
fort-on-the-Main, 1718).

Of his family are known only two sons: David
Samuel, who succeeded his father, first in Shidlow
and afterward in Cracow, and Isaac, rabbi of Tar-
now, Galicia.

BiBLior.RAPHY : Zunz, '/?• ha-Zeiiek, pp. 159-160; FriedberK,
Luhot Zikkaron, pp. 25, 26.
II. u. N. T. L.

scholar; lived at Prague in the middle of the seven-
teenth century. He filled the office of secretary to
Simon Spira, chief rabbi of Prague, and he pub-
lished, under the title "Milhamah be-Shalom," an
account of the siege of Prague by the Swedes in
1648 and of the suffering of the Jews on that occa-
sion. Printed first at Prague, it was reproduced
later, with a Latin translation by Wagenseil, in
"Exercitatio Tertia," and republished in the "Bik-
kureha-'Ittim." iv. H)d et seq.
VIII. —10

BiBLioGRAPiiv : Ziinzs notes to Asher's edition of Benjamin
itf Tudcln, p. 284 : idem. '/.. (J. p. 'MK No. 242 ; Steinschneider,
Cat. Diidl. col. i:iJ4 ; Zedner, Ausuahl HMorinchcr Stttcke,
p. 138, Berlin, 1840.
I). I. Bu.

LOB HA-LEVI of BRODY : Galiciau rabbi
of the beginning of the nineteenth centur}'; held
olfice first at Podhajce, then at Brody. Among his
contemporaries was Ephraim Zalman Margaliot,
chief rabbi of Brody, in whose "Bet Efrayim" oc-
curs a responsum of Lob's. He was the author of
" Leb Aryeh " (Lemberg, 1820), a commentary on

Bibliography: Benjacob, O^n r //n-Se/arim, p. 253; Walden,
Shem hn-Ged()Uni he-Haddsh, p. 82.
I). M. Sei,.

LOB ben meir. See JiDAii ben Meir.

preacher and leader of the Hasidic party in the sec-
ond half of the eighteenth century. Lob was a
pupil of Israel Ba'al Shem-Tob and of Bar of Mes-
eritz, and contributed much to the former's thaumat-
urgy. Several wonderful things are narrated about
him* in the " Sliibhe Ba'al Shem-Tob. " Lob was the
author of a Avoric entitled "Kol Aryeh" (Korzec,
1802), homiletic annotations on the Pentateuch.

Bibliography : Rodkinson, Tolfdot Ba'ale Shem-Toh, p. 38,
Konigsbeip. 1876; Walden. Shem ha-Gedolim he-Hadaxh,
p. 79.
H. K. M. Sel.

rabbi of the eighteenth century; author of "Pene
Aryeh" (Novidvor, 1787), novelise on the Talmud,
to which is added a pamphlet entitled "Kontres
Mille de-Abot," novella; by L5b's father and father-

Bibliography: Benjacob, Ozar ha-Sefarim, p. 486; Fiirst,
Bibl. Jiid. ii. 265.
ir. K. M. Sel.

LOB of POLONNOYE. See Lob Mokiah.

rabbi; born probably at Pinczow, government of
Kielce, Poland, about 1630; died at Brest-Litovsk
1714. Lob was on his father's .side the grandson of
Joel SiRKES and stepson of David ben Samuel ha-
Levi, of whom he was also the pupil. He studied
besides under Joshua Hoschel, author of " Maginne
Shelomoh," and under Yom-Tob Lipmann Heller.
He was rabbi successively of Swirz, Galicia (before
1663), Kamorna, Stobnitz, Zamosc (1679-89), Tiktin,
Cracow, and finally Brest-Litovsk (1701-14). He
was considered by his contemporaries so great a Tal-
mudic authority that in 1669 he was sent with his
stepbrother Isiuah ha-Levi to Constantinople to
investigate the claims of Shabbethai Zebi. His re-
sponsa were published later, under the title "Sha-
'agat Aryeh " (Neuwied, 1736), by his grandson
Abraham Nathan Meisels, who added some of his
own under the title " Kol Shahal." Other responsa
of Lftb's are to be found in the"Shebut Ya'akob,"
No. 107 edited by his grandson, and in "Teshubot
Geonim Batra'e," published first in Turkey by the
author of "Ma'ane Elihu," and afterward in Prague
Bibliography: Friedberg. Lxihot Zikkarnn, pp. 24. 25; Azu-

lai. Shem ha-Gedolim, ii. 138; Michael. Or ha-Hauuim, No.

527 ; M. Zunz, 'Ir ha-?.idek, pp. 150 et seq. and note 64.

H. R. M. Sel.




LOB of SHPOLA : Early Hasidic rabbi ; died at
an advanced age Oct. 4, 1810. It is said that he was
a poor " melammed " or teacher in his younger days,
and that he did not assume the title of rabbi be-
cause, unlike other " zaddikim " of that period, he
was not the pupil or disciple of a great zaddik.
Although his only claim to prominence in the Hasi-
dic world was a visit wliich he paid once to B..
Israel Ba'al Shem-Tob, the nominal founder of
Hasidisra, both R. Baruch of Medzhibozh and R.
Nahman of Bratzlave (the first a grandson and the
second a great-grandson of the Ba'al Shem) devel-
oped a fierce antagonism to him. He was popularly
known as " the Shpoler Zeide " (grandfather of Shpo-
la), and was revered for his great piety. He led a very
simple, almost ascetic, life, and distributed in char-
ity most of the money given him by his numerous
adherents. He left no writings, and if his detractors
are to be believed, he did not po.ssess the knowledge
and intelligence to produce anything of value ; but
he so impressed his contemporaries that his name is
still preserved among the Hasidim, especially those
of southern Russia, as that of one of the saintly,
miracle-working rabbis of the first period of Hasi-
Bibliography: Gottlober, in Ha-Boker Or, v. 384-388 ; Rod-

kinson, Toledot Ba'ale Shem-Tob, pp. 39-40, Konigsberg,


H. R. P. Wl.


also Hocher R. Lob) : Polish rabbi ; born at Cra-
cow about 1620; died there 1671. When a young
man he was called as rabbi to Vienna, where he offi-
ciated for a few years. Thence he went to Przem-
ysl, Galicia, and in 1665 he became rabbi at his na-
tive place, where he remained until his death. He
was the author of "Tikkune Teshubah," an ethical
work in Juda;o-German. Cracow, 1666.

Bibliography : Zunz, *7r h(uZedek, p. 115, Lemberg, 1874 ; H.
N. Dembitzer, Kelilat Yofi, i. 78b; Joel Dembitzer, Mappe-
let 'Ir ha-Zedek, p. 25. „

H. R. B. Fr.

LOBATO : Marano family, several of whose mem-
bers lived at Amsterdam. The best-known mem-
bers of the family are:

Diego Gomez Lobato (called also Abraham
Cohen liobato) : Portuguese Marano ; born at
Lisbon, where he was living in 1599; cousin and
countryman of the poet Paul de Pina (Rehuel Je-
shurun). When tlie latter was going to Rome, in-
tending to enter a monastery there, Lobato gave
him a letter, dated April 3, 1599, addressed to Eiijali
Montalto (subsequently physician to Maria de Med-
ici), who was then living at Leghorn, asking Elijah
to dissuade Paul from his purpose. Paul de Pina
was in fact induced by Montalto to desist from carry-
ing out his intention. He became an enthusiastic
follower of Judaism, and lived, like Diego Gomez
Lobato, at Amsterdam.

Isaac Cohen Lobato : Portuguese Marano ; born
at Lisl)on ; died at an advanced age in Amsterdam ;
a relation of Diego Gomez Lobato. At the per-
formance in the first synagogue of Amsterdam of
Rehuel Jeashurun'santiphonal i)oem " Dialogo delos
Si^te Monies" (composed in 1624), in whicli the
mountains of the Holy Land are introduced as
speakers, Lobato took the leadiog part of Mt. Zdon.

In 1678 he, together with David Mendes Coutinho,
founded the philanthropic society Sha'are Zedek at

Rehuel Cohen Lobato : Sephardic author;
lived at Amsterdam; father of Isaac Cohen Lobato.
Together with Moses Belmoute he issued a new
Spanish translation of the Pirke Abot, entitled " Pe-
rakym " (Amsterdam, 1644).

Bibliography: Gratz, Gesch. ix. 520, x. 4; Kayserling, Se-
phardim, p. 176; idem, Bibl. Esp.-Port.-Jud. pp. 27, 64, 89.
G. M. K.

LOBATTO, REHUEL : Dutch mathematician ;
born at Amsterdam June 6, 1797; died at Delft Feb.
9, 1866. He sprang from a Portuguese Marano
family which had gone to Holland in 1604. From
his motlier, a Da Costa, he acquired a complete
knowledge of the south-European languages; and
while yet a schoolboy he displayed remarkable tal-
ent for mathematics. Littwack and Van Swindern
were his teachers, and at Brussels Quetelet, with
whom lie edited the " Correspondance Mathema-
tique et Physique." In 1823 he published "Wis-
kundige Mengelingen." In 1828 he w^as appointed
gager at Delft ; afterward he became inspector-gen-
eral of the gaging-office there ; and in 1842 he was ap-
pointed teacher of higher mathematics in the same

Lobatto was the author of a great number of arti-
cles in scientific periodicals and of various school-
books. From 1828 till 1849 he was editor of the ofti-
cial annual of statistics. In 1841 he was appointe<l
by Minister Rochussen member of a commission for
the conversion of the public debt. The Order of
the Netherlands Lion was conferred upon him; he
received the degree of doctor "honoris causa" from
Groningen Universit}^ and was a member of the
Royal Academy of Sciences.

Bibliography: Matthe-s, mJaarhnek Krminklijke Akademie
voor Wctemchappcn, Amsterdam, 186ti (gives complete list.s
of Lobatto's works); Spectator (The Hague), 1866; Bierens
de Haan, Bibliographie V. d. Aa Wooj-denboek, xxi.
D. E. Si..

LOBEL, ARTHUR : Austrian physician ; born
at Roman, Rumania, May 15, 1857; educated at the
gymnasium of Czernowitz and the universities of
Vienna and Paris (M.D., Vienna, 1883). During
the year 1884 he served as assistant at the General
Hospital, Vienna, and in 1885 settled as a physician
at the watering-place of Dorna, where he practises
during the summer months, spending the winters in
Vienna. In 1898 he received the title of " Kaiser-
licher Rath."

Lobel is the author of : " Das Balneotherapeutische
Verfahren Wahrend der Menstruation," Berlin,
1880; " Der Curgcbrauch mit Mineral wilssern Wah-
rend der Graviditat," ih. 1888; "Das Bukowinaer
Stahlbad Dorna," Vienna, 1889; "Die Curdiatetik
im Eisenbade," Vienna and Leipsic, 1890; "Die
Moorbiider und Deren Surrogate." Vienna, 1890;
"Zur Thernialbehandlung der Endometritis," Leip-
sic, 1891; "Die Neueren Behandlungsmcthoden der
Metritis Chronica," ih. 1892; " Kosmetische Winke,"
Leipsic and Vienna, 1894; "Zur Behandhing der
Oophoritis Chronica," Berlin, 1895; "Geschichtliche
Entwickliing des Eisenbades Dorna," Vienna, 1896;
"Das Diatetische Verhaiten Wahrend der Menstru-
ation," Kreuznach, 1897; " Die Balneologischen Cur-




methoden bei Beliandlung der Chroniscben Para-
und Perimetritis," Halle, 1898; "Die Balueo- iiud
Diaiotberapie der Arterioklerose," Vienna, 1899;
"Zur Puerperalbebandlung mitTrink- und Badeku-
ren," Berlin, 1900; "Die Leistungen der Pbysikali-
scben Herzbeilmetboden," Vienna, 1902; "Studien
liber die Physiologische Wirkungeu der Moorbader, "
ib. 1904.
s. F. T. H.

LOBEL, HIRSCHEL. See Levin, Hirschel.
LOBELE of PROSSNITZ. See Prossnitz,


LOBO, MOSES JESHURUN : Spanish poet ;
lived at Amsterdam in the seventeenth century.
He was one of the poets who celebrated the martyr-
dom of Abraham Nunez Bernal in 1655; and his
elegies form a part of the "Elogios" (Amsterdam,
1655). Daniel de Barrios ("' Relacion de los Poetos,"
p. 56 = "R. E. J." xviii. 285) speaks of "an excel-
lent Spanish poet, Custodio Lobo, otherwise called
Moses Jeshurun Ribero " (died at Leghorn), some
anti-(Miristian verses by whom he quotes. The sim-
ilarity of their names induced Wolf ("Bibl. Hebr."
iii., No. 1579d) to suppose the two poets to be

Bibliography : Fiirst. Bibl. Jud. ii. 254 ; Kayserling, Sephar-
dim, p. 262; idem, Bibl. Esp.-Port-Jud. p. 64.

G. M. Sel.

LOCK. See Key.

LOCUST : Of all the insects the locust is most
frequently mentioned in the Old Testament. It oc-
curs under the following nine names, which proba-
bly denote different species ; but there is no certain
clue by which the exact species intended by each
name can be identified: (1) "arbeh" (A. V. some-
times " grasshopper "), the most common term, com-
prising the whole genus; (2) "sol'am," derived by
Ibu Ezra from " sela' " = " rock " (rock-locust ; A. V.
"bald locust"); (3) "hargol" (A. V. "beetle"; R.
V. "cricket"; Jewish exegetes, "grasshopper";
comp. Arabic "harjal" = "a troop of horses," or
" locust, " from " harjala" = " to hop," " to jump ") ;
(4) "hagab"(A. V. usually "grasshopper " ; seems
likewise to be used in a general sense in Num. xiii.
33; Isa. xl. 22); (5) "hasil" (I Kings viii. 37; Ps.
Ixxviii. 46); (6) " gazam " (Joel i. 4; Amos iv. 9),
usually rendered " palmer-worm " ; (7) "yelek"(Jer.
h. 27; Nahum iii. 15; LXX. and Vulgate, "bron-
chos " ; R. V. " canker-worm ") ; (8) " zelazal " (Deut.
xxviii. 42) ma}' be an onomatopa'ic designation of
locusts in general ; (9) " gebim " and " gobai " (Na-
hum iii. 17; Amos vii. 1; A. V. "grasshopper";
R. V. margin to the latter passage, "green
worms") are probably also general terms. The
first four species are enumerated among the " winged
creeping things" which are allowed to be eaten, and
are described as having "legs above their feet to
leap withal upon the earth" (Lev. xi. 21 et seq.).

Upward of forty orthopterous insects have been
discovered in Palestine. The Acrydvum lineola,
A. peregrinnm, and the (Edipoda viifirntoria are
counted among the most destructive, and are there-

\ fore the most dreaded.

; The term " locusts " is sometimes used figuratively ;

• e.g., for swarming hordes and mighty hosts (Judges

' vi. 5, vii. 12; Jer. xlvi. 23; Prov. xxx. 28); for pran-

cing horses (Joel ii. 4; Job xxxix. 20); as an emblem
of voracious greed (isa. x.xxiii. 4; Amos vii. 1); of
feebleness, insignificance, and perishableness (Num.
xiii. 33; Isa. xl. 22; Ps. cix. 23; Nahum iii. 17).

The Talmud points out as the marks of the clean
locust: four feet, two hopping legs, and four wings
which are large enough to cover the body (Hul.

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