Isidore Singer.

The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) online

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59a). Besi<les the species mentioned in the Old Tes-
tament the Tahnud refers to many others (comp.
Hul. 65). Public prayers were instituted against
the plague of locusts (Ta'an. 14a, 19a). Some lo-
custs, probably variegated, were the playthings of
children (Shab. 90b). The egg of the hargol car-
ried in the ear relieves earache (ib. 65a); while the
left x^art of the " zipporat keramim " worn on the
left side of the body preserves one's knowledge {ib.
90b; Tristram, "Nat. Hist." p. 306; Lewysohu,
"Z. T." p. 285; Burckhardt, "Notes on the Bed-
ouins," p. 269).

E. G. H. I. M. C.

LODEVE : Small town in the department of He-
rault, France. A Jewish community was founded
here as early as the fifth century. It was under
the jurisdiction of the bishop, to whom it paid an
annual tax. In 1095 Bishop Bernard, in conformity
with an old decision of the councils, forbade mar-
riages between Jews and Christians, on pain of ex-
communication for the latter. In 1188 King Pliilip
Augustus of France confirmed the bishop's rights
and privileges relating to the Jews. Several Lodeve
Jews Avere living at Montpellier in 1293 and 1294,
and at Perpignan in 1413 and 1414. A Paris manu-
script (Bibliotheque Nationale, No. 242), containing
Levi b. Gershon of Bagnol's commentary on Genesis
and Exodus, refers to two rabbis of Lodeve (n3t3l7).
Eleazar and Isaac po''p or |'1D"'2 (= "Botin," accord-
ing to Carmoly), or Isaac del Portal or de la Porte
("lytJ'n |D). This name is probably derived from " Por-
tale " (Latin, " Portalis "), in the department of Van-
cluse. It may, however, be derived from "Portes."
a village in the department of the Gard. A Jew-
named Isaac de Portes lived at Nimes in 1306.

Rabbi Solomon Ezobi of Carpentras corresponded

with the Bishop of Lodeve, Jean Plantavit de la

Pause, author of the work entitled " Planta Vitis seu

Thesaurus Synonymicus Hebr.To-ChaldfEO-Rabbini-

cus " ; about 1629 he addressed three Hebrew poems

to the bishop.

Bibliography: Carmolv, Kerue OricjitaFe, lit. 340; DomVals-
sSte, Histnire Ghierale de Languahm, vol. i., book xv.;
vol. HI., book Ixx.; Gross, Gallia Judaica, pp. 158, 2,4, t>11 ;
R. E. J. xiv. 66, 73, 75 ; xxii. 265 ; Saige, ies Juifs du Lan-
quedoc, vii. 3, 13, 14.
G. o. K.

LODZ (LODZI) : City in the government of Pi-
otrkow, Russian Poland, about 90 miles west of
Warsaw. As late as 1821 it was only a village of
800 inhabitants, when the manufacture of woolens
was first introduced there by Germans Later, cot-
ton-mills were added. The population of Lodz
gradually increased \intll in 1872 it amounted to
50,500; "and in 1876 it reached a total of nearly
80,000, including about 15,000 Jews.

Lodz is now considered the second city of Poland,
both in population and in the importance of its cot-
ton-mills: indeed, it is styled " the Manchester of Po-




laud." The rapid growth of the city is due no more
to the Germans than to the Jews, who inti'oduceil
numerous spindles and hand-looms in almost ever}-
household, and, being satisfied with small profits,
were able to compete with the largest manufac-
turers both in Moscow and in other cities of Russia.
The expulsion of the Jews from Moscow in 1891
helped to increase the volume of business in Lodz.
Li 1898 the keen competition abroad compelled the
Jewish merchanls of Lodz to adopt
Introduc- desperate measures to retain business
tion of by making also a cheap grade of

Shoddy, goods to imitate woolens. This new
stuff Avas called " shoddy," being a
mi.xture of waste from cotton and woolen stuffs
which was formerly discarded as of no value. The
Polisli newspaper '• Kozowj " lamented this new at-
tempt of the Jews to " spoil the market. "

Tiie question of employing Jewish operatives was
a very difficult one. In the first place, they could
not subsist on the small wages paid to the mill-
hands. Secondly, when the factories were built and
machiner}" was introduced the Jews could not work
together with non-Jewish operatives on Saturday,
and the establishments were closed on Sunday.
Israel Posnanski.the richest manufacturer of Lodz,
in order to utilize Jewish labor, solved the problem
by setting aside a factory for Jewish employees.
Later, Rabbis Meisels and Jelski prevailed upon
other Jewish manufacturers to open similar fac-

The Jewish community' of Lodz was organized
before Lodz was recognized as a town. Hillel, the
first rabbi, died in 1823; his successor, Ezekiel, died
in 1851; and the present (1904) rabbi, Elijah Hay-
3'im Meisels, was elected in 1873.

There is in Russia no Reform congregation; but

it has what is known as "German" congregations.

Tiiese are attended by the rich niem-

Congrega- hers of the conununity ; strict decorum

tions and is observed ; a cantor with trained choir

Syna- conducts the service; and an acadcm-

gogues. ical rabbi delivers his sermons in pure
German or Russian. Lodz has such
a congregation. Adolpii M. Radin, now in New
York, was elected its rabbi in 1884, and was suc-
ceeded by the present rabbi, Israel Jelski. The con-
gregation completed its new temple in 1888 at a cost
of 500,000 rubles.

There are two synagogues, one on the Old Bazaar
and one in Wulke, the Jewish quarter. The leaders
of the community are Michael Adolpli Coiien, attor-
ney at law; Ilerzberg; Pinkus; and Wachs.

Tiie Hebrew Free School (Talmud Torali) has
been under the management of Herman Koiistadt
since 1877. The Jewish hospital was founded l)y
Israel Posnanski, who donated 40,000 rubles for it in
1879. The building was finished in 1883.

The Free Loan Society (Gemilut Hasadim) was
organized in 18H3 by J. S. Goldman and Isaac Mou
diecki. In tlie same year Isaiah Ho-

Institu- senblatt established the Free Lodging
tions. Society (Ilakiiasat Orehim). Tiiere arc
also a lioine for tlu; aged (Bet Mahseli
li-Zekenim). and an asylum for poor girls. Mar-
cus Silberstein is the fo\inder of tlu' Orplian

Asylum, opened in 1895 with 64 children. The re-
port of 1897 shows an average expenditure of 14,960
rubles per annum. A Hebrew technical school, o -
giUiized by J. K. Posnanski, Bernhard Dobronicki,
and S. Jarazinski, has an attendance of 300 pupils.
The Jewish clerks employed in the factories formed
a mutual aid society in 1896. Isidor Kempinski
shortly before his death (1900) founded a secular
school for Jewish children.

The Jews of Lodz have contributed liberally to
charitable institutions abroad. For example, tiiey
gave 10,000 rubles to Rabbi Hildesheimer toward a
Hebrew school for Russian Jewish immigrants in
Berlin in 1883; and it is estimated that in the same
year they expended in charity more than 1,000,000
rubles. They contributed also a large sum to help
their Christian neighbors build a Russian church in

Among the Jewish celebrities who are natives of

Lodz is David Janowski, the champion chess-player

of France. On his visit to his native city in 1900 the

authorities recognized bis successes by

Distin- presenting him with a gold n; -dal.

guished The artists Hcrschenberg, Glitzeu-

Natives. stein, and Pilichowski also were born
in Lodz. The last-named received a
gold medal at tlie Paris Exposition of 1900 for his
painting "The Wandering Jew." Another gold
medal was awarded to Emanuel Sadokierski of Lodz
for excellency in bookbinding and for articles made
of papier-mache ("Currier Warszawski," 1900, No.
239). The Jews of Lodz, however, refused to send
a manufacturing exhibit to the Paris Exposition,
thereby marking their indignation at the proceed-
ings in the Dreyfus affair. Among Jewish writers
of Lodz are David Fischman, the Hebrew novelist,
and Sarah Feige Foner, author of the Hebrew nov-
els "Beged Bogedim " and "Ahabat Yesharim."
Site organized in Lodz tiie Bat Ziyyon Society for
teaching girls the Hebrew language and Jewish his-
tory and literature.

The present (1904) population is about 300,000,
including 75,000 Jews. The statistics of 1896 give
1,827 births, 1,856 deaths, and 564 marriages among
tile Jews of Lodz in that year.

II. K. J. D. E.

LOEB, ISIDORE: French scholar; born at
Sulzmatt (Soultzmatt), Upper Alsace, Nov. 1, 1839;
died at Paris, June 3, 1892. Tiie son of Rabbi
Seligniann Loeb of Sulzmatt, he was educated in
liible and Talmud by his father. After having
followed the usual course in the public school of his
native town, Loeb studied at the college of Rufach
and at the lycee of Colmar, in which city he at tlie
same time attended classes in Hebrew and Talmud
at the preparatory rabbinical school founded by
Chief Rabbi Solomon Klkin. In 1856 lie entered
the Central Rabbinical School (Ecole Centrale Rab-
liinique) at Metz, where lie soon ranked liigli
tlirough his knowledge of Hebrew, his literarj' abil-
ity, and his proficiency in mathematics. In 1862 lie
was graduated, and received his rabbinical di[)loma
from the Seminaire Israelite de France at Paris,
which had replaced (1859) tiie Metz Ecole Centrale




Loeb did not immediately enter upon a rabbinical
career, but tutored for some years, tirst at Bayonne
and then at Paris. In 1865 he was called to the rab-
binate of St. Etienne (Loire). His installation ser-
mon, on the duties of the smaller congregations
(" Les Devoirs des Petites Communautes "), is one of
the best examples of French pulpit rhetoric.

Soon, however, he felt a desire to extend the field
of his activity. He went to Paris, where he was

appointed (June 1, 1869)
secretary of the AUianre
Israelite Universelle,
which position he held
until his death. It was
largely due to Locb's
labors that this associa-
tion became an impor-
tant factor in the prog-
ress of Oriental Juda-
ism; and he created the
library of the Alliance,
which is one of the most
valuable Jewish libra-
ries in existence. Mean-
while he continued his
historical and philolog-
ical researches, and de-
veloped an extensive
literary activity. The
chair of Jewish history in the Rabbinical Seminary
of Paris having become vacant through the resig-
nation of Albert Cohn (1878), Loeb was appointed
his successor. He held this position for twelve
years. His main activity, however, was devoted
to the Societe des Etudes Juives, which was or-
ganized in Paris in 1880. Beginning with the first
number, he successfully edited the "Revue des
Etudes Juives," the organ of that society, and was,
moreover, a voluminous and brilliant contributor

The following works published by Loeb deserve
especial notice: "La Situation des Israelites en Tur-
quie, en Serbie, et en Roumanie " (1869) ; " Biogra-
phic d'Albert Cohn" (1878); "Tables du Calendrier
Juif Depuis I'Ere Chretienne Jusqu'au XXX« Si6-
cle"; "Les JuifsdeRussie" (1891); " La Litterature
des Pauvres dans la Bible " ; and " Reflexions sur les
Juifs." The two last-named works have been pub-
lished by the Societe des Etudes Juives.

Bibliography : I. L^vi, list of Loeb's works, in R. E. J. vol.
xxiv.; Z. Kahn, biographical sketch, ib.
s. Z. K.

LiOEB, JACQUES: American biologist; born
in Germany April 7, 1859; educated at the universi-
ties of Berlin, Munich, and Strasburg (M.D. 1884).
He took a postgraduate course at the universities
of Strasburg and Berlin, and in 1886 became assist-
ant at the physiological institute of the University
of Wiirzburg, remaining there till 1888, when he
went in a similar capacity to Strasburg. During
his vacations he pursued biological researches, at
Kiel in 1888, and at Naples in 1889 and 1890. In
1892 he was called to the University of Chicago as
assistant professor of physiology and experimental
biology, becoming associate professor in 1895, and
professor of physiology in 1899. In 1902 he was

called to fill a similar chair at the University of

The main subjects of his works are : animal tropisms
and their relation to the instincts of animals; hetero-
morphosis, i.e., substitution at will of one organ of
an animal for another; toxic and antitoxic effects of
ions; artificial parthenogenesis; and hybridization
of the eggs of sea-urchins by the sperm of starfish.

Among Loeb's works maybe mentipned: "He-
liotropismus der Thiere und Seine Identitiit mit dcm
Heliotropismus der Pflanzen," Wiirzburg, 1889;
"Physiologische Morphologic," part i., ib. 1890; part
ii., ib. 1891; " Vergleichende PhysiologiedesGehirns
und Vergleichende Psychologic," Leipsic, 1899; edi-
tion in English, New York, 1900.

A. F. T. H.

LOEB, LOUIS : American artist; born at Cleve-
land, Ohio, Nov. 7, 1866. At the age of thirteen he
was apprenticed to a lithographer in his native city,
and in 1885 went to New York, where he studied in
the night-schools of the Art Students' League, of
which he became vice-president in 1889. Loeb went
to Paris in 1890, and studied under Geromc, obtain-
ing honorable mention at the Paris Salon in 1895,
and third medal in 1897.

From 1893 Loeb contributed to the chief maga-
zines of the United States some of their most impor-
tant illustrations. He is a member of the Society
of American Artists and associate of the National
Academy of Design, and has contributed many note-
worthy paintings to their exhibitions. Among the
most important are the portraits of I. Zangwill
(1898), J. H. Schiff (1904), Eleanor Robson (1904) ; and
the following pictures : " Temple of the Winds, " 1896
(silver medal, Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo.
1903); "The Breeze" (1900); "The Joyous Life"
(1903); and "The Dawn," 1903 (Webb prize).

Bibliorraphy: Who's WJw in America; The Bookman.
Feb., 1900.


LOEB, MORRIS : American chemist ; born at
Cincinnati, Ohio, May 23, 1863; son of Solomon
Loeb ; educated at the New York College of Phar-
macy and at the universities of Harvard, Berlin,
Heidelberg, and Leipsic. In 1888 he became pri-
vate assistant to Professor Gibbs of Newport, R. I.,
and a year later decent at Clark University, Wor-
cester, Mass. He has been professor of chemistry
at New York University since 1891, and director of
the chemical laboratory there since 1894.

Loeb has largely occupied himself with matters of
Jewish interest and holds offices in many charitable
associations and other communal organizations.
He is president of the Hebrew Technical Institute,
president of the (N. Y.) Hebrew Charities Building
Fund, director of the Jewish Theological Semi-
nary of America and of the Educational Alliance
(1892-97). He is the author of various scientific arti-
cles, chiefly on physical and inorganic chemistry.


LOEWE, LOUIS : English Orientalist and the-
ologian ; born at Zlilz, Prussian Silesia. 1809; died
in London 1888. He was educated at the yeshi-
bot of Lissa, Nikolsburg, Presburg, and at the
University of Berlin. Stopping at Hamburg on
his way to London, he was entrusted with the clas-




sitication of the Oriental coins in the Sprewitz cab-
inet. Soon after his arrival in London he was intro-
<luced to the Duke of Sussex, who in 1839 appointed
him liis "Orientalist." He then traveled in the
East, where he studied Arabic, Persian, Coptic, Nu-
bian, Turkish, and Circassian. In Cairo he was pre-
sented to the khedive, ]NU)hammed Ali Pasha, for
■whom he translated some hieroglyphic inscriptions.
While in Palestine he was attacked by Bedouins,
who took everything he had with him, including his
collections and note-books. On his return he met
at Home Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore, who invi-
ted him to travel with them to the Holy Land.
When in 1840 Sir Moses went on his Damascus ex-
pedition, Loewe accompanied him as his interpreter.
In the firman granted for the relief of the accused,
Loewe discovered that the word " pardon " (" 'afw ")
was used instead of "acquittal," and it was due to
Sir Moses' exertions that the change to "acquittal "
was made.

Altogether, Loewe accompanied Sir Moses Mon-
tefiore on nine different philanthropic missions.
When Jews' College was opened in 1856, he was
nominated principal; and when Sir Moses Monte-
fiore opened a theological college at Hamsgate in
1869, he made his friend principal of that institu-
tion, which position Loewe retained until three
years after the death of his patron.

Loewe wrote: "The Origin of the Egyptian Lan-
guage," London, 1837; a translation of J. B. Leviu-
sohn's "Efes Dammim," ib. 1841; a translation of
David Nieto's "Matteh Dan," ih. 1842 (awarded the
York Medal); "Observations on a Unique Coptic
Gold Coin," 1849; a dictionary of the Circassian
language, 1854; as well as several sermons and a
Nubian grammar (the latter still in manuscript).

Bibliography: Celebrities nf the Day, April, 1881; J. H.
Loewe, A Catalogue of the Library of the Late Dr. L.
Loewe, 1890.
J. H. HiK.

LOEWE, LXJDWIG : German manufacturer,
philaiilhiopist, and member of the Reichstag; born
at Heiligenstadt Nov. 27, 1837; died at Berlin Sept.
11, 1886. The son of a poor teacher, he attended
the gymnasium in his native city, and then went to
Berlin. While still a young man he accidentally
made the acquaintance of Ferdinand Lassalle before
the period of tiie latter's socialistic agitation, and
was admitted to his brilliant social circle.

Loewe first entered ui)on a mercantile career as a
dealer in woolens, then became a machinist, and in
1864 established a manufactory of sewing-machines
in Berlin. In 1870 he visited the United States to
study the construction of machinery, and on his re-
turn to Germany founded a factory for the produc-
tion of tool-machinery in accordance with American
methods, utilizing American machinery tliat had
never before been introduced into Germany. He
brought the manufacture to such a pitch of perfec-
tion that the Pruf;sian War Department arranged
with him for tiie establishment of a factory for tlic
production of weapons. Under a guaranty from t lie
government, Loewe established a remarkable plant
to supply not only weapons for the army, but also
machinery for expositions.

From 1864\uitil Ids death Loewe was a member of

the Berlin Municipal Council, and was particularly
influential in developing the school system. He
was elected a member of the Prussian Abgeordne-
tenhausin 1876, and two years later a member of the
Reichstag ; here he identified himself at first with the
"Fortschrittspartei," being a devoted follower of
Johann Jacoby, and afterward with the progress-
ive party ("Deutsch-Freisinnige "). Subsequently
his contracts with the government in connection
with the furnishing of small arms were the sub-
ject of calumnious animadversions by tlie anti-
Semite Hermann Ahlwardt. Loewe having died,
his brother Isidor, then at the head of the firm, in-
sisted upon a complete investigation, which resulted
in the demonstration of the utter baselessness of the
charges made by the anti-Semitic leader. These
charges were nothing less than that the Loeweswere
members of an international Jewish conspiracy to
secure control of the entire Avorld ; that the greatest
obstacle to gratifying this ambition being the obsti-
nacy of the Germans, the surest means of breaking
that obstina(;y was by the defeat of the Germans in
war; that this could be most eifectually secured by
arming the German soldiers with defective weap-
ons; and that to this end the Loevpes had, by fraud
and bribery, foisted upon the German military au-
thorities nearly half a million guns that would ex-
plode in battle, maiming and disabling those who
carried them and frightening their comrades, thus
causing stampedes and routs.

Loewe was for some time president of the Jewish
congregation in Berlin.

Bibliography : Alki. Zeit. ries Jtid. 1886, pp. 614-613, 633-638;
Ahlwardt, Neuc EntliaUungen: Judenflintcn, Dresden,
1893 ; Judenfliiiten, part ii., ib. 1892.
s. M. Co.

LOEWENTHAL, EDUARD : German writer
and editor; born March 12, 1836, atErnsbach, Wurt-
temberg ; educated at the high school at Stuttgart
and at the University of Tubingen, where he studied
jurisprudence and philosophy (Ph.D. 1859). He
founded at Frank fort-on-the-Main the "Allgemeine
Deutsche Universitatszeitung " and became assistant
editor on Max Wirth's "Der Arbeitgeber. " Soon
afterward he became editor of Payne's "Die
Glocke" at Leipsic, and established there the "Zeit-
geist." In 1873 he became editor-in-chief of the
"Neue Fieie Zeitung," and in the following year
founded the Deutscher Vereiu fUr Internationale

After having served two terms in prison as the
result of press lawsuits, Loewenthal went to Brus-
sels, London (where he remained for a year), and
Paris. In the last-named city he founded the
"Weltblxhne, Deutsche Pariser Zeitung," and a
French monthly, "Le Monde de I'Esprit." In 1888
he returned to Berlin, Emperor Frederick III. hav-
ing proclaimed an amnesty for political olfendens.

Among Loeweuthal's works may be mentioned:
"System und Gesch. des Naturalismus" (Cth ed.
1868; Engl. 1897); "Gesetz der Sphilrischen
Molekularbewegung " (also an English edition);
"Napoleon III. and the Commune of Paris"
(drama); "P>ine Religion olme Bekenntiiiss" (1865);
"Der Militaiismus als Ursache der Massenverar-
mung"(l868; translated into French, at tiie expense




of the Societe des Amis de la Paix, 1869); "Grund-
zuge zur Reform und Kodification des VOlkcr-
rechts" (1872; translated into English and French):
"Le Cogitantisme on la Religion Scientifique"
(1886); -'Der Staat Bellamy's und Seine Nachfol-
ger" (1892); "Grundriss der Gesch. der Philoso-
phie" (1896); "Die Religiose Bewegung im 19.
Jahrhundert " (1900); "Die Fulguro-Genesis im Ge-
gensatz zur Evolutionstheorie " (1902) ; " Gtesch. der
Friedensbewegung " (1903).
s. L. La.

liOEWY, EMANUEL : Austrian archeologist ;
born at Vienna Sept. 1, 1857; educated at the gym-
nasium and university of his native city (Ph.D.
1882). He is now (1904) professor of archeology at
the University of Rome.

Loewj is the author of: " Untersuchungen zur
Griechischen Kilnstlergeschichte " (1883) ; " Inschrif-
ten Griechischer Bildhauer" (1885); "Lysipp und
Seine Stellung in der Griechischen Plastik " (1891) ;
" Die Naturwiedergabe in der Aeltesten Griechischen
Kunst " (1900).

s. F. T. H.

LOEWY, MAURICE: Astronomer; born at
Vienna, Austria, April 15, 1833. A descendant of
a Hungarian family, he received his education at
his native city, where he was employed at the observ-
atory. In 1860 he was called to the Paris Observa-
tory as assistant astronomer, being appointed astron-
omer in 1864. In 1865 he became a French citizen.

In 1872 he was appointed
a member of the Bureau
des Longitudes; in 1873
lie was elected to the
French Institute (Acade-
mic des Sciences) ; in the
same year he became
assistant director and in
1896 director of the Paris

Loewy since 1878 has
been editor of " Ephenie-
rides des Etoiles de Cul-
mination Lunaire," and
since 1896 of the " Rap-
port Annuel sur I'Etat
de rObservatoire de
Paris. " He has invented
several important astro-
nomical instruments, among which is especially well
known his " equatorial coude " or elbow-telescope,
with which he has secured the best photographs of
the moon. He has published with Puiseux since
1896 the "Atlas Photographique de la Lune."

Among Loewy 's numerous essays and works may
be mentioned: "Nouvelles Methodes pour la Deter-
mination des Orbites des Cometes," 1879; " Des Ele-
nu'iits Fondamentaux de 1' Astronomic," 1886; " De
la Constance de I'Aberration et de la Refraction,"
1890; "Du Coefficient de I'Elasticite." 1892 (willi
Tresca) ; " De la Latitude et dos Positions Absolues
des Etoiles Fondamentales," 1895.

Loewy 's "Memoires" have been published in the
"Comptes Rendus de rAcadeniie des Sciences" and
in the " Annales do rObservatoire."

Maurice Loewy.

Bibliography: Curiniei. Diet. Nat. Hi. 12; La Grande En-
cudopidie, xxli. 415; Nmtveati LarouKse lUustri', v. 730:
Meyers Konversations-Lexikon.

8. F. T. H.

LOGIC: The science of correct thinking; the
science of the principles governing the comparative
and constructive faculties in the pursuit and use of
truth. Although, judging from the principles that
were propounded by the Tannaini for the deduc-
tion of halakot from the Biblical text, it can be
surmised that the Rabbis were acquainted with the
laws of syllogisms, analogies, etc., no mention of
logical science is made in Jewish literature prior to
the Judieo-Arabic period (see Talmud). It was
only with the transplantation of the Arabo-Greek

Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 39 of 169)