Isidore Singer.

The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) online

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17;S{>: Into Jnda'o-(;crnian. with the Hebrpw title "Zahkan
Miissnrl." bv Asher Anshel (Am.sterdani. 1698): into French by
( annoly (I'ari.s, lH41i.

Sod Yesharini. One himdnHl enicina.sand renipdies. Venire.
15!U: Verrma. 1647 : Amsterdam. IiVt!!: Fninkfort-on-thP-Maln.
17iy. Another edition pives neither date nor place of publira-

Zemah Zaddik. An ethlral work, translated from the I,atin,
with nioriil savines taken from I'.ible and Talmud. Venice.
li,i»i: Wilna. IH.V1: New York. ISlRt.

Midl)ar Veliiuiah. Tueiitv-one .sermons. Veiiiie, liKC
(ialiit Yehudah. Explanations, in Italian, of all the difflciilt
expressions found in the Hible, in the sayinfrs of the Fathers,
and in the Hasrfraaah of Passover: precedeil by a number of
grammatical rules. Venice, 1H12. Republished at Padua and
Venice in IWO, with an Italian-Hebrew vocabulary entitled "Pi

Leb Aryeh. A method of mnemonics applicable in all sci-
ences, with the 613 commaudments according to Maimonides.
Venice. 1612; Wilna, 1886.

Bet Lehem Y'ehudah. An index of the sources of all the pas-
sages found in the '" ' En Va'akob." Venice, 16:2.") ; Prague. 1705.
Zebi Esh. An abridgment of Isaac Abravanel's commentary
on' the Hasgadah of Passover, with an Italian translation.
Venice, 16:i9, 1664, 1695; Sulzbach, 1774,1834; with a (ierman
translation, Fiirth, 18(14.
TedUot Yesliarim. Prayers and selihot for all occasions.
Ben Dawid. Controverting the doctrine of metempsychosis.
Included by Eliezer Ashkenazi in the "Ta'am Zekeniin."'
Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1855.

Magen wa-Hereb. Attacks upon Christian dogmas. Pub-
lished in part', together with the " .Magen we-Zinnah," by A.
Geiger. Breslau. 18-56.
Ha-Abot bi-Yehudah. Commentary on the Pirke Abot.
Commentaries on the Pentateuch, the Five Scrolls, the books
of Samuel. Proverbs, and the Passover Haggadah.

Rashi's commentaries on Proverbs and the books of Job and
Daniel. Included in the " Biblia Rabbinica."

Pitnm ha-Millot. Explanations of the special terms used in
logic and philosophy.

Hibbur. Models of Hebrew composition ; a Hebrew transla-
tion of Ecclesia-stes and the books of Maccabee.s, etc.
Derashot. Four hundred sermons.
Commentary on the Haftarot.

Mibhar Yehudah. The nature of the work is unknown.
Pesakim. Halakic decisions on synagogal music. Venice,
1605; Vienna. 1861. Published as a supplement to "Ben Cha-
nanja." 1861, No. 27. On the excommunication launched by the
leaders of the community of Venice against all games of hazard.
Venice, 1()31. Contained also in "Pahad Y'izhak." s.r. D^n.
On the use of ordinary straps for phylacteries. Included in the
responsa " Debar Shemuel," of Samuel Aboab, No. 19.
Leket Yehudah. Collection of halakic consultations.
Shire" Yehudah. Collection of Hebrew poems. Neubauer,
" Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS." No. 218:5.

Hayye Yehudah. Autobiography ; published in part by Isaac
Reggio. in the introduction to the " Behinat ha-Kabbalah," and
in part by Geiger.

Historia dei Riti Ebraici, Vita e Osservanze degll Hebrei 6\
Qtiesti Tempi. Paris, lt)37 ; Venice. 1(538. 1(;73, 1678, 1687, 1715.
Written, at the request of an English nobleman, for James I.;
translated into English by Ed. Chilmead (London, 1650) and by
S. Ockley {ih. 1707, 175:i); into French by Recared Simon (Paris,
1C7I. 1681, 1710); into Dutch by Aug. (iedaret (Amsterdam,
16.83); into Latin by J. Val. Grossgebauer (Frankfort-on-the-
Main, 1693); into Hebrew, under the title "Shulhan 'Aruk," by
Solomon Rubin, with notes by A. Jellinek (Vienna, 1867).

Zikne Yehudah. Responsa, cited by Hagiz in his "Le-
ket lia-Kemah." It is. perhaps, identical with " Leket Yehudah."
Ozar ha-Hayyim. On the Cabala.

Tiie following are of doubtful authorship: "Or
Tob." explanations of difficult Hebrew words (Am-
sterdam, 1075 [Venice. 1081, under tiie title "Or
Luz"; ib. 1701, tinder tlie title "Or Lustru"]), and
"Parasliot lia-Kcsef," a commentary on four sec-
tions of the Pentateuch (Neubauer, "Cat. Bodl.
Helir. ]MSS." No. 2549). Stein.schneider attributes
also to Leon tlic work on chess entitled "Ma'adanne
;Melek." Leon edited a great numbi'r of works,
wliich he provided witli prefaces, poems, and ap-
probations; and he assisted the musical composer
Solomon de Rossi in tlie publication of his work on
synagogal music.

Bini,in(iUAPiiv : Azulai, i>hrm hn-Ordnlim : De Rossi. Dizii'-
iiorii). p. 231 ; (ieltrer. Lroti ilr Muilciia. Breslau. 1*56; Luz-
zatto. Iiiiiarot. i. r.W: Joseph Almanzi. Hi(iu(>!l<»t I'l-Ki-
))ni\ p.'71l. Venice. 18:i9; Isaac Hesrglo. /(/(/rovif, ii. 74 ft xc/.;
idem, in Km III llemcil ii. I5tH.58; Jost's A)lllalfu.W^^. p.
68; (hifiif.Jio. 5; Soave. in Corrierc iKniclitica. 1.863-6);
iili III. in A irh. hr. 1877. p. 73; Steinschneider. <^nl. liKfU.


lieon of Modena

col. 13.")1 ; idrm, in MoiKitascltrift, xiiii. :U1: Neubauer, in
Lctteihodc, iii. 99-1(19; iilim. in K. K. J. xxii. 84; Zunz,
IJteraturoe!icli. p. 427; Libovvitz, /?a/)/)i Yclnidah Ariich
Modena, Vienna, 189t) : 2d efl.. New York, 19()1 ; Simon Stern,
Der Kanipf dcs Rabliiiiei'it Geqcn den Talmud, Breslau,
19()3; Michael, Or ha-Ha^iuim. pp. 43SM44 ; Simonsen, in
BerUner's Festschrift, pp. *J7 ft scq.; M. H. Fiiedliinder, in
Oesterreichische Wochenschrift. liK)2, p. 87.

G. I. Bh.


Cabalistic writer; author, or redactor, of the Zo-
har; bora at Leon, Spain, about 1250; lived in
Guadalajara, Valladolid, and Avila; died at Are-
valo in 1305, -while returning to his home. He was
familiar with the philosophers of the Middle Ages
and with the whole literature of mysticism, and
knew and u.sed the writings of Solomon ibn Gabi-
rol, Judah ha-Levi, Maimonides, etc. He knew how-
to charm with brilliant and striking phrases without
expressing any well-defined thought. He was a
ready writer and wrote several mystical and caba-
listic works in quick succession. In the comprehen-
sive "Sefer ha-Rimmon," written in 1287 and still
extant in manuscript, he treated from a mystical
standpoint the objects and reasons for the ritual
laws, dedicating the book to Levi ben Todros Abu-
lafia. In 1290 he wrote " Ha-Nefesh ha-Hakamah,"
or " Ha-Mishkal " (Basel, 1608," and frequently found
in manuscript), which shows even greater cabalistic
tendencies. In this work he attacks the philoso-
phers of religion and deals with the human soul as
" a likeness of its heavenly prototype," with its state
after death, with its resurrection, and with the trans-
migration of souls. "Shekel ha-Kodesh" (written
in 1292), another book of the same kind, is dedicated
to Todros ha-Levi Abulafia. In the "Mishkanha-
■Edut," or "Sefer ha-Sodot," finished in 1293. he
treats of heaven and hell, after the apocryphal
Book of Enoch; also of atonement. He wrote as
well a cabalistic explanation of the first chapter of

Toward the end of the thirteenth century Moses
de Leon wrote or compiled a cabalistic midrash to
the Pentateuch full of strange mystic allegories, and
ascribed it to Simeon ben Yohai, the great saint
of the Tannaim. The work, written in peculiar
Aramaic, is entitled " Midrash de R. Shimeon ben
Yohai," better known as the Zoiiar. The book
aroused due suspicion at the outset. The story
runs that after the death of Moses de Leon a rich
man from Avila offered the widow, who had been
left without means, a large sum of money for the
original from which her husband had made the copy,
and that she then confessed that her husband him-
self was the author of the work. She had asked him
several times, she said, why he had put his teach-
ings into the mouth of another, but he had always
answered that doctrines put into the mouth of the
miracle-working Simeon ben Yohai would be a rich
source of profit. Others believed that Moses de
Leon wrote the book by the magic power of the
Holy Name. At any rate the contents of the book
have been accepted and approved by all cabalists,
and can by no means be regarded as mere inven-
tions and forgeries of Moses de Leon.

Bibuography: AMmanz Chronicle, ed. London, pp. 9-5 et
seq.: .lellinek, Moses /;. Srhem-Toh de Leon und Seine
Verhiiltnisx znm Sohnr. Leipsic, 1851 ; Gratz. Gesch. vii. 231
et seq.; Geifi;^^. Das Judcnt)ium und Seine Gcschicldc. iii.

75 it srq.. Breslau, 1871 ; De Rossi-Hamberjrer, Hi,s(. \y6i-terh.

p. 177 ; Stcinsclineider, Cat. Bodt. cols. 1852 et seq.; Idem,
Hchr. Bilil. X. 156 ct seq.

K. M. K.


journalist, author, and iilaywright; brother of Ed-
win de Leon; born at Columbia, S. C. 1839. He
served in the Confederate army from 1861 to 1865,
and after the Civil war edited "The Mobile Regis-
ter" (1877), and "The Gossip" and the "Gulf Citi-
zen" (both Mobile papers; 1873-96). He is the
author of a number of works, among them being
" Creole and Puritan" (1889), " The Puritan's Daugh-
ter," and "Four Years in Rebel Capitals" (1893).

Bibliography: Lamb, Biographical Diet, of the United
States, Boston, 19(X) ; Allibone, Diet, of Authors, Supple-
ment; Who's }V)to in America, 190!i-o.

K. c. L. Hij.

LEON DI LEONE. See Judah Leon di
LEONE EBBEO. See Judah Leone b. Isaac


rabbi; died in 1216. In the name of the commu-
nity of Rome he sent a halakic decision to Judah ben
Kalonymus of Speyer for approval ("Shibbole ha-
Leket," ii. 75; comp. Ruber's introduction, note
87). The Roman manuscript Mahzor contains eleven
sclihot which bear the signature of Leonte. One of
these, beginning with Tin^K inn D\nJN, for the sev-
enteenth day of Tammuz, is included in the Roman
printed Mahzor.

Bibliography: Azulai, Shem ha-Gedolim,x>.6»; Zunz, Li-
teraturuesch.v.'SU; Vogelstein and Uiegrer, Gescli. dcr Ju-
den in Rom, i. 372.

G. I. Br.

LEONTOPOLIS (Greek, Ae6i>Tuv TTo'/.ti = "lion
city"): Place in the nome of Heliopolis, Egypt,
situated 180 stadia from Memphis; famous as con-
taining a Jewish sanctuary, the only one outside of
Jerusalem where sacrifices were ottered. Aside from
a somewhat uncertain allusion of the Hellenist Ar-
tapanus (in Eusebius, "Pra?paratio Evangelica," ix.
23), only Josephus gives information of this temple
(more explicitlyin his" Antiquities" of the Jews than
in his "Jewish War"). The Talmudic accounts are
entirely confused. The establishment of a central
sanctuary in Egypt was not due to the disorders that
arose in Palestine under Antiochus IV., Epiphanes,
to the desecration of the sanctuary at Jerusalem, to
the supplanting of the legitimate family of priests
by the installation of Alcimus, nor to the personal
ambition of Onias IV.. but to the vast extent of
the Jewish diaspora in Egypt itself.

It would appear from the account of Josephus in
the "Jewish War" (i. 1, § 1), and more especially
from the fact that Onias is called in the same work
(vii. 10, § 2) "the son of Simon," that the temple of
Leontopolis was built by Onias III., who drove the
sous of Tobias from Jerusalem, and who fled to
Egypt, Syria's ancient rival, wli«n Antiochus IV.
attacked that city. But this account is contradicted
by the story that Onias III. was murdered at Anti-
och in 171 B.C. (II Mace. iv. 33). Josephus' account
in the "Antiquities" is therefore more probable,
namely, that the builder of tlie temple was a son of




tlic murdered Onias HI., and that, a mere youth

at the time of his father's death, he liad tied to the

court of Alexandria in consequence

Founded of tlie Syrian persecutions, jjcrhaps
by because he thought that salvation

Onias IV. would come to Jiis people from Egypt
(•'Ant." xii. 5, § 1 ; ih. 9, i^ 7). Ptolemy
VI. Philometor was King of Egypt at that time. He
probably had not yet given up his claims to Ca^le-
Syria and Judea, and gladly gave refuge to such a
prominent personage of tiie neigliboring country.
Onias now requested tlie king and his sister and wife,
Cleopatra, to allow him to build a sanctuary in
Egypt similar to the one at Jerusalem, where he
would employ Levites and priests of his own race
(ib. xiii. 3. § 1) ; and he referred to the prediction of
the prophet Isaiah (Isa. xix. 19) that a Jewish tem-
ple would be erected in Egypt (''Ant." ?.c.). Jo-
sephus then quotes two documents: Onias' letter to
the royal couple, and the king's answer to Onias.
Both of these, however, appear spurious, on the fol-
lowing grounds : Onias refers in liis letter to his mili-
tary exploits in Cnole-Syria and Phenicia, although
it is not certain that the general Onias and the priest
Onias are identical. His assertion that a central
sanctuary is necessary because a multiplicity of
temples causes dissension among the Jews evidences
imperfect knowledge of the Jewish religious life;
and, finally, his request for the ruined temple of the
goddess Bubastis, because a sufficient supply of
wood and sacrificial animals would be found there,
seems unwise and improbable for a suppliant who
must first obtain compliance with his principal re-
quest. It seems strange, furthermore,
Spurious- that in the second letter the pagan

ness of king points out to the Jewish priest
the Onias that the proposed building of a temple

Letters, is contiary to the law, and that he
consents only in view of Isaiah's
prophecy. Both letters were apparently written by
a Hellenistic Jew. Only this can be stated as a fact,
that the temple of Leontopolis was built on the site
of a ruined temple of Bubastis. in imitation of the
temple at Jerusalem, though smaller and less elabo-
rate (ih. xiii. 3, § 3). The statement in " B. J." vii.
10, § 2 of Onias' argument that by the building of
this temple the whole Jewish nation would be
brought to turn from the Syrians to the Ptolemies
seems very plausible, and may have given rise to the
assertion made in the letters that there were dissen-
sions among the Jews. The "fortress" {oxrptjfia)
of the temple of Bubastis may be explained by the
statement, which seems credible, that Onias built a
fortress {(ppoipmv) around the temple in order to pro-
tect the surrounding territory, wjdeh now received
the designation "Oneion " (" B. J." vii. 10, § 3).

The Onias temple was not exactly similar to the
Temple at Jerusalem, being more in the form of a
high tower; and as regards the interior arrange-
ment, it had not a candelabrum, but a lianging
lamp. The building had a court (rtfirvor) which
was surrounded by a brick wall with stone gates.
The king endowed the temple with large revenues
(/^.)— a fact that may have suggested to the writer
of the letters mentioned above the wealth of wood
and sacrificial animals.

The reputation whicli tlie temple of Onias enjoyed
is indicated by the fact that the Septuagint changes
the phrase "city of destruction" (Isa.
Sacrifices xix. '18) to "city of rigiiteousness "
Made (ttoaic afferSt/c). It may be taken for
There. granted that the Egyptian Jews sacri-
ficed frequently in the temple of Leon-
topolis, although at the same time they fulfilled their
duly toward the Temple at Jerusalem, as Philo nar-
rates that he himself did ("De Provideutia," in
Eusebius, I.e. viii. §g 14, 64).

In the Talmud the origin of the temple of Onias is
narrated with legendary additions, there being two
versions of the account (Men. 109b). It must be
noted that here also Onias is mentioned as the son
of Simon, and that Isaiah's prophecy is referred to.
In regard to the Law the temple of Onias (VJIil n'3,
handed down in the name of Saadia Gaon as "Jiri)
was looked upon as neither legitimate nor illegiti-
mate, but as standing midway between the worship
of Yiiwiiand idolatry (Men. 109a; Tosef., Men. xiii.
13-14); the possibility of the priests of Onias being
admitted to officiate at Jerusalem was explicitly
stated, while one passage even expresses the view
that sacrificial worship was permissible in the tem-
ple of Oniag (Meg. 10a). The opinion was prevalent
among the Rabbis that the temple of Onias was
situated at Alexandria — an error that is repeated by
all the chroniclers of the Middle Ages. This temple
is also sometimes confounded with the Samaritan
temple on Mount Gerizim (" Yuhasin," ed. London,
pp. lib, 13b; Azariah dei Rossi, "Me'or 'Enayim,"
ed. ^lantua, xxi. 89a; Gans, "Zemah Dawid," ed.
Offenbach, ii. 10; Ileilprin, "Seder ha-Dorot," ed.
Warsaw, 1891, i. 116).

According to Josephus, the temple of Leontopolis
existed for 343 years, though the general opinion is
that this number must be changed to 243. It was
closed either by the governor of Egypt, Lupus, or
by his successor, Paulinus, about three years after
the destruction of the Temple at Jerusalem; and the
sacrificial gifts, or rather the interior furnishings,
were confiscated for the treasury of Vespasian ("B.
J." vii. 10, § 4), the emperor fearing that through
this temple Egypt might become a new center for
Jewish rebellion. No ruins have so far been discov-
ered of this temple, once so famous; perliaps the
present Tell al-Yaluidi marks its site (Ebers, "Durch
Gosen zum Sinai," pp. 497 etseq.).

BinuoGRAPHY: Grfttz, Gcsch. 4th ed., iii. 27 et .sc^.; Weiss,
Dm; i. 130: Willrioh, Judm vnd Grirclitn. pp. 14(^l.jO;
Sohiirer, Gexch. 'M ed.. iil. 97; Biirhler, Tnlnaden iiiul Oni-
adni. pp. 239-27t>, Vienna, 1S99 (this author's opinion, that
originally a Samaritan temple was referred to, is not tenable).

G. S. Kr.

LEOPARD (Heb. "namer"): A ferocious car-
nivorous mamiuiil. Several allusions are found in
the Old Testament to this animal and its character-
istics; e.g., its fierceness, Isa. xi. 6; its agility and
swiftness, Hab. i. 8; its cunning, .ler. v. 6 and Hos.
xiii. 7; its imchangeable spots as a type of immuta-
bility, Jer. xiii. 23; as an emblem of one of the
" great monarchies," Dan. vii. 6. The leopard (Feli'.i
p(irdiix) is still met with in the forest of Gilead,
roimd the Dead Sea, and in the mountains; the che-
tah [Guepardajubatn) is of less frequent occurrence




iu Pak'Stiuc. Tlie former frequency of the leopard
tlieie may perhaps be inferred from the place-names
•■ Bcth-nimruh " (Xum. xxxii. 3, 36) and "Nimrim"
(Jer. xlviii. 34), tlie hxtter perhaps identical witli
tlie modern Nimerah (comp. also the "mountains
of Ifoiiards," Cant. iv. 8).

In tlie Talmud thenamer is classed with the wolf,
lion, etc., for dangerousness and ferocity (Sanh. 2a
and parallels). Following the ancient conception
of the leopard as a hybrid between a panther or
pard and the lioness (hence the name " leo-pardus "),
some of the rabbis believed it to be the issue of the
boar and lioness (comp. Bartenora to the admoni-
tion of Ab. V. 5: "Be firm like a leopard to do the
will of thy Father in heaven"). The namer is a
tyiK' of immodesty (Kid. TOa). Its term of gestation
is said to be three years (Bek. 8a).

Bibliography: Tristram, Nat. HiM. p. Ill; Lewysohn, Z. T.
p. 71 ; comp. also W. R. Smith, Kithship and Marriage in
Early Arabia, p. 204.

E. G. II. I. M. C.

LEPROSY (nyiV): Chronic skin-disease charac-
terized by ulcerous eruptions and successive desqua-
mations of dead skin. — Biblical Data: According
to the Levitical text, the characteristic features of
leprosy were: (1) bright whfte spots or patches on
the skin the hair on which also was white ; (2) the
depression of the patches below the level of the sur-
rounding skin; (8) the existence of "quick raw
flesh " ; (4) the spreading of the scab or scall.

There are two forms of modern leprosy — the tu-
bercular, or nodular, and the anesthetic, or nervous;
generally both forms are present. The
Comparison nodular form begins, as a rule, as
with round or irregularly shaped spots,

Modern commonly of a mahogany or sepia

Leprosy, color. These often disappear, and
are followed by the appearance of
nodules. In an advanced stage the face is covered
with firm, livid, nodular elevations: the nose, lips,
and ears are swollen beyond their natural size, the
eyelashes and eyebrows are lost, and the eyes are
staring ; the vs^hole producing a hideous disfigure-
ment. As the disease progresses, insensibility of
the skin and paralysis ensue, and the fingers and
toes may rot away.

In the Biblical description, one is immediately im-
pressed by the absence of all allusion to the hideous
facial deformity, the loss of feeling, and the rotting
of the members. If such conspicuous manifestations
had existed they coidd not possibly have escaped
observation. The Levitical code prescribed that the
several examinations of the person suspected should
be made at intervals of seven days, thus enabling
the priest to note the progress of the disease. Lep-
rosy is an exceedingly slow disease, particularly in
the beginning, and a fortnight would show abso-
lutely no change in the vast majority of cases.
Moreover, the " lepra Hebraeorum " was a curable dis-
ease. When the leper was cured the priest made an
atonement before the Lord, and expiatory sacrifices
in the form of a sin-offering and a trespass-offering
were made also. Modern leprosy is, except in iso-
lated instances, incurable.

The probabilities are that " zara'at " comprised a
number of diseases of the skin, which, owing to the

undeveloped state of medical science at that period,

were not distinguished. The white spots, upon

wliicli so much diagnostic stress was

Nature of laid, were in all likelihood those of
"Zara'at." vitiligo, a disease quite common in
tropical countries, and characterized
by bright white spots, the hairs on which also become
wiiite. Vitiligo begins as small patches, which
slowly spread, often involving ultimately large areas
of tlie body's surface. The disease is harmless, but
most disfiguring in those of SAvarthy complexion.

In the Septuagint "zara'at" is translated by
"lepra." It is reasonable to assume that the He-
brews attached the same meaning to " zara'at " that
the Greeks did to "lepra," which is derived from
"lepros" (= "rough" or "scaly"). According to
the medical writings of ^gineta, ^•Etius, Actu-
arius, Oribasus, and others, lepra was uniformly
regarded as a circular, superficial, scaly eruption
of the skin ; in other words, their lepra was the
psoriasis of modern times. There is absolutely noth-
ing in the Greek description of lepra that suggests
even in a remote manner the modern leprosy. The
Greeks, in speaking of true leprosy, did not u-se the
term "lepra," but "elephantiasis." It is evident,
therefore, that they meant by " lepra " an affection
distinct and apart from the disease of leprosy as now
known. The confusion and obscurity that have en-
veloped this subject for centuries have resulted from
the use of different termsin successive ages to desig-
nate the same disease, and from the total change in
the meaning and application of the word "lepra."

There is much reason to believe that the segrega-
tion of lepers was regarded, at any rate at certain
periods, more in the light of a religious ceremonial
than as a hygienic restriction. Za-

Segrega- ra'at was looked upon as a disease in-
tion. flicted by God upon those who trans-
gressed His laws, a divine visitation
for evil thoughts and evil deeds. Every leper men-
tioned in the Old Testament was aflriicted because of
some transgression. "Miriam uttered disrespectful
words against God's chosen servant Moses, and,
therefore, was she smitten with leprosy. Joab, with
his family and descendants, was cursed by David
for having treacherously murdered his great rival
Abner. Gehazi provoked the anger of Elisha by his
mean covetousness, calculated to bring the name of
Israel into disrepute among the heathen. King . . .
Uzziah was smitten with incurable leprosy for his
alleged usurpation of priestly privileges in burning
incense on the golden altar of the Temple " (Kalisch).
It would have been quite natural for the people by
a posteriori reasoning to have regarded persons af-
flicted with zara'at as transgressors; they had vio-
lated the laws of God and their transgressions had
been great, else they would not have been so afflicted.

Writers who hold the view that the exclusion of
lepers had chiefly a religious significance conclude
from these facts that lepers were obliged to remain
outside the camp because they were regarded as
likely to morally infect others. As long as the
signs of the disease remained upon them they were
obliged to live outside the camp. It is reasonable
to believe that, although Biblical and modern lep-
rosy are, in all probability, not the same disease, the


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