Isidore Singer.

The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) online

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philosophy to Jewish soil that the Aristotelian
"Organon,"as propounded by the Arabs, became
the vade-mecum of every Jewish student, and was
regarded as indispensable to the acquisition of meta-
physical and psychological knowledge. The He-
brew terms adopted for " logic " were "i3Tn n03n,
which is the literal translation of the Arabic " "ilm
al-kalam," and \\''^T\'r[ nODn, coiTesponding to the
Arabic "'ilm al-mantik," each signifying both "the
science of speech" and "the science of thinking."
The term "hokmat higgayon" was, according to
Shera-Tob ("Sefer ha-Emunot," p. 45), first so em-
ployed by the Tibbonides. It is found also in the
Talmud, but in the sense of "recitation." Eliezer
said to his pupils, " Restrain your children from jvjn "
(Ber. 28b), intending thereby to warn them against
parading a superficial knowledge of the Bible gained
by verbal memorization. The anti-Maimonists,
however, interpreted the word " higgayon " in the
sense of "logic," and saw in Eliezer's saying a warn-
ing against the study of that science.

The first work on logic written by a Jew was the
" Makalah fi Sana'at ai-Mantik " of Maimonides
(12th cent.), translated into Hebrew by Moses ibn
Tibbon under the title "Millot ha-Higgayon." It is
divided into fourteen chapters containing explana-
tions of 175 logical terms. The He-
First Jew- brew terminology used by the transla-
ish. "Work tor has been adopted by all subsequent
on Log-ic. writers on Hebrew philosophical lit-
erature. The eight books of the " Or-
ganon," without counting Porphyry's introduction,
are enumerated. The " jMillot ha-Higgayon" was first
published with two anonymous commentaries at
Venice in 1552, and has since passed through fourteen
editions. Commentaries upon it were written by Mor-
decaiComtino (15th cent.) and by Moses Mendelssohn.
A Latin translation was published by Sebastian
Mlinster (Basel, 1527); and German ones were made
by M. S. Neumann (Venice, 1822) and Heilberg
(Breslau, 1828).

During the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries
Jewish literature was enriched with several wri-
tings on logic. The works of Al-Farabi and of
Averroes were translated and commented upon ; and
the translations have survived the origijjals. Of
Al-Farabi's essays on logic the following~^re still
extant in Hebrew manuscripts in variovis European
libraries: tlic introduction (Arabic, "Tautiyah";
Hebr. nyVH), in tliree versions; the " Isagoge of Por-
phyry " ; " Hermeneutics " ; "Posterior Analytics,"




the translation of wliicli is attributed to Moses ibu
Tibbou ; "Topics," in two versions; and "Syllo-
gisms," au abridgment of which was

Transla- made by Jacob ben Abba Mari Anatoli

tions of under the title "Sefer Hekesh Ka/er."
Al-Farabi. A conmientary on Al-Farabi's tive
chapters on logic Avas written in the
lifteenth century by the Karaite Abraham Bali. Of
Avei'roes' Short Commentary there are two Hebrew
versions: one made by Jacob ben ]Machir of Mont-
pellier in 1189 and published under the title " Kol
Meleket Higgayon" at Riva di Trenta in 1559, and
the other made by Samuel Marsili ben Judah of Taras-
con in 1329. A Latin translation of Jacob ben Ma-
chir's versiou was made by Abraham de Balmes.
A commentary on tlie Short Commentary was writ-
ten by Moses Narboni (1340-55). Of Averroes' Mid-
dle Commentaries thoseon Porpliyry's introduction,
"Categories," "Interpretation," "Syllogisms," and
"Demonstration" were translated by Jacob ben Ab-
ba Mari Anatoli ; on " Topics " and " Sophistical Ref-
utations," by Kalonymus ben Kalonymus of Aries
in 1313; on "Rhetoric" and "Poetics" by Todros
Todrosi of Trinquetaille in 1337. Anatoli 's transla-
tion of the first five books was used by Joseph Caspi,
who wrote an abridgment of the books on logic under
the title " Zeror ha-Kesef." A translation from the
Greek of Aristotle's logic was made in the fourteenth
century by Shemariah ben Elijah Ikriti of Negropont.
At the end of the same century Joseph ben Moses
Kilti treated, in his work "Minhat Yehu.dah," of
Aristotle's logic in the fashion of the aphorisms of
Hippocrates. Shortly after appeared a work on
Aristotle's logic written b}'^ Elijah l)en Eliezer of
Candia. Another original work of the same period
was the " Kelale Higgayon " of David ibn Bilia.

Averroes' Middle Commentaries were much com-
mented upon during the fourteenth and fifteenth
centuries. The oldest supercommentary known is
that found in the Vatican Library (MS. No. 337).
It dates from 1316 and deals with Porphyry's " Isa-
goge," "Categories," and "Hermeneutics." The
other known supercommentaries of the fourteenth
centur}- an; those of: Jedaiah Bedersi, mentioned
by Moses Habib; Levi ben Gershon, a Latin trans-
lation of which is still extant in manuscript in the
Vatican Library (see "Atti dell' Academia dei
Nuovi Lincei," Rome, 1863); Judah ben Samuel
Abbas; and Abraham Abigdor ben Meshullam
(Bonet). A rimed resume of Porphyry's introduc-
tion and the "Categories" was given by Moses Rieti
in his "Mikdash Me'at."

To the writings on logic of the fifteenth century
belong: the supercommentary on Averroes' Middle
Commentaries, and the abridgment of
Commen- Logic, entitled "Miklol Yofi," by Mes-
taries on ser Leon (Judah ben Jehiel); the
Logic. abridgment of the " Categories," " Syl-
logisms," and "Demonstration" by
Abraham Faris.sol ; the commentary on the " Isa-
goge " by Joseph ben Shem-Tob; the commentaries
on the "I.sagoge," "Categories," and " Interpreta
tion " l)y Elijah Habillo; the annotations on Aver-
roes' Middle Commentary on the "Categories" and
"Interpretation" by Manoah Sho'ali; and several
anonymous commentaries on various books on logic.

A supercommentary on the "Posterior Analytics"
was written by Abraham Bibago. Of Averroes' ques-
tions on the"Organon," contained in the "Masa'il fi
al-Hikmah," one portion was translated by Kalonj -
mus ben Kalonymus, and the whole by Samuel ben
Meshullam in 1320 under the title " Ha-She'elot ha-
Dibriyyot weha-Derushim Asher le-Pilusufim." A
commentary on two portions was written by Levi
ben Gershon. From Samuel's translation proceeded
the Latin versiou made by Abraham de Balmes,
which was first published in 1550. Another Latin
translation of six portions was made by Elijah Del-
medigo. Samuel ben Judah translated into Hebrew
other questions on logic proceeding from the Arabic
wiiters Abu al-Kasim ben Idris, Abu al-Hajjaj ibn
Talmus, Abu al-' Abbas Ahmad ben Kasim, and 'Abd
al-Rahman ben Tahir. These questions also were
rendered into Latin by Abraham de Balmes. An
original writer on logic of the fifteenth century was
Mordecai Comtino.

Like the other branches of philosophy, tlie study
of logic has since the sixteenth century been neg-
lected by the Jews, and no important work on this
science has been published in Hebrew. Among the
Jewish logicians of modern times the most notable
was Solomon Maimon, who wrote "Versuch Einer
Neuen Logik" (Berlin, 1794), in which he attempted
to expound an algebraic or symbolic system of logic.

Bibliography : Munk, Melanges, p. 108 et peussim ; Renan,
Averrot's et VAverrmsme, pp. 184 et seq.i Steinschneider,
Hebr. Ucbers. pp. 43etse(j'.; idem, Al-Farabi, Index.

J. I. Br.

L0G03, THE. See Memra ; Philo ; Wisdom.

LOLLI, DAVID : Italian physician ; born at
Goritz 18;i5; died at Triest 1884; son of Samuel
Vita Lolli; studied medicine at Padua and Vienna.
On the outbreak of the Italian war for liberation he
abandoned his studies, hastened to Padua to join
the volunteers, took part in the unsuccessful at-
tempt to hold Vicenza, and then joined the garrison
guarding Venice. When the cholera broke out in
the besieged city, Lolli also was stricken. On his
recovery he returned to his native city, but subse-
quently established himself as a physician at Triest.
He continued to agitate for the independence of
Italy (in which he included Goritz and Triest), and
often incurred great danger in consequence.

Lolli wrote much, especially on psychology and
magnetism. Most of his works remained in manu-
scripts; but the following were published: "Sul
Magnetismo Animale, Pubblicato Nell' Occasione di
Conseguire laLaurea," Padua, 1850 ; " Sulla Migliare,
Due Parole di Occasione," Triest, 1857; "Sii Forte e
Sarai Libcro (Seneca): Sii Liberoe Sarai Forte," Mi-
lan, 1860, ])ublished anonymously for political rea-
sons; "I Numi," Milan, 1866, a symbolical story,
jniblished under the pseudonym" Aldo Apocali.ssio " ;
"Sul Cholera," Triest, 1866; and "L'Amore dal
Lato Fisiologico, Filosofico, e Sociale," Milan, 1883.

s. E. L.

LOLLI, EUDE: Italian rai)bi: l)orn at Giiritz
Aug. 23, 1826; educated at the lyceum of his
native town and at the rabbinical college of Padua,
graduating thence in 1854. In 1865 he was ap-
pointed professor at the .same college, which posi-





tion lie held until tlie iustltution was dftiuitely
closed in 1871. In 1809 lie was elected cliief rabbi
of Padua, and in 1877 he became lecturer in, and in
1886 professor of, Hebrew and Chaldaic at the Uni-
versity of Padua.

LoUi is the autlior of: " Diziouario del Linguag-
gio Ebraico-Iiabbinico," Padua, 1869; "Prele/.ione
ad un Corso di Lingua Ebraica e Caldaica," 1877;
"Corso di Gramniatiea della Lingua Ebraica," ib.
1878. He also contributed a large portion to S. 1).
Luzzatto's " La Sacra 13ibbia Volgarizzala," Rovigo,
BiBi.iooRAPHY : De Gubernatis, Diz. ]ii<><j.

s. F. T. II.

LOM (LOM-PALANK) : Town in Bulgaria,
situated at the mouth of the River Lorn. It has a
population of about 8,000, of which approximately
700 are Jews, chiefly artisans and traders in grain.
On March 20, 1904, a riot broke out against the Jews
in connection with the disappearance of a young Bul-
garian, whom the Jews were accused of murdering
for ritual purposes. Tlirough the timely measures
taken by the government, a massacre was averted,
and the riot subsided after a number of stores
and dwelling-houses and the synagogue had been
sacked. The young Bulgarian was afterward found

BiBLior.RAPHY : EntziliUtpedicheski Slovar, xvii. 945, St.
Petersburg, 189.5; Dudufhchnoat, 1904, Nos. 13-14.

D. A. S. W.

LOMAZY : Town in the district of Bialy, near
Brest-Litovsk, Russia. Though in 1566 there was
no Jew among its 400 house-owners, its customs
revenues were farmed out to Jews. In 1589 the
customs and mills were leased to the Jews Leibka,
Wolfovich, and Itzka. According to Samuel ben
Phoebus ("Tit ha-Yawen ") 200 Jews were killed
in Lomazy during the Cossack uprising (1648-49).
In 1897 the Jews of Lomazy numbered 1,100 in a
total population of 3,200.

Bibliography: Ru!<skn-Yevreiski Arhhiv, ii.. No. 2;32 ; Uegcs-
ty, i., Nos. 669, 671; Samuel ben Phoebus, Tit ha-Yawen.
H. K. G. D. R.

LOMBROSO (LUMBROSO) : Sephardic fam-
ily, members of which lived in Tunis, Marseilles,
and Italy. The two forms of the family name are
doubtless due to different readings of the Hebrew

Abram Lumbroso, Baron : Tunisian physi-
cian and scientist; born in Tunis 1813; died in
Florence 1887. After completing his classical stud-
ies in Florence and receiving his M.D. degree at
Pisa, he became physician-in-chief to the Bey of
Tunis and afterward director of the state sanitary
service. In 1846 he accompanied the bey to Paris,
receiving from King Louis Philippe the Order of
the Legion of Honor.

In Tunis Lumbroso founded a scientific society,
of which he was president ; and he was one of the
most ardent assistants of tlie bey, Avho was interested
in the promotion of culture. Lumbroso distin-
guished himself not only by his skill as a physician,
but also by his philanthropic acts. As a reward for
his valuable services during the cholera epidemic,
rendered to foreigners and to natives without regard

to sect or treed, King Victor Emanuel II. of Italy
bestowed u\)i>n him the title of baron, with remain-
der to liis ekk'St son. He was decorated also by the
Sultan of Turkey with the Order of the Medjidie.

Of Liinil)M)si)"s i^ulilished works may be cited:
"Sehiz/.o Slorico Scicntitico sul Colera Asiatico che
Invase la Reggenza di Tiinisi ncl 1849 e 1850," Mar-
seilles, Is.'iO; " Lettere Medico-Statistiche suUa Reg-
genza di Tunisi," ib. 1850.

Bibliography: T)e Gubernatis, Picco/o Diziouario dci Om-
tcinixtranci^ Rome. 1895; lirsovonto ttulle Opere del Ba-
rojte Dr. Almnn Lutnl>rnxi) Lctta aW Accademia lieale di
McdieiiKi (H 'J'ariiui iid Atnii) IStJO.

David. Lumbroso: Tunisian political agent;
born in Tunis 1817; died in Leghorn 1880. He was
a highly respected merchant in the Italian colony of
the former city, and was much trusted by the Tu-
nisian government, to which he was of service on
many critical occasions.

Giacomo Lumbroso : Brother of Abram Lum-
broso; head of a prominent business house at Mar-
seilles, where he was consul for Tunis till the latter
came under the protectorate of France.

Giacomo Lumbroso, Baron : Son of Abram
Lumbroso. He studied law in Tunis, graduating
with honors, but devoted himself principally to his-
torical and archeologic researches, upon which he
has written many important works. He was pro-
fessor of ancient hi.story, first in the University of
Pisa and afterward in that of Rome. He resigned
the latt(;r position and retired to private life.
Baron Giacomo is a member of the Accademia dei

Bibliography : De Gubernatis, Piccolo Diziouario dei Con-
temporanei, Rome, 1895.

Giacomo Lumbroso : Italian physician ; born
in Leghorn 1859. He was privat-docent in neuropa-
thology and electrotherapeutics at the Institute of
Florence, and physician-in-chief at the united royal
hospitals of Leghorn.

Bibliography: De Gubernatis, Piccolo Dizionario dei Con-
temprjranci, Rome, 1895.
s. E. L.

Isaac Lumbroso : Chief rabbi of Tunis and rab-
binical author; died in 1752. He was prominent in
the Tunisian Jewry, being judge of the community
about 1710 — an epoch coinciding with the schism
which divided the Jews of the city into two camps,
native Tunisians and Gournis or Italians. Lumbro-
so was appointed rabbinical judge of tlie latter;
and, being a man of means, he filled at the same
time tlie position of receiver of taxes to the bey as
well as that of caid, being the representative official
of his community.

From a literary point of view, Lumbroso, who
was one of the most brilliant pupils of Rabbi Zemah
Zarfati, was tlie most important among the Tunisian
rabbis of the eighteenth century. He encouraged
and generously assisted his fellow rabbis; and his
reputation as a Talmudist and cabalist has survived
to the present day.

Lumbroso was the author of " Zera' Yizhak," pub-
lished posthumously at Tunis in 1768. This work,
the only one which has as yet been printed in that
city, is a commentary on the different sections of
the Talmud. Several funeral orations, pronounced




by Lumbroso on divers occasions, are appended

Bibliography : Caz^s, Notes Btblioaraphiques, pp. 240-246.
s. s. M. Fr.

Isaac Vita Lumbroso : Father of Abram Lum-
broso; born in Tunis 1798; died in Leghorn 1871.
He was well known because of his pliilanthropy.
For thirty years he was president of the Portuguese
consistory in Tunis, and for four years judge of tlie
Court of Appeals.

8. E. L.

Jacob Lombroso : Italian rabbi and physician.
of Spanish origin ; lived at the beginning of the sev-
enteenth century in Venice, where he published a
notable Bible having an exhaustive introduction
and explanations together Avith Spanish translations
of the more difficult passages. By some he is con-
sidered to be the author of the "Propugnaculum
Judaismi," written in defense of Judaism against tlie
attacks in the fifth book of Grotius' "De Veritate
Religionis Christianoe." Mortara, however ("In-
dice," 1). 35), observes that Lombroso himself as-
cribes this work to Isaac Orobio.
Bibliography : De Rossi, Dizionario.

I). E. L.

LOMBROSO, CESARE : Italian alienist and
criminologist; born Nov. 18, 1835, at Verona. Both
his paternal and his maternal ancestors belonged to
the tribe of Levi. On his father's side he was de-
scended from a fandly
which for many gener-
ations had been ricli
in rabbis and Hebra-
ists. His maternal an-
cestors were chiefly
manufacturers and
hjinkers who had long
been established at
Chieri, Piedmont. But
in this branch of his
family, also, there were
many men of great
talent, among others
the poet David Levi,
who took an important
part in the Italian
struggle for liberty,
firstasaCarbonaro, and
afterward as a deputy.
Under Professor Marzolo, Lombroso studied He-
brew, Aramaic, Arabic, and Ciiinese, intending to
devote liimself wholly to philology. He afterward
studied medicine at Padua, Paris, and Vienna, and
from the verj' beginning sliowed an especial prefer-
ence for the study of insanity. While still a stu-
dent he wrote two essays — one on insanity in antiq-
uity, and one on the insanity of Cardan — in which,
for the first time, was i)ointed out the connection
between madness and genius.

Lombroso served as jihysician in tlie Austro-Ital-
ian war (1859). The scientific results of his military
service were two papers on amputation (which were
awarded the Riberi prize, the only official academic
reward he has ever received), and a work on Cala-
brian folk-lore, which subject he liad an opportunity

C't'sare Lombroso

of studying after the conclusion of jieace, when he

and his regiment were transferred to Calabria. As

this regiment was composed of soldiers from all parts

of Italy, Lombroso took advantage of

Studies in the opportunity thus afforded him to

Ethnology, study the ethnical types of the Italian

people, and to lay the foundation for

an ethnographical-anthropological chart of Italy.

Some time later he was sent from Calabria to Pavia,

where he asked permission to visit the insane asylum

regularly, in order to acquire greater knowledge in

his specialty. This permission being refused, he

abandoned the military career.

His experience during the following j'ear was a
very trying one. He taught at the University of
Pavia, and served as a physician in tiie insane asy-
lum; but in both cases he gave his services gratui-
tously ; and at night, in order to earn a bare subsist-
ence, he had to make translations from the German.
It was under such circumstances that he produced,
among other works, his Italian edition of Mole-
schott's well-known work, "Kreislauf des Lebens,"
under the title "II Circuito della Materia." At
length, after a year of extreme want, he was made
professor of psychiatry at Pavia, with a yearly sal-
ary of 2,000 francs ($400), at that time a very con-
siderable sum to him. His first two pamphlets,
which he Avrote during two sleepless nights, deal
with genius and madness, and contain in embryo
all the ideas afterward developed in his great work,
"L'Uomodi Genio"(.see below). During the first
year of his professorship he wrote " L'Uomo Bianco
e rUomo di Colore," a work treating of the develop-
ment of the human race, which development is con-
ceived entirely from the point of view of the theory
of evolution, and is filled with Darwinian ideas,
although at that time Lombroso knew neither Dar-
win nor Herbert Spencer.

In Pavia, also, Lombroso began his studies of pel-
lagra, a peculiar skin-disease prevalent in northern
Italy and the origin of which was totally xmknown.
He showed conclusively that it was due to a poison
developed in old, moldy corn, the only food of the
poor agricultural laborers of the country. On
account of his discovery of the real cause of this
malady he was denounced by the landed proprie-
tary to the government as a madman; and it was
demanded that he should be deprived of his pro- M
fessorship. Years later, however, his theory of pel- '
lagra was accepted by the whole profession. On
the skull of a criminal executed at Pavia, he noticed
the fossa occipitalis media, an atavic feature which
he was the first to observe.

Lombroso was transferred from Pavia University
to that of Turin, where he is now (1904) professor of
psychiatry and medical jurisprudence. He has made
a collection of criminals' skulls and photographs, of
writings and works of art by lunatics and condemned
criminals, as well as of prison appliances, which is
one of the most extensive and instructive of its kind.
He' has many disciples, who are called collect-
ively in Italy "La Scuola Lombro.siana." Many of
these (e.g., Enrico Fcrri, Baron Garofalo Honcoroni,
Patrizi, Ferrero, Zerboglio, and (*arrara) have as a
result of their investigations attained to national and
even world-wide renown.




Lombroso's name is chiefly connected with two
theories: (1) that genius is a peculiar, psj'cliical
form of larvate epilepsy ; (3) that there is a degen-
erate class of human beings, distinguished by ana-
tomical and psychical characteristics, who are born
with criminal instincts and who rep-
Theories resent a reversion to a very primitive
of Genius form of humanity. He has made a
and Crime, rich collection of materials for the in-
vestigation of his theory that genius
is a form of epilepsy. Both he and his pupils have
carefully studied the best-known geniuses of all na-
tions, ages, and spheres of activity; they have
brought together everything pertaining to their life,
works, appearance, hereditary characteristics, ill-
nesses, idiosyncrasies, habits, etc., and have noted
all traits that could make it seem probable that the
subjects had suffered from epileptic disturbances.

In his theory of the born criminal, Lombroso recog-
nizes crime as a phenomenon of degeneration, and
places the criminal among those abnormal types of
the human species which, according as their de-
velopment is either defective or excessive, present
examples of atavism or of evolution — i.e., become on
the one hand idiots or criminals; on the other,
saints, martyrs, altruists, revolutionists, artists, or
poets. The effect of this theory was felt chiefly in
the field of criminal jurisdiction. It gave rise to
a distinct science — criminal anthropologj^ ; and it
effected a revolution in the mode of viewing both
the criminal and the crime which has found expres-
sion in the newer penal codes.

Of Lombroso's works may be mentioned :
"L'Uomo Delinquente in Rapporto alia Antropolo-
gia, alia Giurisprudenza ed alle Discipline Carce-
rarie" (3 vols., 4th ed. Turin, 1889; German transl.
"by Frankel, " Der Verbrccher in Anthropologischer,
Aerztlicher und Juristischer Beziehung," 2 vols.,
Hamburg,1887-90; Atlas, 1895); "L'Uomo diGenio "
{ib. 1889; 6th ed. 1894; German transl. by Frankel,
"Der Geniale Mensch," Hamburg, 1890; translated
into French, Spanish, Portuguese, Russian, etc.);
(with Guglielmo Ferrero, afterward Lombroso's son-
in-law) "La Donna Delinquente" {ib. 1893; German
transl. "Das Weib als Verbrecherin und Prosti-
tuirte," Hamburg, 1894); (with Laschi) "II Delitto
Politico" (2 vols., ib. 1890); " Le Crime, Causes et
Rem^des " ; " L' Antisemitismo e le Scieuze Moderne "
{ib. 1894; German ed., Leipsic, 1894); "Grafologia"
(Milan, 1894); " Gli Anarchisti " {ib. 1894; German
transl., Hamburg, 1895).

Lombroso is associate editor of the "Archivio
di Psichiatria, Antropologia Criminale e Scienze

Bibliography: Gubematis. Bcru'ain.s cfit Jour; La Orande
Kncuclopedie; Meyers KntwersationK-Lexikon; Kurella,
Cemre Lombroso und die NaturgescMchte des Verbrcch-
i ensi, Hamburg, 1892.

j s. M. N.

i LOMZA (LOMZHA) : Capital of the govern-

; ment of Lomza, Russian Poland ; situated on the

left bank of the River Narev. In 1897 it had a total

I population of 36,075, including 9,833 Jews. The

: earliest known references to an organized Jewish

communit}'' in Lomza date from the beginning of the

nineteenth century. The first rabbi recorded is

Solomon Zalman Hasid, a cabalist, who corresponded
with Akiba Eger. He was rabbi of the Lomza com-
munity for thirty years, and died there about 1840.
He was succeeded by R. Benjamin Diskin(who offi-
ciated until 1848) and the latter, bv his son Joshua
Lob Diskin (b. Grodno 1818; d. Jerusalem 1898).
Abraham Samuel Diskin, another son of Benjamin
Diskin, was born at Lomza in 1837, and became rabbi
of Volkovisk (government of Grodno), where he died
in 1887. He was the author of "Leb Binyamin."
Joshua LOb Diskin was succeeded by It. Elijah

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