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Isidore Singer.

The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) online

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1782-1860. .

1831-1903. .
b. 1853...

b. 1870....
b. 1853...
179.T-1880..
1804-68....

b. 1836....

1848-84....
fl. 1830 . . . .

1692-1762. .

1818-97....

d. 1792....
b. ia50....
b. Nov. 5.

1824.
1828-92. . . .
b. Dec. 2,

1834.
b. Dec. 8,

1849.
1738-1816..
d. 1818....
1818-97....

b. Sept. 3,

ia5.5.
b. 1848....

1808-70....

1793-1873..
b. 1874....
1825-52....

ia39-(;6. . . .
1824-62...,
1796-1881 . .



Queen's counsel.

Preacher and author.

Hebrew poet.

Merchant and numis-
matist.

Economist and i>oliti-
cian.

Hebrew author.

Political and social
leader.

Financier and commu-
nal worker.

Philanthropist.

Philanthropist ; mem-
ber of Parliament.
Communal worker.

Communal worker

Philanthropist.

Communal worker.

Communal worker.

Financier and politi-
cian.

Communal worker;
Member of Parlia-
ment.

Financier and sports-
man.

Financier.

Composer and singer.
Musician.

Author and journalist.

Authoress.

Lord mayor and politi-
cian.
Engineer.

Financier.

Philanthropist.

Physician.



Civil engineer.
Politician and

builder.
Financier.



ship-



Communal worker.

Member of Parliament;
communal worker.

Member of Parliament.

Loid mayor of London.

Author.

Secretary to the Board
of Deputies.

Member of Parliament:
communal worker.

A uthor.

Biographer of Mendels-
sohn.

Physician.

Anglo-Indian merchant

and philanthropist.
Chief rabbi.
Communal worker.
Communal worker.

Hebrew teacher.
Comnmnal worker.

Laryngoscopist.

Physician.
Philanthropist.
Communal worker, law-
yer, and politician.
Communal worker.

Minister, New West
Fnd Synagogue.

Musical composer and
improvisator.

Actor.

Aitist.

Preacher; professor of
Hebrew.

Hazzan.

Artist.

Educationist and He-
braist.



Solomon, Selim.



Solomon, Solomon Joseph
Spielmann, Isidore



Spielmann, Marion H.



Stern, David, Viscount de
Stern, Sir Edward David..
Stern, Baron Hermann de
Stern, Rev. J. F

Strauss, Gustave Lewis

Maurice.
Suasso, Isaac (Antonio)

Lopez, Baron Avemes

de Gras.
Sydney, Algernon Edward

Sylvester, J. J

Syraons, Baron Lyon de . .

fuck, Adolf

Valentine, Nathan Isaac.

Van Oven, Barnard

Van Oven, Joshua

Van Strahlen, Samuel

Villa Real, Isaac da Costa

Vllliers, John Abraham

Jacob de.
Waley, Jacob



Wandsworth, Baron.

Wasserzug, H

Wolf, Lucien



Wolff, Joseph

Worms, Baron de.



Worms, Maurice Benedict

de.
Worms, Baron Solomon de

Ximenes, Sir Morris

Zangwill. Israel

Zangwill, Louis

Zedner, Joseph

Zimmer, N. L. D

Zukertort, J. H



Date.



b. April 28,
1843.



b. Sept. 16,

1800.
b. July 21.

1854.
b. May 22,

18r)8.
d. 1877....
b. c. I860..
1815-87....
b. Jan. 2,

1865.
1807-87....

1693-1775.



b. Jan.

1834.
1814-97.

fl. 1800.



fl. 1806....
1797-1860. .
1766-1838..
b. 1845....

d. 1730....

b. 1863....

1819-73. . . .

b. 184.5 . . . .
d. 1882....
b. Jan. 20,

ia57.
1795-1862..

b. Feb. 16,

1829.
1805-67....

1801-82. . . .
b. 1762....
b. 1864....
b. 1869....
1804-71 . . . .
1831-a5....
1842-88....



Description.



Secietary, West London
Synagogue of British
Jews; communal
worker.

Artist.

Communal worker.

Author and publicist.

Financier.
Communal worker.
Financier.
Minister. East London

Synagogue.
Author.

Financier.



Solicitor and communal
worker.

Mathematician ; pro-
fessor.

Communal worker.

Communal worker.

Hebrew author.

Physician.

Surgeon.

Hebrew librarian, Brit-
ish Museum.

Founder of Villa Real
School.

Writer and communal
worker.

Conveyancer ; professor
of political economy.

Politician.

Hazzan and composer.

journalist and Anglo-
Jewish historian.

Traveler and Christian
missionary.

Politician.

Financier.

Financier.

Financier.

Man of letters.

Novelist.

Hebraist.

Hebraist and cabaUst.

Chess-player.



Present Conditions (Statistics) : It is pos-
sible to ascertain with some accuracy the Jewish
population of London owing to the fact tiiat statis-
tics of Jewish deaths and marriages have been re-
corded with some completeness by the United Syn-
agogue and the Board of Deputies for the last thirty
years. To the information from these
Popula- sources may be added the reports of
tion. the number of Jewish children attend-
ing the Jewish schools, given by Ja-
cobs and Harris in successive issues of the "Jewish
Year Book " with ever-increasing fulness. The fol-
lowing table gives these data at intervals of five
years for the last thirty years:



Year.


Deaths.


Marriages.


School-
Children.


1873


847
985
959
1,129
1.792
1.765
2,233


331

377
381

589

788

1,096

1,478




1878




18a3


7,383


1888




1893


15,964


1898


19,442


1902


31,515







P>om tlie last-given data the number of Jews in
London in the middle of 1903 can be ascertained



Iiondon



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



174



with some degree of probability. The general
death-rate of Loudon for the year 1902 was 17.6
per thousand, but since the Jewish population is
composed so largely (three-quarters as against one-
half in the general London population) of young
men and women of the most viable ages, 15-60,
it is unlikely that the death-rate was higher than
15 per thousand (the same as that in the Jewish
quarter of the borough of Stepney in 1901). This
would give a Jewish population in London of
148,866 in 1902, an estimate which is confirmed by
the number of marriages, 1,478, which, at 10 per thou-
sand— a very high rate indeed— would give 147,800.
The number of school-children, however, would
point to an even higher total. Of these, 31,515, out
of a total of 761,729, were in board and voluntary
schools. If the proportion of school-children to
population held with regard to the Jewish cliiidren
as to the total population (4,536,541) within the
school board area, this would imply a Jewish popu-
lation of about 187,427. But these statistics are for
a year later than that of the death-rate figures quo-
ted above, and besides it is probable that more Jewish
children are entered on the school-books, and more 6f
those entered attend, than with the general popula-
tion, so that the figures are somewhat misleading.
Altogether it is likely that the Jewish population of
London in the middle of 1902 was about 150,000, of
whom at least 100,000 were in the East End of Lon-
don, half of these being in the borough of Stepney
("Alien Immigration Commission," iii. 90). Of the
remainder the majority are well-to-do residents in
the Maida Vale, Bayswater, and Hammersmith dis-
tricts, though subordinate ghettos have been created
in Soho and Southwark. From the above-cited
figures it would seem probable that the Loudon Jew-
isli population trebled during the years between
1883 and 1902. Part of this increase is doubtless
due to the excess of births over deaths and to mi-
gration from the provinces, but at least 50,000
have been added by foreign immigration during
that period, an average of 2,500 per annum.

This increase has been met by a corresponding

increase in the number of seat-holders in the London

synagogues— 2,289 in 1873; 3,397 in 1883; 5,594 in

1893; and 9,556 in 1902. Altogether

Syna- there are 65 synagogues to meet the

gogues. religious needs of the Jews of Lon-
don ; of these 15 belong to the United
Synagogue. They are as follows, with the num-
ber of their seat-holders and their income for 1902,
and are arranged in the order of their reception
within the ranks of the United Synagogue:



Synagomie.



Great

Hainbro' ...

New

Bayswater

Central

Boronsrh...
St. John's Wood
Kast London.. .
North London..





4-3




:^


c ?


n


HH


53




1>
■Ji


£2.923


437


489


200


1,458


302


4.2.59


3fV!


3.710


3.50


794


178


3.020


378


1,202


a53


1.318


187



Synagogue.



New West End.

Dalston

Haiiim«*rsnilth..

Hanipstead

South Hiwkney.

Stoke NewlDK-

ton

Total






£4.t;i3

2.1H()

934

4.H9t5

1,190

800

£33.792



320
:)61
211
464
354



4,458



Besides these there are 38 minor synagogues com-
bined in the Federation of Synagogues, of which
the chief are Cannon St. Koad, London Chevra
Torah, Sandy's Row, and West End Talmud Torah.
Outside these two great associations stand the Span-
ish and Portuguese Congregation with its center at
Bevis Marks, and the West London Synagogue of
British Jews at Berkeley street (see Reform Juda-
ism). Of the remaining 10 synagogues the most in-
teresting is the AVestern, in St. Alban's place; it was
founded in 1797 and was for a long time the only
synagogue outside the "city." Altogether the ex-
penditure of these 65 synagogues may be reckoned
at something like £50,000 per annum, while besides
these there is a very large number of "hebrot"
scattered throughout the Jewish quarter. Many
London Jews, however, still remain unattached to
any prominent synagogal organization, and for the
chief holidays of the New-Year, in the autumn, a
large hall in the East End is hired, where the serv-
ices are attended by no l.ess than 5,000 persons. A
large proportion of the Jewish inhabitants of Lon-
don makes use of one or other of the numerous char-
itable institutions. In 1883 the proportion was one-
fourth (Jacobs, "Jewish Statistics," p.
Charity. 14), though it is probably not so high
at present. From 1895 to 1901 an an-
nual average of 851 cases of foreigners arriving dur-
ing the year applied to the Board of Guardians, or
Russo-Jewish Committee (" Alien Immigration Com-
mission," iii. 93). As a case includes on an average
3 persons, this would imply that nearly the whole of
the 2,500 persons arriving during the year have rea-
son to apply, for one cause or anothei', to the Board
of Guardians. On the other hand, the assistance
needed and given is often very slight, and the pro-
portion of those Avho remain chronically connected
with the charitable institutions is fairly small,
probably not more than 5 per cent of the whole
JewLsh population.

Almost every need of a Jewish person from birth
to burial is provided for by one or other of the
metropolitan Jewish charities, of which the follow-
ing is a classified list, with the amounts expended
during the year 1902; in most cases dates of founda-
tion are given in parentheses:

Orphans.

Jews' Hospital and Orphan Asylum, West Nor- £ s. d.

wood (1795) 10,506 10 10

Spanish and Portuguese Orphan Society (for chil-
dren of Sephardim only ; 1703) 62.5

Hayes Industrial School (exclusive of grants

earned) (100

Girls.

Domestic Training Home (1894) 1,161 2 1

DEAF AND Dumb and Blind.

Deaf and Dumb Home ( 18fi:!) 2.145 8 3

Institution for the Indigent lilind (1819) 1,913

APPRKNTICESIIIP.

Mahasim Toblm (for Sephardlm only ; 1749) 138

Labor Registry.

Location and Information Bureau (1892) 1,023 4 10

Emigration.
EmlgnitioTi Sixiety (1852) 668 14 9



liOndon



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



176



LOANS.

£ s. d.

Ladies' Benevolent Loan Society (1844) 2,4"6

Western Jewish Pbilanthropic Society (1827) 247 3 6

Excelsior Fund (18tl2) 150

Relief in Kind.

(a) Meals.

Soup-Kitchen for the Jewish Poor (18.>4) 2,099 6 6

Society for Providing Penny Dinners (at Board

and Jewish Schools ; 1883) 406 5 2

Society for Providing Sabbath Meals ( 1869) 269 6 10

(b) Clothing.

Jewish Ladies' Clothing Association (upon Inves-
tigation by Visiting Committee ; 1892)
Jewish Schools' Boot Fund (1889) a59 4 4

(c) Bread, Meat, Coal, and Groceries.

East End Bread, Meat, and Coal Charity (1896) . . 331 13 5

Metropolitan Promoters of Charity ( 1860) 474 16

Meshivath Nephesh (1780) 2.4.55

North London Grocery Fund ( 1890) 579 4 7

Nursing for Invalids.

Slck-Room Helps Association 1,136 19 3

Ladies' Society for Helping the Poor and Sick . . . 30

Lying-in Institutions.

Ladies' Benevolent Institution 2,500

Honen Dalim, Menahem Abelim, Hebrat Yeto-

mot, and Hebrat Moalim (for Sephardim only;

1724) 245

Lying-in Charity Ifi^

Convalescent Homes.

Baroness deHirseh Convalescent Home (1898)... 2.000 9 5
Jewish Convalescent Home (1862) 1,208 2 3

Incurables.
Home and Hospital for Jewish Incurables (1889). 3,174 8 1

TlIK AGED.

(a) Homes.

Home for Aged Jews (1894) 2,773 6 8

Beth Holim Hospital (in (connection with the
Spanish and Portuguese Congregation; 1747).. 1,190

Salomons' Almshouses (in connection with the
United Synagogue ; 1802).

J. H. Moses' Almshouses (Jewish Board of Guard-
ians; 1862).

Abraham Lyon .Moses' and Henry Solomon's Alms-
houses. Devonshire street. Mile End, E. (1838).

Joel Emanuel's Almshouses, Wellclose square.

(b) Pensions.

Society for Relieving the Aged Needy (1829) 1,474 15

Jews' Hospital and Orphan Asylum, West Nor-
wood (1795) 374 10

Widows.

City of London Benevolent Society for Assisting
Widows of the Jewish Faith (1H67) 329 4 8

Israelite Marriage Portion and Widows' Pension
Society 150

Marriage Portions.

Marriage Portion Society (ia50) 61 19 4

Society for Granting Marriage Portions to Or-
phans (for Sephardim only).

CHILDREN.

Jewish Branch of Children's Country Holiday

Fund (1889) 404 4

Initiation Society (1745) 514 14 4

Jewish Creche (1897) 483 14 5

Preventive and Rescue Work.

Jewish Association for the Protection of Girls and
Women (188.5) 942 4

General.

Hebrew Society for Brotherly Help (1896) 260 d

Poor Jews' Temporary Shelter (1885) 3,690 7 2



Spanish and Portuguese Jews' Board of Guard-
ians (1837)

Jewish Ladies' West End Charity (1842)

South London (1902)

Tradesmen's Benevolent Society (1858)

Board of Guardians for the Relief of the Jewish
Poor (1859):

Relief £20,301 11 9

Sanitary Department 216 3

Loans 19,465 11 11

Workrooms 112 15

Industrial 2,887 18 5

Russo-Jewish Committee. 2,214 3 6

Administration 3,104 11 9

Almshouses 44 2 6



£

1,637 10

970 8

69 16

522



s. d.



48,346 17 10



United Synagogue Charities (exclusive of contri-
bution to IJoard of Guardians ; 1870) :

Pensions £885 17 2

Grants 340

Relief in Kind 719 13 3

Marriage Portions 104

Ministers' Augmentation. 200

Special Bequests 146 15 4

Festival Distributions 472 13

Mazzot 582 7

VLsitation Committee 600

Talmud Torah 29 2 8

Mikwah and Poor of Holy

Land 40

Charity Funerals 1,027 15 1

Free Religious Services.. 473 12 11

Educational Institutions. 996 3 4



Jewish contribution to Hospital Sunday Fund, 1903.



6,617 13 4
1.679 10 1



Total £111,639 3 5

From this total slioiild be deducted tlie figures of
tlie loan department of the Board of Guardians and
of the other loan societies, amounting to £22,338
15s. 5d., leaving a total expenditure of £89,300 8s.
Od. for the charity budget of the London Jewiy in
1902, apart from private donations. Among such
a large body of persons it is natural that a certain
proportion of them should fall by the way, either
from weakness or wickedness. Com-
Defectives paratively speaking, these are few in
and De- number. Only 1,909 found it neces-
linquents. sary to apply for Poor Law relief
throughout London in 1901, at least
four-fifths of these being merely applicants for med-
icine. Records have been kept of tlie number of
Jewish inmates of public institutions in and around
London for the last tiiirty years, from wliich may
be compiled the following table showing the num-
ber received annually :



Year.


s

3
<

88


.2

'S.
X

66


Mi

o 3
".a

4


c

.i

Ph

81


Reforiiia-
" tories.




1873




1878


46


38:J


12


186


3


2


188:1


20


506


2:3


227


3


4


1888


4S


776


78


247


4


1


189:1


51


1,190


299


3H8


13




lKit8


106


1.609


:i51


514


20


•>


l'.H)2


129


2.:i9l


4r)8


796


9


37



The prisoners were held mostly for minor offenses.
Tlius in 1902, wliile 790 were received, tlie ma.ximum
number of inmates at any one time was 233, .showing
that, in the majority of instances, they served very
short sentences. As regards otlier undesirable qual-
ities Ihc Alien Immigration Commission recoriled



177



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



liondon



only 03 bankruptcies among alien Jews in the Lou-
don district during the three years ending March 31,
1903("Heport," i. 835).

Nine-tenths of all the Jews %vho reside in Lon-
don send their children to the ordinary public schools,

one-third of these going to the vohin-
Education. tary and tlie remainder to the Board

schools. The chief Jewisli voluntary
schools are given in the tollowing list, with tlie num-
ber attending them in 1903:



School.



Jews' Free School . .

Infant schools

Stepney Jewish

Bayswater Jewish. .
Westminster Jewish
Norwood AsyUim. . .

Deaf and Dumb

South London

Thrawl street

Hayes Industrial . . .

Total



Boys.


(iirls.


Infants.


2.-'sy


1,310


r,727


406


~':i


182


135


9.-)


81


315


3£rJ




1.50


133


30


25


16




109


72


■>:!




153


170


^>i






3,486


2,371


2,243



Total.



3,.55)9

1,727

859

311

637

312

41

234

32.3

57



8,100



Of the children attending the Jewish voluntary
schools about one-tifth were born abroad, one-
eighth in England of native parents, and the rest
were born in England of foreign parents. The
greatest of Jewish schools is the Jews' Free School,
Bell lane, one of the largest institutions of its kind
in the world. The total expenditure of these schools
is about £52,000 per annum. Quite a large majority
of Jewish children in London go to other tiian purely
Jewish schools, the proportion being shown by the
following table :



School.


Boys.


Girls.


Infants.


Total.


Board schools

Voluntary schools
(Jewisii)


6,189
3,486


6,416
2,371


8,741
2,243


21,346
8,100


Voluntary schools
(non-Jewish)


2,069


Total


31,515







Social In-
stitutions.



In addition English instruction for adidt Russian
refugees is provided by the English evening classes
in connection with the Russo-Jewish Committee.

A somewhat higher grade of educational effort is
indicated by tlic many social clubs and institutions
intended to Hide together Jewish lads and young
men. The central body of this kind is
the Jewish Workingmen's Club, Great
Alie street, Aldgate, founded in 1872.
As a preparation for this there are a
certain number of clubs for Jewish working bo3's,
the chief of which is the Brady Street Club, founded
in 1896. There are similar chibs for girls— the Jew-
ish Girls' Club, founded in 188G, and the West Cen-
tral Jewish Girls' Club, founded in 1887.

For specifically Jewish instruction the provision
in London is somewhat small. Each division of
the community has a bet ha-midrash, the Sephar-
dic institution of that name being instituted as far
back as 1664. The Ashkenazic institution is under
the auspices of the United Synagogue, and the pres-
ent building was opened in 1876. Local institutions
VIII.— 12



of a sinnlar character e.\ist in North and Northeast
London. The Jews' College still remains tbe center
of Jewish learning in London, though large provi-
sion is now made for more popular lectures and in-
struction by the Jewish Study Society and its vari-
ous offshoots, which are combined in the Union of
Jewish Literary Societies, founded in 1902.

It is impossible to give any full account of the

occupations of Loudon Jews, but in the census of

1901 there is a list of occupations of

Occupa- Russians and Poles in London, whicli
tions. at any rate enables the statistician to
determine the most jiopular occupa-
tions among the least-favored individuals of the
London Jewry. It is as follows:

Mai.k.s. Females.

Total 28,574 24,863

Under ten years 1 ,927 1,959

Over " " 26,647 22,904

Of whom earn their living. .24,164 5,358

Clothing trades 14,666 3.698

Tailors 10,070 2,603

Women's tailors 36 454

Capmakers 707 214

Furriers 319 167

Shoemakers 2,890 120

Slipper-makers 150 6

Miscellaneous 494 134

Furniture trades 2,550 12

Cabinet-makers 1,894 4

Polishers . 55 1

Carpet-makers 135

Turners 220 2

Miscellaneous 246 5

Painters 236 1

Carpenters 210

Watchmakers 158 1

Goldsmiths 143

Tobacco-workers 343 331

Tobacco-dealeis 150 12

Workers and dealers in food produce 1 ,322 177

Pedlers ■IW 69

Tradespeople 609 44

Travelers 313 16

Agents lt)3 Si

Others 133 3

Teachers 219 26

Servants 16 554

Barbers (probably not Jewish) 519 14

Others 2,.570 1,729

With regard to the classes which have been longest
settled in the country, the proportions, though prob-
ably not the numbers, of those employed in the vari-
ous occupations are not likely to be much different
from the estimate made in 1883 and given above.

A large number of societies for mutual assistance
exist in the London Jewry, no less than 140 being
recorded in the last issue of the "Jewish Year Book,"

besides many separate branches of the

Friendly larger orders, like the Gfand Order of

and Benefit Israel, the Ancient Order of Mount

Societies. Sinai, the Hebrew Order of Druids,

the orders Achei Ameth and Achei
Berith, and the Order of Ancient Maccabjcans. In
addition, most of the hebrot are also benefit soci-
eties, and there have existed altogether about 39 Jew-
ish trade-unions in London (see Halpern, "DieJii-
dischen Arbeiter in London," pp. 66-68). Many of
these latter, however, exist only for a short time, and
occasionally are created simply for the purposes of



Xiondon
Lonzano



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



178



a strike. The most prominent of them appear to
be the United Ladies' Tailoresses, founded in 1891,
and the Independent Cabinet Makers' Association,
founded in 1895. The aim of Jewish workmen to
become masters on their own account seems to
stand in the way. of their becoming trade-unionists.
London is one of the cliief centers of Zionism,
which was taken up with great enthusiasm. It is
the seat of The Jewish Colonial Trust, and the
Fifth Zionist Congress was held there.
Zionism. Of Zionist societies, 23 exist there, be-
sides the English Zionist Federation,
of which Sir Francis Montetiore is the president.
No less than 51 Zionists' share clubs exist in Lon-
don to enable Zionists of small means to become
shareholders in the Jewish Colonial Trust.

Bibliography : Jacobs, Jews of Angevin England, 1894 ; Mar-
goliouth, HMnrii of the Jews in Great Britoni. vol. iil., Lon-
don, 1851; Halpern, Z>i6 JUdischen Arheiter in Lmulon, 19ftJ ;
C. Russel and H. S. Lewis, The Jew in London, 190() ; Jacobs
and Harris, Jewish Year Book, various years ; Transactions
Jew. Hist. Snc. Eng.: Jacobs, Studies in Jewish Statistics,
London, 1891 ; Report of the Alien Immigration Commis-
gion, 1903; Report from the Committee of the House of
Lords on the Sweating Smtem, London, 1889; RepoH from
the Select Committee on Immigration arid Emigration
(Foreigners), London, 1889; Evans Gordon, TJie Alien Im-
migrant, London. 1904 ; Picciotto, Sketches of Angl/j-Jewish
History, 1902; Jacobs and Wolf, Bibl. Anglo-Jud.

Typography : The earliest Hebrew printing

in the city of London was done by Christian print-
ers, the first book being an edition of the Psalms in
four languages which appeared in London in 1643.
Steinschneider suggests that the Hebrew was printed
from incised wooden blocks. The printer's name
was Thomas Harper. An edition of Abot with
punctuated text was published at London in 1651,
the printing being done by Thomas Roycroft, who
appears also to have printed the Walton polyglot of
1653-57. The first book printed for and by a Jew in
London appears to have been the " Urim we-Tum-
mim" by Uri Phoebus (1707). It is doubtful
whether Johanan ben Isaac's attack upon this work
was printed in London ; the continuation was cer-
tainly done in Amsterdam. The Christian printer
Thomas Hive printed a few Hebrew works, among
others the " Matteh Dan, " 1715, of David Nieto. Simi-
larly, about 1770, three Jews, Isaac ben Jedidiah,
Moses ben Gershon, and Jacob Cohen, published a cer-
tain number of works printed by William Tooke. The
first regular printer and publisher may be regarded
as David ben Mordecai Levi (1794-99), though pre-
vious to this the Alexanders had begun their series
of prayer-books (from 1770 onward), to be succeeded
by the Valentines, who have published most of the
rituals of the London community. For a long
period the firm of Wertheimer, Lea & Company
published most books in London requiring Hebrew



Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 44 of 169)