Isidore Singer.

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type, apart from the Biljle and the books of the
conversionist societies. Filipowski may be here
mentioned as having had printed the various works
he edited in new and very clear though small tj'pe,
in the middle of the nineteenth century.

BiBi.iofjRAPnY : SK^lnschnelder, In Ersch and Oriiber, Enri/c.
section II., part 2«, p. 91; Cat. of the Anglo-Jewish His-
torical Exhibition, p. 4.3.

J .

OF BRITISH JEWS (more commonly London
Board of Deputies) : A body formed to safeguard

the interests of British Jews as a religious community.
It can be traced to a committee called "The Com-
mittee of Diligence," which committee was formed
to watch the progress through the Irish Parliament,
in 1745, of the bill for Jewish naturalization. After
the rejection of the Naturalization Bill of 1753, and
on the accession of George III. in 1760, "deputados
of the Portuguese nation " were appointed to attend
court and express the loyalty of the British Jews,
which they did on Nov. 19, 1760. The German, or
"Dutch," Jews were not formally represented on
the committee, but arrangements were made by
which they should cooperate in important cases.
The board was established to protect the inter-
ests of British Jews not only in the British Isles,
but in the colonies. It was appealed to from
Jamaica in 1761 and from the Balearic Isles in 1766.
Meetings were held sporadically in 1778 and 1789.
In the latter year Moses I. Levi was elected as pres-
ident, and in 1812 the German members of the board
became regularly connected with it. The deputies
watched over all the legislation relating to mar-
riages, labor laws, and other matters which might
affect Jews prejudicially, and aided considerably in
the struggle for Jewish emancipation. In 1835 Sir
Moses Montefiore was elected president, and he re-
mained in that ofiice until his death, being supported
by Sampson Samuel as secretary (appointed 1838),
and later by Lewis Emanuel (d. 1898), who was suc-
ceeded by his son Charles, the present (1904) sec-
retary. The committee took an active part in the
Damascus Affair as well as in the early struggle for
Reform ; as president, Sir Moses, throughout his in-
cumbency of the oftice, vetoed every attempt at op-
position on the part of the representatives from the
West Londoi: S^^nagogue.

Beginning in 1838, attempts were made to get the
provincial congregations to appoint representatives
on the board, with varying but on the whole in-
creasing success, the arrangement generally being
for the provincial congregation to select as its rep-
resentative a London resident — if possible, one of
the congregation who had settled in Loudon. The
board had much to do with the foundation of the
Morocco Fund as well as of the Rumanian Commit-
tee, but since the formation of the Anglo-Jewish
Association in 1871 it has worked conjointly with
that body wherever any communication with the
Foreign Office or with a foreign government is con-
cerned. It helped also to found the Russo-Jewish
Committee in 1882. The elections are held trien-
nially, the latest occurring in Slay, 1904, when sixty-
five deputies were selected, thirty-one from eighteen
metropolitan synagogues, thirty-two from provincial
synagogues, and two from colonial congregations.
The expenses are borne pro rata by the various syna-
gogues and congregations.

BiBLiO(iRArii Y : Picciotto, Sketches of A nglo-.Icwi.'^h History,
ch. xlll., xlv.; Jewish Year Book, 5664, pp. 58-60.



English scholar; born in London at the beginning of
the eighteenth C('utury. Wlien quite young he
went to Amsterdam, where he lived for a long time.
Later he traveled through Italy, and in the course
of his journey had the misfortune to be taken for a




spy, on account of the numerous papers — the cou
tents of which were unintelligible to the police — he
ha<i with him.

Loudon was the author of an ethical work entitletl
" Hista'arut Melek ha-Negeb 'im Melek ha-Zafon "
(Amsterdam, 1737) ; the work is explained by two ac-
companying commentaries, "Sinai "and "Bozez,"
the former being a general interpretation of the text,
the latter containing definitions of the difficult
words. London was also the editor of tlie " Shib'ah
'Enayim " (Leghorn, 1745), containing editions of
various works bj' JN'ahmanides, Aboab Isaac de Leon,
aucl Abraham Boiat.

Bibliography : Rcviic Oriciitalc, ii. 334 ; Steinschneider,

Cat. Bndl. col. 1230: Zedner, Cat. Hcbr. Boohs Biit.
Mns. p. 302.
J. L Br.

PHAEL: Russian author and publisher; lived at
Novogrudok, Lithuania, in the iirst half of the
eighteenth century. He was the pupil of Samuel
Schotten, rabbi at Frankfort-on-the-Maiu. He edited
the following works: "Zoker ha-Berit," on the rite
of circumcision (Amsterdam, 1710V); the "Zeri ha-
Yagou" of Shem-Tob ibn Falaquera (Plauau, 1716);
"JIatteh Mosheh," by Moses b. Abraham Mat, rabbi
of Przemysl (Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1720); "Min-
hah Hadashah," on the Pirke Abot, containing ex-
tracts from Rashi, Maimonides, and the " Pirke
Mosheh " and " Leb Abot " of Michael Moraf tschek
(ib. 1722); "Tikkun Shelomoh," the order of Sab-
bath prayers according to Isaac Luria (Venice, 1733;
Amsterdam. 1775; Dyhernfurth, 1806); "Orhot Za-
dikim," with a Judseo-Gcrman translation (Am-
sterdam, 1735); the "Agur" of Jacob Landau (Of-
fenbach, 1738); "Kehillat Shelomoh," a collection of
rites, prayers, and "dinim,"with a small Hebrew
and Judaeo-German vocabulary under the title " Hin-
nuk Katan " (Amsterdam, 1744; Frankfort-on-the-
Oder,'l799; Hanover, 1830); the "Sefer ha-Gan,"
moral exhortations of Judah Hasid, and the "Had-
rakah " of Johanan Luria (Flirth, 1747).

Bibliography : Preface (by London) to Matteh Mosheh,
Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1720; Approbation, ih. b.v Samuel
Schotten: Fiirst, Bibl. Jud. ii. 255; Zedner, Cat. Hebr.
Boohs Brit. Mxis. pp. 364, 498, 566, 698.

H. R. N. T. L.

LONG BRANCH. See New Jersey.

ish Hebrew poet; lived at Constantinople about
the middle of the sixteenth century. A manuscript
in the Bodleian Library (Neubauer, "Cat. Bodl.
Hebr. MSS." No. 1986) contains a collection of
Longo's poems on various subjects; letters written
by him to contemporary scholars and by them to
him ; a poetical correspondence between Longo and
David Onkeneira; and a paper entitled "Nahal
Kedumim," in prose interspersed with verse in
whicli occur 1,000 words beginning with X. an ar-
rangement similar to that which was followed in the
"Elef Alfin " of Ibn Latimi.

Some of Longo's dirges were published under the
title "Shibre Luhot" (Salonica, 1594). To them is
prefixed a chronicle of Jewish writers and their
works, entitled "Seder Zemannim." Longo wrote,
besides, poems on many works of his contempora-

ries ; these poems are printed at the beginning of
the works to which they refer.

BiuLioGRAPiiv: Furst, Bibl. Jud. ii. 255 ; Steinschneider, Cat.
Bodl. col. 2227.

G. M. Sel.


DE : Austrian giamnuirian : lived at the beginning
of the eighteenth centurj'. He was baptized at Id-
stein and took the name of Wilhelm Heinrich
Neumann. His Hebrew grammar, " Kinyaii Abra-
ham," was published in Zolkiev in 1723 (De le Roi,
" Die Evangelische Christenheit und dieJuden,"i.
93; Steinschneider, "Cat. Bodl." col. 699).
T. M. Sc.

MEN AHEM DE : Palestinian Masorelicand mid-
rasiiic scholar, lexicographer, and poet ; died after
1608 in Jerusalem. His nativity is unknown, but it
has been supposed that he was born in Italy. Ac-
cording to Jellinek, who identified Lonzano (IJKtJv
or IJNVJI^) with Lougano, a seaport of Messenia,
his home was Greece ; it may, however, have been
Longono, a port of Tuscany near Leghorn. In early
childhood Lonzano lost both father and mother, and
throughout his entire life he was haunted by pov-
erty, care, and sickness ("Shete Yadot," p. 81a).

In his j^outh he went to Jerusalem and married
there, but in consequence of the

Poverty treachery of one of liis friends, Geda-
and Hah Cordovero, he was compelled to

Travels, leave the city ; he went to Constanti-
nople, where he enjoyed the hospital-
ity of a certain Solomon ("Tobah Tokahat," pp.
140, 148).

There also he met Samuel di Modena, whom he
calls "teacher," and under whom he studied for
some time (Conforte, "Kore ha-Dorot," p. 44a).
From Constantinople he returned to Jerusalem : he
was compelled to travel continually to earn his
bread. In old age, again driven by poverty, he re-
turned to Italy, having spent altogether about forty
years of his life in Jerusalem. Though paralyzed
in both feet and with the sight of one eye entirely
lost, he preached twice in an Italian synagogue and
gave the community cause to marvel at his unusual
knowledge of midrashic literature. A fund was
raised by the congregation to support him and to
enable him to return to Jerusalem, and a petition
was sent to a wealthj^ man asking him for a gener-
ous contribution. This letter (Mortara, No. 12) has
been published by David Kaufmann ("J. Q. R."
viii. 525 et seq.). Lonzano died in the outskirts of
Jerusalem and was buried there (comp. "Shibhe
Yerushalayim," p. 3a; "Hibbat Yerushalayim," p.
42b; Luncz, "Jerusalem," i. 115).

Lonzano had three children; a son, Adonikam,
died at an early age. He was the father-in-law of
the liistorian David Conforte ("Kore ha-Dorot,"
I.e.); Lonzano of Florence (1716), author of a re-
sponsum mentioned in " Shemesh Zcdakah " (i. , No.
15, p. 27a), may be one of his descendants (Lands-
huth, "'Ammudeha-'Abodah," p. 184).

Lonzano's first work, composed and printed
in his youth, probably in Constantinople about
1572, contains "Derek Hayyjm," a moral poem of




31;") verses; " Pi/monim u-Bakkashot," hymns and
prayers; anil " • Abodat Mikdasli," a poetical descrip-
tion of the daily sacrifice in the Temple (comp.
Steinsclmeider, "Cat. Bodl." col. 1728).

He wrote commentaries to most of his poems; this
was, indeed, often necessary on account of the ob-
scurity of his verses, esi)ecially where they are caba-
listic in content and employ the cabalistic terminol-
ogy. He generally indicates the meters of the piy-
yutim, many of wliich were set to Arabic melodies
because these, the author thought, were better
adapted, on account of their melancholy, to
feelings of devotion and liunulity ("Shete Yadot,"
p. fiolj); or, as he says farther on in the same work
(p. 142a), because they sound more solemn than any
others. He is well aware of the fact that high
authorities objected to the use of foreign melodies
for religious hymns, but he does not share their
view, although he objects most strongly to the
practise of imitating the sound of foreign words by
means of Hebrew assonants. He condemns, for in-
stance, "Shem Nora," imitating the title of the
Italian song "Seniora"; and he felt compelled to
declare solemnly i)efore God and Israel that he used
foreign terms only to praise the Lord and not for
profane or frivolous purposes {ih. p. 122a).

From the jioint of view of literary history the
passage in "Shete Yadot" (p. 137b) in which he
names those payyetanim he preferred is valuable.
He considers a good religious poem one that would
cheer and gladden him while it would also make
him weep; that would break the haughtiness of his
heart and inspire him with love for God (comp.
Sachs, " Die Religiose Poesie der Judenin Spanien,"
p. 257). Although his own poems display little
taste or beauty, tlie cabalists were fond of quoting
them, and some of his piyj'utim became part of the
Sephardic iVIahzor (comp. jNIahzor Sefarad for " Slia-
losh Hegalim," ed. Vienna, 1836, pp. 21-22; Reu-
bens, "Catalogue Heshek Shelomoii," p. 83, No. 573,
Amsterdam, 1857; Landsliutli, " " Ammude ha-'Abo-
dah." p. 181).

Lonzano called iiis chief work "Shete Yadot"
( = "Two Hands"; Venice, 1618), taking the title
from Ex. x.wi. 17; and, keeping to the same figure,
he divided these two "hands" into five "fingers"
("ezba'ot ") each. Tiie five fingers of the first part,
called "Yad 'Ani" ("Hand of the Poor"; comp.
Ezck. xvi. 49), are severally entitled "Or Torah,"
"Ma'arik," "Abodat Mikdash," "Derek Hayyim."
and "Tobah Tokahat."

(1) "Or Torah," Masoretic studies, and emenda-
tions of the Masoretic text of the Pentateuch. For
this lie used old Pentateuchal manu-

Masorah. scripts, from which he took much val-
uable material not found in other
sources. He possessed some very valuable unprinted
miflrashim, among them some which eveti the author
of the ' Aruk and of the Yalkut had never seen. To
aid liiin in collecting his splendid library liis friends
wrote to the comnumities of .leru.salein, Aleppo, and
Damascus, and lut olitained books from those cities.
An illustration of Lonzano's scientific spirit is found
in th(! passage in which he says: " 1 have made this
correction on the strength of ten or more manu-
scripts, not one of wliich cotdd b^ copied [now] for

100 ducats, and some of which are nujre than five
or si.\ luuulretl years old, namely: tlie ' JIassoret
Sevau; la-Toiah ' of Meir ben Todros ha-Levi Abu-
lafia (a manuscript of the Masorah), the ' Kiryat
Sefer ' of Meiri, the ' 'Et Sofer ' of David Kinihi,
the ' Shemcn Sason,' and various others. Accord-
ingly, if any one is in doubt as to the reading of any
passage in the Bible, with God's help I will resolve
his perplexity, especially if I am at home." Lon-
zano could not endure the thought that this scientific
material was lying idle or that it might perish with
him. He therefore determined to publish the book,
even at an expense of a hundred ducats for printing,
although he was well aware that he was acting cru-
elly toward his needy family in Jerusalem, to which
he' could send no money. The "Or Torah" was
afterward published separately (Amsterdam, 1659;
Hamburg, 1738; Berlin, 1745; Zolkiev, 1747; see
Beujacob, " Ozar ha-Sefarim," p. 28).

(2) "Ma'arik," explanations in alphabetical order
of foreign words in the Talmuds, the jNIidrashim, and
the Zohar. His knowledge of Arabic and Greek,
gained dining his toilsome journeys,
Lexi- proved of great service in his philo-
cograpliy. sophical investigations. In the intro-
duction to this part he speaks, not
without humor, of his new method of treating these
loan-words and of the way he came to adopt it.
Thus Lonzano actually reintroduced into lexicogra-
phy the rational, scientific spirit of the old, classic
Hebneo-Arabic philologists, despite the opposition
of his contemporaries and against the authority of
old, recognized teachers, including even the author
of the 'Aruk. The summary of the "Ma'arik" by
Philippe d'Aquin, the author of the lexicon "Ma-
'arik ha-Ma'areket" (Paris, 1629), like the whole
of the work "Shete Yadot," is as valuable as it is
rare. It has been published in modern times by A.
Jellinek (Leipsic, 1853), and is printed in the Lem-
berg edition of the 'Aruk of Nathan ben Jehiel of
Rome under the title " Arba'ah Sefarim Niftahim"

(3) The " 'Abodat Mikdash " and (4) "Derek Hay-
yim " are reprints, with additions, from his first
work, mentioned above; the "'Abodat Mikdash"
was i)ublished akso by Judah Perez in his collection
"Sha'are Rahamim " (Venice, 1710), by Jacob Em-
den (Leghorn, 1767), by Azriel of Wilna (Fllrth,
1726), and at Venice at the end of the sixteenth cen-
tury (see, "Bibl. Jud." ii. 256; Zedner, "Cat.
Hebr. Books Brit. Mus." p. 528).

(5) "Tobah Tokahat," didactic poems, written at
the house of Solomon, his patron in Constantinople.
These are largely borrowed from a collection of short
moral proverlis, entitled "Sefer Toze'ot Hayyim,"
by a certain Moses ben Nathanael ibn Solomon.

The second part of the "Shete Yadot," called
"Yad ha-:SIelek," and also divide<l iiito five "fin-
gers," is a collection of old midrashic works, some
of whicli appeared liere for the first time; others
afforded more complete and correct texts than any
previously known. Lonzano himself, on account
of lack of money, could print oidy: (1) " Haggadat
Bereshit"; of the remaining four "fingers" of the
"Yad ha - Melek," (2) "Midrash Agur" was pub-
lislied, according to Ben Jacob (" Ozar ha-Sefarim,"




p. 299), in 1626, at Safed or Kefar "Ain Zeitiiu; but
Stc'iiiscliiieider (" Cat. Bodl." col. 1778) denies tliat it
ever appeared in print. The otlier three " lingers "
e.xist only in manuscript: (3) " Tanna debe Eli-
valui '■; (4) " Abot de-Habbi Natan," "Masseket De-
rek Err/,," "Otiyyot de R. Akiba"; (5) "Selerha-
Tashluniin," containing the remaining portions of
Genesis Kabbah, and supplements to Midrash Yelam-
raedenu, Sifra, Sifre, and Taiihuma.

Lonzano wrote also: " "Adi Zahab," glosses to the
" Lebush " of Mordecai Jaffe (see Azulai, " Shem ha-
Gedolim," ii. 106); "Imre Eniet," notes on Hayyim
Vidal's Cabala; " "Omer Man," commentary on Idra
Zuta, a part of the Zohar, published with a refu-
tation by Naphtali ben David (Amsterdam, 1729);
and lexicographical observations on the Yerushalmi
(published by !S. Buber in "Ha-Asif," ii. 820 et seq.).

In spite of piiysical infirmities, Lonzano was an

eager combatant, and not only defended his own

conclusions with energ3^ but also ag-

Character- gressively attacked both his prede-

ization. cessors and his contemporaries. At
the same time he always felt conscious
that their worth was as far above his as the "heaven
is above the earth " (" Shete Yadot," p. 83). He as-
sails the author of the midrashic commentary " Mat-
tenat Kehunnah," attacks Israel ben Moses Najjara
on account of blasphemous illustrations and expres
sions in his " 'Olat Hodesh," disputes with Abraham
Monson concerning Vidal's Cabala, with Solomon
Norzi concerning the Masorah, and with others. It
can easily be understood that in his single-minded
devotion to the truth, "to which all owe the highest
regard" ("Shete Yadot," p. 81b), Lonzano made
many personal enemies. In only one respect does
he seem to have been in harmony with the spirit of
the time, and that was in his love for the Cabala
and his hostility toward philosophy.

Bibliography: a. L. Frumkin, Toledot Hakme Yerushala-
}/im, pp. 103 et seq.; D. Kaufmann, Nnies on the Life of
Menaliem di Loiisano, in J. Q. R. viii. 523; Landshuth,
''Amrmide ha-^Abnclah, 1. 178 et seq.: Jellinek, Ma'arih.
Preface : Delitzscli, Zur Gesch. der JUdischen Poesie, p. 56 ;
Zunz, S. P. p. 357.

s. s. M. Sc.


LOPEZ : A family of Sephardic Jews several of
whom were distinguished for scholarly attainments.

Eliahu Lopez : Dutch Jhakam of the seventeenth
century. He received his rabbinical education, to-
gether with Isaac Nieto and others, in the Yeshiba
de losPiutos at Rotterdam, and then at Amsterdam,
in which city he was for some years hakam. At the
dedication of the large synagogue he delivered an
oration, which was printed together with the other
orations delivered on that occasion. While still a
j'oung man Lopez went as hakam to Barbados.

Bibliography : Kayserlingr, Bihl. Eifp.-Piirt.-Jud. p. 64 ; idem,
in Pidil. Am. Jew. Hist. Soc. iii. 19.

Isaac Lopez : Hakam at Amsterdam. He issued
a new and revised edition of Aboab's "Nomologia"
(Amsterdam, 1727).

Isaac Henriquez Lopez : Hahara in London at
the beginning of the eighteenth century. At the
ina'Uguration of the society known as "Sahare Ora
Vaawi Yethomim " he delivered a discourse which
was printed under the title " Oracion . . . Que se

Hizierou en la Celebridad de la Fundacion de la

Santa y Pia Hermandad de Sahare Ora Vaawi
Yethomim" (London, 1703).
G. M. K.


English politician; born in Jamaica Jan. 22, 1755;
died at Maristow House, Devonshire, 1831 ; de-
scended from ancient Sephardic stock. Both he
and his father, Mordecai Rodriguez Lopez, became
converts to Christianity in 1802. In the same year
Manasseh Lopez was returned to Parliament as
member for New Romney, and was created a baro-
net Oct. 5, 1805, witii remainder to his nephew
Ralph Franco. At ihe next election Lopez secured
a seat for Barnstaple, for which borough he was
again returned in 1818. On March 18, 1819, he was
found guilty of having bribed the electors of the
borough of (irampound to secure his election, and
on conviction was sentenced to two years' imprison-
ment with a fine of £1,000 (§5,000). On Nov. 13 he
was again prosecuted for a similar offense, and on
conviction was sentenced to another fine and term
of imprisonment. Notwithstanding this, Lopez
was once more returned to Parliament, in 1823, as
member for the borough of Westbury. He was re-
elected in 1826, but resigned to make room for Sir
Robert Peel, who had been rejected at Oxford Uni-

Subsequently Lopez filled the office of recorder of
Westbury, in addition to being a magistrate for two

Bibliography : Picciotto, Sketches of Anglo-Jewish Hitttory,
pp. 304, 305; Diet. Nat. BioQ.; Crcri tiema/i's Macra2i?i6, 1831.

J. G. L.

LOPEZ, RODRIGO: Court physician to
Queen Elizabeth; born in Portugal about 1525; ex-
ecuted June 7, 1594, for having attempted to poison
the queen. He settled in London in 1559, and in
1571 was residing in the parish of St. Peter le Poer.
Previous to this he had become a member of the Col-
lege of Physicians, and was selected in the last-
mentioned year to read the anatomy lecture at the
college — an honor which he declined. Before 1584
he had become body-physician to the Earl of Leices-
ter ; and he Avas accused of assisting that nobleman
in removing some of his enemies by poison. Two
years later he became chief physician to Queen
Elizabeth, who in 1589 granted him the monopoly of
importing aniseed and sumac into England.

At court Lopez became acquainted with the Earl
of Essex, and was thus brought into relations with
Don Antonio, the pretender to the
Relations crown of Portugal, and with Antonio
with Don Perez, the discharged secretary of
Antonio. Philip II. He assisted them in indu-
cing the queen to permit the attempted
invasion of Portugal in 1589, and suffered some
loss of inrtuerice through its failure. An indiscreet
revelation of some of Essex's ailments set that no-
bleman against him; and about 1590 Lopez began
intriguing against Antonio with the court of Spain,
at first with the connivance of Walsingham, who
hoped through Manuel de Andrada, one of Lo-
pez's adherents, to obtain useful information of
Spanish projects. Andrada brought back a dia-


Lord's Prayer, The



mond anil rub}- ring worth £100 as an earnest of
the reward Lopez would get if he removed Don An-
tonio. Lopez offered the ring to the queen, who
refused it, presumptive evidence, according to Ma-
jor Hume, that she knew it came from Philip II.
Later on, tlie ring Avas used as evidence of Lopez's
designs against the queen.

In Oct., 1593, one Esteban de Gama was seized in
Lopez's house on a charge of conspiring against
Don Antonio ; and shortly afterward a person named
Gomez d'Avila was likewise seized on landing at
Dover. Ho proved to have mysterious correspond-
ence relating to " the price of pearls " and to musk
and amber, and to be in some relation with Lopez.
A tliird conspirator, Ticino, was induced to come
over from Brussels witli an invalid safe-conduct.
By confronting the prisoners some evidence was
elicited leading to the conclusion that the "price
of pearls" referred to a plot against the queen,
in which Lopez was implicated. He was seized
and e.xaniincd
by the Earl of
Essex, w h o
failed, however,
to find any defi-
nite cause for
suspicion. La-
ter, confessions
of the minor
conspirators led
to Lopez being
put on the rack,
where he con-
fessed to having
entertained sug-
gestions as to
poisoning the
queen for the
sum of 50,000
ducats, but,
as he alleged,
merely witli the
design of cozen-
ing the King
of Spain and of
him as possible.

Lopez Conspiring to Poison Queen Elizabeth.

(From Carlelon's "Thankful Remembrances," 1624.)

getting as much money out of

This excuse was not accepted;

and, after lingering some time in the

His Tower, he, with D'Avila and Ticino,

Execution, was hanged, drawn, and quartered as

a traitor, declaring with his last breath

amid the derision of tiie spectators that he loved the

queen as well as lie loved Jesus Christ.

Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 45 of 169)