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His trial created a great sensation at the time.
References are made to it in Marlowe's "Faustus,"
Dekker's "Whore of Babylon," and Middleton's
"Game at Cliess"; while it has been suggested by
Sidney Lee that he was the original >Sfn/lork in "The
Mercliant of Venice," a version of which appears to
have been put on the stage about two months after
Lopez's execution. The fact that Shakespeare was
on the side of the Earl of Es.scx. and that Antonio is
adopted as the name of the hero, lends some plausi-
bility to this suggestion. See Suvlock.

Historians are divided as to the exact amount of
criminality involved in Lopez's connection with
Spanish plots. Dimock ("English Historical He-



view," 1894, pp. 440-472) denies his innocence on
the ground that he kept the negotiations secret.
Major Hume ("Treason and Plot," pp. 115-152,
New York, 1901) considers his guilt unproved, as
he had been permitted to make similar false sugges-
tions with the connivance of Walsingham in 1590.

Biiii.iOGRAPHT: S. Lee, in Gentleman''s Magazine, Feb., 1880;
idem, in Tr. Nexu Shakespeare Society, 1887-92, pt. ii.. pp.
l.')8-162; idem, in Diet. Nat. nioq. s.v.; H. Gr&etz, Shi/lock
iti der Saqe, im Drama, nnd in der GcKch. Krotoschin,
1880; Fomeron, PItiUppe II. vol. ii., Paris, 1890; Hume,
Treason and Plot, p. 116, note. y

LOPEZ-IiAGUNA. See Laguna.
LOPEZ ROSA: Portuguese Marano family of
Lisbon, which owned a printing establishment there
in 1647.

Duarte liopez Bosa : Physician ; born at Beja.
Duarte was condemned by the Inquisition at Lisbon
(Oct. 10, 1723) as an adherent of Judaism.

Moses Duarte Lopez Bosa : Physician and
poet of the seventeenth century; born at Beja,

8ta3'ed for a time
at Rome, and
then settled in
Amsterdam,
where in 1680
he openly pro-
fessed Judaism,
taking the name
of Moses. He
was a member
of the Akademia
de los Floridos
at Amsterdam.
Especially at-
tached to the
Portuguese
royal couple, he
addressed son-
nets and a longer
poem to the
royal bride
elect, a princess
of Neuburg, and
to the brides-
man, D. Manuel Telles da Silva; and some years
later he wrote a pa^an on the birth of an infante.

The published works of Lopez Rosa include:
" Alientos de la Verdad en los Clarines de la Fama,"
etc., Amsterdam, 1688; "Soneto Dedicado a la
. . . Princeza de Neuburgo D. IMaria Sofia,
Agora Rainha de Portugal, em Sua Felice Uuiao
cornel Rey D. Pedro II." n.d., n.p. ; "Soneto ao
exc. Senhor Principe Senescal de Ligue," n.d., b.p. ;
" Panegyrieo Sobre la Restauracion de Inglaterra en
la Coroiiacion de las i\Iagestades de Guilielmo III. y
Ser" Maria por Reyes de la Gran Bretana," ib. 1690;
"Elogios ao Felice Nacimicnto do Infante de Portu-
gal, Filho de D. Pedro II. e de D. Maria Sofia," ib.
1691. The following remained unprinted : " Luzesde
la Idea y Acadeniicos Discursos Que Se Proposieron
en la Ilustre Academia de Amsterdam en el Ano de
1683, Iiitit. Los Floridos de la Alinendia. con Otros
Flores del Ingenio"; and "Novellas Espauholes."

Biiu.ior.RAPiiY : Barbosa Ma<ihado, Bibliotheca Lusitana, 1.
;:»:(: Kayserlinp, liilil. Esp.-Pnrt.-Jud. p. 95; Idem, Oescft.
der Jwien in Portuijal, p. 319.



183



THE JE^YISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Liopez

Lord's Prayer, The



Ruy (Ezekiel) Lopez Rosa : Astrologer; born
in Portugal; lived at Amsterdam in the seventeenth
century. He gave an exposition of the "seven
weeks " of Daniel ix. 25.

Bibliography: Barrios, Rdacinn de Ins Pof f o.s. p. 54 : Kay-
serling, Bibl. Esp.-Pnrt.-Jud. p. 95; Steiuschneider. Cdt.
Bodl. col. 3044.

Simon Lopez Rosa (called also Abraham
Farrar) : Physician, and director of the oldest
Spanish-Portuguese congregation (Bet Ya'akob) in
Amsterdam; died Dec. 14, 1618 (his wife died nine
days later). He was not an orthodox Jew. He
spoke slightingly of the Haggadah and the Cabala,
and converted many members of the community to
his liberal views. A precursor of Uriel Acosta,
Lopez Rosa opposed the rulings of the Rabbis, thus
occasioning a quarrel in the congregation, which led
to the founding in 1618 of a new congregation (Bet
Y'israel). R. Joel Sirkes of Brest-Litovsk, to whom
the rabbis of Amsterdam carried the case, advised
them to excommunicate Lopez Rosa.

Bibliography: Kayserling, Bibl. E»p.-Port.-Jud. p. 44;
idem, in jB. E. J. xliii. 275 et seq.
G. M. K.

LORD'S PRAYER, THE : Name given by the
Christian world to the prayer which Jesus taught
his disciples (Matt. vi. 9-13; Lukexi. 1-4). Accord-
ing to Luke the teaching of the praj'er was suggested
b}' one of Jesus' disciples who, on seeing him holding
communion with God inpraj'^er, asked him to teach
them also to pray, as John the Baptist had similarly
taught his disciples a certain form of prayer. Obvi-
ously, then, the latter was of a similar character.
From the Talmudic parallels (Tosef., Ber. iii. 7; Ber.
16b-17a, 29b; Y>r. Ber. iv. 7d) it maybe learned
that it was customary for prominent masters to re-
cite brief prayers of their own in addition to the
regular prayers ; and there is indeed a certain simi-
larity noticeable between these prayers and that of
Jesus.

As the following extracts from the Revised Ver-
sion show, the praj'er in Luke is much shorter than
that in Matthew, from which it differs, too, in ex-
pression. Possibly both were in circulation among
the early Christians; the one in Matthew, however,
is of a later origin, as is shown below :



I



Matthew.

Our Father which art in
heaven. Hallowed be thy
■name.

Thy Kingdom come. Thy
will be done, as in heaven so
on earth.

Give us this day our dally
[Greek : apportioned or need-
ful] bread.

And forgive us our debts, as
"we also have forgiven our
■debtors.

And bring us not into temp-
tation, but deliver us from the
evil one. [Addition in many
manuscripts : For thine is the
kingdom, and the power, and
the glory, for ever. Amen.]



Luke.

Father, Hallowed be thy
name.

Thy Kingdom come.



Give us day by day our daily
[apportioned] bread.

And forgive us our sins;
for we ourselves also forgive
every one that is indebted to
us.

And bring us not Into temp-
tation.



The prayer is a beautiful combination or selection
of formulas of prayer in circulation among the Ha-



sidaean circles; and there is nothing in it expressive
of the Christian belief that the ^lessiah had arrived
in the person of Jesus. On the contrary, the first
and principal part is a prayer for the coming of the
kingdom of God, exactly as is the Kaddish, with
which it must be compared in order to be thoroughly
understood.

The invocation " Our Father " = " Abinu " or Abba
(hence in Luke simply "Father") is one common
in the Jewisli liturgy (see Shemoxeii 'Esreh, the
fourth, fifth, and sixth benedictions, and comp. es-
pecially in the New-Year's ritual the
Original prayer " Our Father, our King ! Dis-
Form and close the glorj' of Thy Kingdom
Meaning, unto us speedily "). More frequent
in Hasida?an circles was the invocation
"Our Father who art in heaven " (Ber. v. 1 ; Y'oma
viii. 9; Sotahix. 15; Abot v. 20; Tosef., Demai, ii. 9;
and elsewhere: " Yehi razon mi-lifne abinu she-ba-
shamayim," and often in the liturgy). A comparison
with the Kaddisli ("May His great name be hal-
lowed in the world which He created, according to
His will, and may He establish His Kingdom . . .
speedily and at a near time"; see Baer, "'Abodat
Yisrael," p. 129, note), with the Sabbath "Kedush-
shah " ("Mayest Thou be magnified and hallowed in
the midst of Jerusalem ... so that our eyes may
behold Thy Kingdom "), and with the " 'Alha-Kol "
(Massek. Soferimxiv. 12, and prayer-book : "Magni-
fied and hallowed ... be the name of the supreme
King of Kings in the worlds which He created, this
world and the world to come, in accordance with
His will . . . and may M-e see Him eye to eye when
He returneth to His habitation ") shows that the
three sentences, " Hallowed be Thy name, " " Thy
Kingdom come," and "Thy will be done on earth as
in heaven," originally expressed one idea only — the
petition that the Messianic kingdom might appear
speedily, yet alwaj's subject to God's will. The
hallowing of God's name in the world forms part of
the ushering in of His kingdom (Ezek. xxxviii. 23),
while the words "Thy will be done" refer to the
time of the coming, signifjing that none but God
Himself knows the time of His "divine pleasure"
("razon"; Isa. Ixi. 2; Ps. Ixix. 14; Luke ii. 14).

The problem for the followers of Jesus was to
find an adequate form for this very petition, since
they could not, like the disciples of John and the
rest of the Essenes, pray " May Thy Kingdom come
speedily " in view of the fact that for them the Mes-
siah had appeared in the person of Jesus. The form re-
ported to have been recommended bj' Jesus is rather
vague and indefinite: "Thy Kingdom come "; and
the New Testament excgetes explain it as referring
to the second coming of the Messiah, the time of the
perfection of the kingdom of God (comp. Luke
xxii. 18). In the course of time the interpretation
of the sentence " Thy will be do«e " was broadened in
the sense of the submitting of everything to God's
will, in the manner of the prayer of R. Eliezer (1st
cent.): "Do Thy will in heaven above and give
rest of spirit to those that fear Thee on earth, and
do what is good in Thine eyes. Blessed be Thou
who hearest prayer! " (Tosef., Ber. iii. 7).

The rest of the prayer, also, stands in close relation
to the Messianic expectation. Exactly as R. Elie-



Lord's Prayer, The
Lot



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



184



zer (Mek. : "Eleaziir of :\Io(lin ") said: "He who
created the day created also its provision ; where-
fore lie who, while having sufficient
Relation to food for the day, says: ' What shall I
Messianic eat to-morrow V ' belongs to the men
Expecta- of little faith sucli as were the Israel-
tion. ites at the giving of the manna "

(Mek., Beshallah, Wayassa', ii. ; Sotah
48b), so Jesus said: "Take no thought for your

life, what yo shall eat or . . . drink O ye

of little faith. . . . Seek ye first the Kingdom of
God, . . . and all these things shall be added to
you" (Matt.vi. 25-34; Luke xli. 22-31; conip. also
Simeon b. Yohai, Mek. I.e.; Ber. 35b; Kid. iv. 14).
Faith being thus the prerequisite of those that wait
for the Messianic time, it behooves them to pray,
in the words of Solomon (Prov. xxx. 8, Ilebr. ;
comp. Bezah IGa), "Give us our apportioned bread "
("lehem hukki "), that is, the bread we need daily.
Repentance being another prerequisite of redemp-
tion (Pirke It. El. xliii. ; Targ. Yer. and Midr. Le-
kah Tob to Deut. xxx. 2; Philo, "De Execrationi-
bus," ^i5 8-9), a prayer for forgiveness of sin is also
required in this connection. But on this point spe-
cial stress was laid by the Jewish sages of old.
"Forgive thy neighbor the hurt that he hath done
unto thee, so shall thy sins also be forgiven when
thou prayest," says Ben Sira (Ecclus. [Sirach]
xxviii. 2). "To whom is sin pardoned? To him
who forgiveth injury" (Derek Erez Zuta viii. 3;
R. H. 17a; see also Jew. Encyc. iv. 590, s.v. Didas-
calia). Accordingly Jesus said : " Whensoever ye
stand praying, forgive, if ye have aught against any
one; that your Father also which is in heaven may
forgive you your trespasses" (Mark xi. 25, R. V.)-
It was this precept which prompted the formula
" And forgive us our sins [ " hobot " = " debts " ; the
equivalent of '"awonot" = "sins "] as we also for-
give those that have sinned [" hayyabim " = " those
that are indebted "] against us."

Directly connected with this is the prayer "And
lead us not into temptation." This also is found in
the Jewish morning prayer (Ber. 60b; comp. Rab:
"Never should a man bring himself into temptation
as David did, saying, ' Examine me, O Lord, and
prove me' [Ps. xxvi. 2], and stumbled" fSanh.
107a]). And as sin is the work of Satan (James i.
15), there comes the final prayer, "But deliver us
from tiie evil one [Satan]." This, with variations, is
the theme of many Hasidiean prayers (Ber. 10b-17a,
60b), "the evil one" being softened into "yezer
ha-ra' " = "evil desire," and "evil companionship"
or "evil accident"; so likewise "tiie evil one" in
the Lord's Prayer was later on referred to things
evil (see commentaries on the passage).

Tlie doxology added in Matthew, following a
number of manuscripts, is a portion of I Chron.
xxix. 11, and was the liturgical chant with wiiich
the Lord's Prayer was concluded in the Church; it
occurs in the Jewish ritual also, the whole verse
being chanted at tlie opening of the Ark of tlie Law.
On closer analysis it becomes apparent tliat the
closing verses, Matt. vi. 14-15, refer solely to the
prayer for forgiveness. Consequently the original
passage was identical with Mark xi. 25; and the
Lord's Prayer in its entirety is a later insertion in



^latthew. Possibly the whole was taken over from
the •' Didache " (viii. 2), which in its original Jewish
form may have contained the prayer exactly as
" the disciples of John " were wont to recite it.

Bibliography : F. H. Chase, The Lord's Praiic)- iti Die Early
Churcli, in Texts and Studies, 'M ed., Cambridge, 1891;
Charles Taylor, Saiii)iiis nf the Jewish Fathers. 1897, pp. 124-
130 ; A. Harnack, Die Ur'sprlumlietie (iestalt dcs Vatemn-
ser. in Sitziiiiiislierichte der KOiiigliclien Academic dcr
WisseuschafteiK Berliu, 1904.

K.

LORD'S SUPPER (called also The Last
Supper) : Name taken from I Cor. xi. 20, and given
by the Christian world to the I'ite known as the
eucharist, the partaking of the cup of wine and
the bread offered in memory of Jesus' death and
brought into connection with the story of liis
last meal, which he is said to have taken with his
disciples on the eve of his crucifixion. Accord-
ing to the synoptic Gospels (Matt. xxvi. 26-29;
Mark xiv. 23-25; Luke xxii. 15-18, 19), Jesus was
partaking of the Passover meal with his disciples on
the fourteenth of Nisan, before his capture by the
officers of the high priest. The Gospel of John,
however, knows nothing of the institution and
assigns the crucifixion to the fourteenth day of Ni-
san, the day when the Passover lamb is sacrificed.
This discrepancy shows that the identification
of the " crucified Christ " with the " lamb of God
which taketh away the sin of the world " (John i.
29 [adapted from Isa. liii. 7]; I Peter 1. 19; Acts
viii. 32; Rev. v. 6; and elsewhere) gradually led to
an identification of Jesus with the Passover lamb
also (see I Cor. v. 7).

Subsequently the mystic love-meals of the Mithra-
worshipers, who also broke bread and drank the
soma-wine in memory of Mithra's last supper (see
T. Cumont, " Die Mysterien des Mithra," pp. 99-101,
118-119, Leipsic, 1903), cau.sed the love-feasts of the
early Christians to be celebrated as actual remem-
brances of the last supper eaten by Jesus; and so
a special passage was inserted (I Cor. xi. 23-28, in-
terrupting the context, and contradictory to ib. x. 4)
in which the apostle rather oddly declares that
he had received from Jesus by inspiration the
statement that he had instituted the eucharist on the
night of his betrayal, giving the formulas for the
bread and the cup which, with some variations, ap-
pears in each of the three synoptic Gospels. Incom-
patible with the whole story, however, is the fact
that the Christian Didache (ix. 1-4; comp. Jew.
Encyc. iv. 587) gives the eucharist formulas for the
cup and the wine used in Christian circles without
any reference to the crucifixion or to the last sup-
per. This makes it probable that the institution
had developed out of the Essene communion-meala
and was only at a later time referred to Jesus.

The original idea of the Essene communion-feasts,
borrowed from Parseeism, remained attached to it:
the hope for the banquets (of leviathan) in paradise;
wherefore Jesus is reported as having especially re-
ferred to wine in the Kingdom of God (Matt. xxvi.
29; Mark xiv. 25; Luke xxii. 18, 30).

The whole story of the Passover celebration by
Jesus on the eve of his crucifixion thus arose in cir-
cles where real familiarity with Jewish law and life
no longer existed. It has, however, been argued that



185



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Loid's Player, The
Lot



Bibliography:
sella fteti.
s.



the ritual of the mass or communion service is derived
from that of tlie Passover eve service (see Bickell,
"Messc und Pasclia "). K.

IiORIA. See LfKiA.

LOKIA, ACHILLE : Italian political econo-
mist; born at Mantua March 2, 1857; eilucated at
the lyceum of his native city and the universities of
Bologna, Pavia, Home, Berlin, and London. He be-
came professor of political economy in the Tuiver-
sity of Sienna in 1881 ; and he lias held a similar ap-
pointment in the University of Padua since 1891.

Loria is the author of: "La Reudita Fondiaria e
le Sue Elisione Naturale," Milan, 1880; "Le Basi
Economiche della Costituzione Sociale," Turin,
1886 (translated into French 1893, German 1895, and
English 1899); " Analisi della ProprietaCapitalista,"
2 \o\s.,ib. 1889 (received the royal prize); "L'Opera
Postuma di Carlo ]Mar.\," Rome, 1895; " Problemi
Sociali Contemporanei," j\Iilan, 1896 (translated into
French 1897); "La Costituzione Economica Odi-
erna," Turin, 1899.

Conrad. HandwOrtcrb. der Staatuwisnen-

F. T. H.

LORIA, GINO : Italian mathematician ; born
at Mantua May 19, 1862; educated at the Mantua
lyceum and at the L'niversity of Turin, becoming
doctor of mathematics in 1884. The same year he
was appointed demonstrator in mathematics in the
University of Turin; in 1886, teacher at the military
academy, Turin; and in 1887, assistant professor in
the University of Genoa, where since 1891 he has
held the chair of descriptive geometry.

Loria's publications treat of pure mathematics and
its history, and have appeared in Italian and foreign
magazines. He is also the author of " II Passato ed
il Presente delle Principali Teorie Georaetriche," 2d
ed. 1896 (translated into German, Polish, and Eng-
lish).

s. F. T. H.

LORKI, IBN VIVES. See Ibn Vives Al-

LOKQX'I.

LORM, HIERONYMTJS. See Landesmann,
Heinrich.

LORRAINE. See Metz.

LOS ANGELES : Commercial and manufactur-
ing city in the state of California ; situated on the
left bank of the river of the same name, and about
14 miles from the Pacific Ocean. Jews first settled
in Los Angeles in 1849 ; and they increased in num-
ber so rapidly that within a few years they organ-
ized a congregation and erected a house of worship.
They also obtained from the city the grant of a tract
of land for a cemetery, and established a charitable
organization to afford decent burial for the poor.

At present (1904) the Jews number about 3,000 in
a total population of about 120,000. There are a
number of Jewish educational and charitable institu-
tions, of which may be mentioned : Ladies' Hebrew
Benevolent Society, Los Angeles Lodge I. O. B. B.
and two other B'nai B'rith lodges, Kaspare Cohn
Hospital Association, and Ladies' Aid Society. The
congregation has had five rabbis: A. W. Edelman,
E. Schreiber, A. Blum, M. G. Solomon, and S. Hecht,
the present incumbent.



The Jewish contingent of the population has taken
an active part in promoting the business interests of
the city, and a number of Jews are prominent as
bankers, manufacturers, real-estate dealers, whole-
sale-grocery merchants, etc. There are also several
Jewish physicians, lawyers, architects, and mechan-
ics. See Jew. Encyc. iii. 511, s.r. Calikounia.

A.

LOST PROPERTY. See Finder of Phop-
erty.

LOT (aii?).— Biblical Data : Son of Haran,
Abrahaui's brother, and, conseiiuently, nephew of
Abraham; enngrated with his grandfather, Terah,
from Ur of tlie Chaldees to Haran (Gen. xi. 31).
Lot joined Abraham in the land of Canaan, and in
the time of famine went with him to Egypt (ib. xii.
4, xiii. 1). Owing to Lot's riches in fiocks and
tents a quarrel arose between his herdsmen and
those of Abraham, the result of which was the sep-
aration of uncle and nephew. Lot chose the fertile
plain of the Jordan, and extended his tents to Sodom
[ib. xiii. 5-12). After the defeat of the King of Sod-
om and his allies in the valley of Siddim, Lot, who
had been dwelling among them, was taken prisoner,
with all his family and property, by Chedorlaomer;
but he was rescued by Abraham (ib. xiv. 12-16).

In Gen. xix. Lot is represented as the counterpart
of Abraham in regard to hospitality : like Abraham,
he rose to meet the angels, whom he took for men,
bowing to them; and, like Abraham, 'too, he
" pressed " them to enter his house and " made them
a feast " (ib. xix. 1-3). When his dwelling was sur-
rounded by the profligate people of Sodom, Lot
placed his duty as a host above that as a father and
offered them his two unmarried daughters. The
angels then announced to liim that their mission was
to destroy the guilty cities, and urged him to leave
the place. Lot tried, but unsuccessfully, to persuade
his sons-in-law to leave also. He himself hesitated
to flee, and the angels took him, his wife, and his two
daughters by the hand, "the Lord being merciful
unto him," and led him out of the city. They then
enjoined him to flee to the mountain without look-
ing behind him; but the mountain being so far off
Lot requested them to spare the small city of Zoar
in order that he might find refuge there ; and his
request was granted. During the flight to Zoar,
Lot's wife, who looked behind her, was turned into
a pillar of salt {ib. xix. 4-22, 26).

Lot, fearing that Zoar, also, might be destroyed
eventually, went up to the mountain and dwelt in a
cave, where, by an incestuous intercourse with his
two daughters, he became the ancestor of the two
nations Moab and Ammon (ib. xix. 30-38). Lot is
twice mentioned in the expression "' children of Lot,"
applied to Ammon and Moab (Dent. ii. 19; Ps.
Ixxxiii. 8).

E. G. H. M. Sel.
In Rabbinical Literature : Lot is gener-
ally represented by the Rabbis in an unfavorable
light. When the quarrel arose between his shep-
herds and those of Abraham (Gen. xiii. 7), there was
a quarrel between Abraham and Lot also. The lat-
ter sent his flocks to graze in fields that did not be-
long to him; and when Abraham, induced by the
complaints of the wronged owners, remonstrated.



liOt

liOtS



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



186



Lot showed himself rebellious (Taig. of pseudo-
Jonathan and Yer. to Gen. xiii. 7; Pesik. R. 3 [cd.
Friedmann. pp. 9b-10a] ; Gen. R. xli. 6-7). Lot,
while separating himself from Abraham, separated
himself from God also, saying, "I have no desire
either in Abraham or in his God " (Gen. R. xli.
9-10). It was only after the Avicked (" rasha' ") Lot
had left Abrahamthat God spoke again to the latter
(Pesik. R. I.e. ; comp. Gen. xiii. 14). Lot was given
over to lust; therefore he chose Sodom as his resi-
dence (Pesik. R. I.e. ; Gen. R. xli. 9), and his daugh-
ters' act of incest was due to his neglect. The
account of it Avas tiiercfore read every Saturday in
the svnagogues as a warning to the public (Nazir
23b; "Gen. R. li. 12).

The above-mentioned incident of the flocks shows
that Lot was not too conscientious ; he was besides
very greedy of wealth ; and at Sodom he practised
usury (Gen. R. li. 8). His hesitation to leave the
city (comp. Gen.
xix. 16) was due
to his regret for
his great wealth
which he was
obliged to aban-
don (Gen. R. 1.
17). The Rabbis
cited the drunk-
enness of Lot as
an example of
the degree of in-
toxication which
renders a man ir-
responsible ('Er.
65a). All the
special favors
which Lot re-
ceived from God
were granted
through the
merit of Abra-
ham ; otherwise
he would have
perished with
the people of

Sodom (Gen. R. xli. 4; Midr. ha-Gadol to Gen. xiii.
11). His being spared at the time of the destruction
of Sodom is recorded also as a nnvard for not hav-
ing betrayed Abraliam when the latter told Pharaoh
that Sarah was his sister {ib. li. 8).

The Pirke Rabbi p]li'ezer, however, shows a much
milder attitude toward Lot, interpreting the word
"zaddik" of Gen. xviii. 23 as referring to him
(Pirke \\. El. xxv.). Besides passing over in silence
Lot's shameful deeds, it records the hospitality
which, in imitation of Abraham, he practised at
Sodom: even after tlie people of Sodom had pro-
claimed that any hospitable person would be
burned, lie continued to practise it under cover of
night. This trait is mentioned also in Gen. R. (1. 8);
but it is there narrated in a manner which renders
Lot's merits insignificant. It is further said (ib. 1.
9; Lev. R. xxiii.) tliat Lot pleaded tlie whole



Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 46 of 169)