Isidore Singer.

The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) online

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without regard to gain or expectation of reward; so
also Bahya ben Asher, in his "Kad ha-Kemah," un-
der " Ahabali."

R. Eleazar of Worms, in his ethical work "Ro-
Ijeah," begins with the chapter on love, referring to
Sifre. Deut. 32, 41. 48; Ber. 54a; Yoma86a; Ned.
62a; Sotah31a; Tanna debe Eliyahu xxvi. ; Midr.

Teh. to Ps. xiii. 2 ("I love Thee; that is, 'I love
Thy creatures ' '") ; and Midr. Tadshc \ii., and stating
that ho who truly loves God subordinates all other
desires and cares to the one great object of life — the
fulfilment of God's will in joy. Still more exten-
sively does Elijah de Vidas, in his ethical work
"Re.shit Hokmah" (i)art 2), dwell on love as the
highest aim and motive of life. He also quotes the
Zohar (i. lib; ii. 114, 116a; iii. 68a, 264b, 267a; and
other passages), where it is frequently stated that
pure love is suppression of all care for self, and
through such love true union of the soul with God
is effected. This union is said by the cabalists to
take place in the celestial " jialace of love " (Zohar
i. 44b, ii. 97a).

Still greater importance was attached to love

when it was rendered acosmic principle in the i)hilo-

sophical systems of Hasdai Crescas and, through him,

of Spinoza. Instead of rendering the

As Cosmic creative intellect the essence of the

Principle. Deity, as did Maimonides and all the

Aristotelians, Crescas, like Philo of

old, makes love the essential quality 'of God. Love

is divine bliss, and hence love of God is the source

of eternal bliss for mortal man ("Or Adonai," i. 3,

5; comp. Spinoza's" Amor Intellectualis," v. 32-36;

see Joel, "Don Chasdai Creskas' Religionsphiloso-

phischeLehren," 1866, p. 37; idem, "Spinoza's The-

ologisch-Politischer Tractat," 1870, pp. ix.-xi.).

But, more than Crescas, it was probably Don
Judah Isaac Abravanel, known as Leo Hebk.kus,
from whom Spinoza borrowed the idea of "intellec-
tual love " as a cosmic principle, and who, following
the Platonic and pantheistic tendency of the period
of the Italian Renaissance, made (in his " Dialoghi
di Amore") the "amore intellectivo " and "amore
mentale " or " rationale " the essence of God and the
central force and end of the world. " Love links all
things together in the cosmos, but while love in the
natural world is sensual and selfish, divine love is
unselfish and uplifting. God's love created the
world and brings about the perfection of all things,
especially of man, who, when good, is God-loving-
as well as God-beloved, and whose love of God leads
him to eternal bliss, which is identical with divine
love." This intellectual love is identical with the
Biblical "to him [God] slialt thou cleave" (Deut. x.
20, xi. 22, xiii. 5; Sifre, Deut. 49; Sotah 14a) and
gives rise to the "imitatio Dei." It is highest per-
fection and supreme joy (B. Zimmels, "Leo He-
brseus," 1886, especially pp. 51, 67, 74-79, 89-
100). Leo Hebra'us' view of love as the principle
of the work! appears to have exerted some intluence
also upon Schiller in his "Philosophischc Briefe"
(1838, X. 289; Zimmels, l.r. pp. 8-11).

Bibmooraphy: Griinbaum, Der Gi-nndzng und Deftxen Ent-
wirklinm ilrr Liihr itv .Tiitlnithriwr. in (JeiRer's M W8.
Zfit. JfUI. Tficol. ii. ~'.S5, iii. 59. IW; SvlwnkeVs Bibellexicon.


LOVE-FEAST. See Agape.

LOVEMAN, ROBERT: American poet; born
at Cleveland, Ohio, April 11, 1864; educated and now
(1904) residing at Dalton, Ga. ; M. A., University of
Alabama. He has published the following volumes
of verse, which have won for him recognition from
contemporary critics: "Poems," Tuscaloosa, Ala.,




1889; "Poems," ib. 1893; "Poems," Philadelphia,
Pa., 1897; "A Book of Verses," ib. 1900; "The
Gates of Sileuce," New York, 1903.

Bibliography: Who's Who in America, 1903-6; Stedman,

.4)! A)r)crica)t, Anthology, New York, 1900 ; Adams, Diet, of



LOVINSON, EBMANNO (formerly Her-
mann) : German historiau ; boru iu Berlin June 3,
1863; educated at Berlin University (Ph.D. 1888).
Since 1889 he has lived in Italy, and since 1895 has
been assistant archivist of the royal state archives at

Lovinson's published works in German include:
"Beitrjige zur Verfassungsgeschichte der Westfali-
schen Reichsstiftsstadte," Paderborn, 1889; "Die
Mindeusche Chronik des Busso Watensted, eine Fal-
schung Paullinis, " ib. 1890 ; and " 1st die Gesch.
eine WissenschaftV " Berlin, 1893 (translated from
the Italian of P. Villari) ; in Italian : " Cristoforo
Colombo Nella Letteratura Tedesca, " Rome, 1893 ;
" Giuseppe Garibaldi e la Sua Legione Nello Stato
Romano 1848-49," ib. 1902. S.

LOVY, ISRAEL: French cantor and syna-
gogal composer ; born near Danzig Sept., 1778; died
in Paris Jan. 7, 1832. He received a Talmudic and
secular education at Glogau, where his father was
hazzan. Lovy traveled extensively, visiting the
greatest cantors of the time, and studying the works
of the greatest masters, especially those of Haydn
and Mozart. In 1799 he settled at Flirth, where
he became accomplished in violin, violoncello, and
piano, and proficient in French and Italian. After
having served for short terms congregations in
Mayence, Strasburg, and London, he was called in
1818 to Paris, where he officiated as cantor until his
death. Lovy wds gifted with a voice of unusual
strength, compass, and sweetness, and the greatest
masters of vocal music at Paris attended the Jewish
services to hear him sing. He received attractive
offers from the stage, but the Jewish Consistory of
Paris elected him for life and thus induced him to
remain as cantor. In IVLarch, 1822, his congregation
dedicated a new temple and introduced an organ and
boys' chorus. Lovy wrote all the music for the
organ and the new choir, and it was mainly the
beauty of his compositions that silenced the opposi-
tion of the Orthodox element of the communitj^
which at first protested against the innovation.

Bibliography : Mendel and Reismann, Musikalisehes Con-
vei'sations-Lexikon, Berlin, 1878; Arch.Isr. 1850 (biography
by his grandson Eugene Manuel).
s. I. War.

LOW, A. MAURICE: Anglo-American wri-
ter; born in London July 14, 1860. Educated at
King's College School in that city, and afterward
in Austria, he devoted himself to journalism. Since
1888 he has been correspondent at Washington,
D. C, for the "Boston Globe," and since 1896 for
the London " Daily Chronicle," being the first Wash-
ington correspondent to be appointed by an English

Low's journalistic positions have been many.
Since 1896 he has edited the American department
of the London "National Review"; he wrote "The
United States and Its Dependencies" for the "An-
nual Register" (London, 1901); and is a contributor

to the majority of the more influential magazines in
Eughuul and America, including " Collier's Weekly,"
"Harper's Weekly," "The Forum," "North Ameri-
can Review," "Scribner's," "]\IcClure's," and "The
Fortnightly Review." He is the author of "The
Supreme Surrender." a novel (New York, 1901).


rabbi of Carlsruhe; born at Minsk in 1754; died at
Carlsruhe July 23, 1837. He studied under his father,
Aryeh Lob, rabbi of Metz ; and when the latter had
become blind lie assisted him in conducting his
yeshibah or rabbinical college. In 1783 Asher was
elected rabbi of Niederwerrn, and in 1785 rabbi
of Wallerstein. When in 1809 the Grand Duke of
Baden organized the Jewisli congregations of his
country upon the Napoleonic model, Asher was
elected member of the consistorj' and chief rabbi
(" Oberrath " and " Landrabbiner ") of the grand
duchy. He accepted these positions in 1810, and oc-
cupied them until his death, declining a call to Paris
and, later, one to Metz. Asher was a strict Talmud-
ist of the old school, and very orthodox in his views,
though at the same time tolerant of those of others.

In his last years his health was very precarious,
and the work of the rabbinate was done by his as-
sistant, Elias Willstatter. Shortly before his death
he sent various manuscripts dealing with rabbinical
subjects to Wilna; but only some responsa were
published — in a work of his father, "She'elot u-
Teshubot Sha'agat Aryeh ha-Hadashot," Wilna,
1873. One of his sons, who adopted the family
name "Ascher," was rabbi of Biihl, and died there
Feb. 20, 1838.

Bibliography : Allg. Zeit. des Jud. 1837, pp. 252, 260.
J. S. Man.

LdW, BENJAMIN WOLF: Polish-Hunga-
rian rabbi; born in Wodzislaw, government of
Kielce, Poland, 1775; died at Verbo, Hungary,
March 6, 1851. His father, Eleazar Low, instructed
him in Talmudic literature, and at an early age he
became rabbi of a Polish congregation. In 1812,
following his father to Austria, he became rabbi
of Koliu, Bohemia. In 1826 he was called as rabbi
to Gross-Tapolcsany, Hungary, and in 1836 to
Verbo, where he spent the remainder of his life.
His only work is " Sha'are Torah," a treatise on the
principles of Talmudic law which shows the author's
methodical mind and vast knowledge of Talmudic
literature. Three parts of the work appeared in print
(Vienna, 1821 and 1850; Satoralja-Ujhely, 1872),
while the fourth part is still in manuscript. Wolf
Low was twice married ; his first wife, from whom
he obtained a divorce, was the daughter of Eph-
raim Zalman Margolioth of Brody ; the second was
the daughter of Isaac Landau, rabbi of Auschwitz.
Low's son Jeremiah, rabbi in Satoralja-Ujhely,
was the recognized leader of the Orthodox party in
Hungary and its spokesman in an audience which its
deputation obtained with the emperor in order to
protest against the establishment of a rabbinical sem-
inary (" Allg. Zeit. des Jud." 1864, p. 292). He was
nevertheless opposed to the secession of the Orthodox
from the whole body of Judaism and therefore re-
fused to take part in a congress planned by the Or-




thodox {lb. 1870, p. 786). Upon his death in 1872
lie was succeeded by his son Eleazar, wlio was later
called to the rabbinate of Uughvar, of which he is
still (1904) the incumbent. Otliergrandsonsof Wolf
Low are Abraham ami Benjamin Sing-er, joint
authors of " ILi-Madrik," a pcda.uogic anthology of
the Talmud. Moses Lob B:,ocir Avas Wolf Low's
nephew and pupil.

BiBiior.RAiMiv: Munz, TlnlM Elcasar, Gcnainit Schemen
RoliCiult, pp. 'M-WK Treves, 1895. J)

LOW, LEOPOLD : Hungarian rabbi ; born at
CzernalK^ra, Moravia, .May 22, 1811; died at Szege-
diu Oct. 13, 1875. He received liis preliminary edu-
cation at the ycshibot of Trebitsch, Koliu, Leipnik,
and Eisenstadt (1824-3")), and then studied philol-
ogy, pedagogics, and Christian theology at the Ly-
ceum of Presburgand at the universities of Pest h
and Vienna (I83r)-41). After having been a teacher
at Prossnitz, he succeeded to the rabbinate of Gross-
Kanizsa (Sept. 10, 1841).

L5w early in his career acquired a knowledge
of Ilunixarian, and was the first to introduce it into

the synagogue servi(;e,
his first sermon in that
language being printed
in 184o. In 1844 he be-
gan his literary activity
in behalf of the emanci-
pation Qf tlie Hungarian
Jews, taking the lead
in that struggle until
its object v.-as attained
(1867). The periodical
"Ben Chananja," edited
by him from 1858 to
- — — I 1867, was an especially

Leopold Low. influential factor in this

In 1846 Low had been called to Papa, where he
encountered many difiiculties. After the revolution
he was denoimced by his enemies, and was arrested,
but was pardoned by General Haynau (Dec. 14, 1849)
and liberated after two months' imprisonment. In
consequence of this persecution he accepted a call to
Szegedin, where he was installed Dec. 10, 1850. lie
refused subsequent calls to Lemberg, Brl'inn, and
Bucharest, as well as to the Ilochschule fiir die
Wisscnschaft des Judenthums at Berlin.

L5w brought his thorough knowledge of his-
tory, theology, and esthetics to bear upon tiie reform
of the ritual in agreement with modern views. He
was the foremost preacher of Hun-
Influence gary, especially in the vernacular,
on and was invited to participate in

Hungarian nearly all the patriotic celebrations
Reform, and synagogal dedications. Hisllmi-
gariau sermons (1870) formed the first
Jewish collection of the kind issued in that lan-
guage. Low combined the careful, logical arrange-
ment of the Christian sermon with a clever analysis
of complicated haggadic sentences. His studies,
begimiing witli the history of the Ilalakah, subse-
riuently includrd the entire Jewish archeologj- of
post-Talmudic time. He endeavored to determine
the development of Jewi-ili life and law as it ap-
pears in tlie halakic literature, and to disprove,

in the interest of Judaism, the view that Judaism
i-emained stationary in its manners and customs
down to the beginning of the Reformation in Ger-
many. His most important archcological studies and
respousawere written for the purpose of proving the
development of various institutions and of showing
the influence, in many cases, of foreign customs.

Low was a leading authority both from a scien-
tific point of view and in (juestions of practical the-
ology. The absolute (1850-66) as well as the consti-
tutional government (1867) of Austria and especially
that of Hungary were guided by the replies he
gave to their questions in matters referring to the
organization of the Jewish ritual and schools. Jew-
ish education throughout Hungary owes much to
him. Down to his death he was the leader of the
progressive Hungarian Jews, especially after the
general congress — wh'ch was convened against his
advice and in which he did not take part— had re-
sulted in a schism among the Jews of Hungary instead
of the union that had been anticipated.

Aside from his works on the Halakah, Low left
only one other larger Avork, " Ha-Mafteah " (1855),
a history (in German) of exegesis among the Jews:

this is still authoritative. After the
His Works, emancipation, when he gave up the

editorship of "Ben Chananja," he de-
voted himself to larger archcological monographs, of
which the following were published : "DieGraphi-
schen Requisiten" (1870-71) and "Die Lebensalter
in der Judischen Literatur" (1875). Fragments
of a third volume, "Der Synagogale Ritus," were
published posthumously (1884). His sinaller wf)rks
have appeared in five volumes (Szegedin, 1889-19()0),
the last of which contains a complete bibliography

of his works.

Bibliography : Low and Kulinyi, A Szegedi Zsidok, 1888, pp.
172-251. S.

Of Low's sons, Immanuel Low, a rabbi and
Orientalist (born at Szegedin. Hungary, Jan. 20,
1854). was educated at his native town and at Berlin,
where he studied at the Lehranstalt fur die Wisscn-
schaft des Judenthums and at the university, gradu-
ating as rabbi and as Ph. D. in 1878. The same year
he became rabbi in Szegedin, where he is still (1904)

Among his books may be mentioned: "Ara-
maischePflaiizennamen." Vienna, 1881; "A Szege-
di Zsidok, " Szegedin, 1885 ; " A Szegedi Ciievra. " ib.
1887; "Alkalmi Beszedek," //a 1891; "Az Ezredev
Nyolc Bcszed," ib. 1896; "Low Immanuel Besze-
dei," ib. 1900; "Imadsagok," 3d ed. ib. 1903; "V6-
rosmarty Miiiiilv," ib. 1900; "Szihigyi DezsO," ib.
1901; "TiszaKalman," rt. 1902; " Kossutli Lajos,"
ib. 1902; "Templomszentel5," ib. 1908; "Deak Fe-
renc," ib. 1903. He has furthermore contributed
articles on Syriac lexicography to various volumes
of the "Z. D. M. G.," and has edited the following
works: "Schwab Low, Emlekeztetes a Vallasban
Nyert Oktatasra," 5th ed. Szegedin, 1887; "LOw
Lipot, Bibliai TOrtenet," 10th ed. Budapest, 1902;
"Leopold Low: GesammelteSchriflen." i.-v., Szeg-
edin. 1SS«.)-11)00.

s F. T. H.

Another son, Samuel Low (born Sept. 11, 1846, at
I Papa; studied at Szegedin and Vienna [M.D. 1871]),




is a physician. In 1873 he went to Budapest, where
three years later he founded the "Pester Medizi-
nisch-Chirurgische Presse." In this periodical, of
wiiich he is (1904) the editor-in-chief, most of his
scientific articles have appeared.

A third son, Theodor Low (born Nov. 14, 1848,
at Papa), is a lawyer in Budapest. The following
are his chief works: "Iromany Pekhikaz uj Magyar
Csodeljarashoz " (Budapest, 1882), on the new Hun-
garian bankruptcy proceedings, and "A ^Magyar
BuntetoTorvenykonyv a Biintettekrol es Vetsegek-
rol " (ib. 1884), on the Hungarian criminal and civil


Bibliography : Szinnyei, Maouar Irak Elete; Low and Ku-
linyi, A Szcocdi Zsidoh, p. ~18.

s. L. V.

A fourth son, Tobias Ldw, was born June 5,
1844, at Gross-Kanizsa, Hungary, and died June
7, 1880, at Budapest, where he had been acting
attorney-general. In 1874 he founded the "Mag-
yar Igazstigiigy," a legal periodical in the inter-
ests of Hungarian jurisprudence and legislation.
L5w took an active part in the preparation of the
Hungarian penal code, for which he edited the ma-
terial (1880).

A fifth son, William. Low, is a lawyer and edi-
tor in New York city.

Bibliography : Szinnyei, Magyar Iruk Elete.


L6W, MORITZ : Astronomer ; born at Mako,
Hungary, in 1841 ; died in Steglitz, Berlin, May 25,
1900; studied at the universities of Leipsic and Vi-
enna, and received his Ph.D. degree from the Uni-
versity of Budapest (1867). After graduating he
became an assistant at the Leipsic observatory, and
in 1883 was appointed section chief in the Prussian
geodetic institute at Berlin, with the title of pro-

Low's principal works are: "Elemente der Plane-
ten " ; " Einfluss der Verbesserten Sternorter auf die
Polhohen der Gradmessung in Ostpreussen " ; "Pol-
hohe von Helgoland " ; " Zur Theorie der Passage-
Instrumente im Ersten Vertikal " ; " Astronomisch-
Geodatische Ortsbestimmungen im Harz " ; " Pol-
hohebestimmungen im Harzgebirge Ausgefuhrt
Bibliography : Allg. Zeit. des Jud. June 8, 1900 {Gemeinde-

bote, p. 3) ; Univ. Isr. June 15, 1900, p. 408.

s. N. D.

LOW, SAMUEL (called also Samuel KoUin,
or Kelin) : Talmudist; son of Nate (yOJ = Nathan)
lia-Levi; born at Kolin, Bohemia, about 1720; died
May 20, 1806, at Boskowitz, Moravia, where for
nearly sixty years he had presided over a yeshibah.
He wrote: "Mahazit ha-Shekel," an extensive sub-
commentary on Abraham Abele Gombiner's "Ma-
gen Abraham " on Shulhan 'Aruk, Orah Hayyim
(Vienna, 1807-8; 2d ed. 1817; several times re-
printed) ; " Hilkot Niddah " (Lemberg, 1858) ; and
" Hilkot Melihah " (ib. 1860). His &on Wolf Bosko-
witz delivered the sermon at his funeral ("Ma'amar
Esther," Ofen, 1837). His descendant in the fifth
generation. Dr. Max Anton Low, a convert to
Roman Catholicism, was the attorney of the anti-
Semite Deckert ("Mittheilungen der Gesell. zur
Abwehr des Antisemitismus," 1896, pp. 45, 48; 1897,
pp. 190, 246; " Oest. Wochenschrift," 1896, p. 65).
VIII.— 13

Bibliography : Walden, S)iem ha-GcdoUm hc-Hadash. ii. 44,
Warsaw, 1880; Renjacob, Omr Ixt-Sffarim, p. IKl ; Fiirst,
Bihl. Jiid. s.v. Ki)lli)i, Saiiiuel ; Zeiliier, Cat. Hehr. Books
Brit. Mils. p. 417.

D. S. Man.

LOWE, august : Russian mathematician and

author of iiialheinaticul works. Of his books the
best known are : " Obscheponyatnaya Teoriya Per-
spectivy," 1858; "Obscheponyatnaya Praktiches-
kaya Geometriya," 2d ed. 1860; "Nizshaya Geo-
desiya," 2d ed. 1861; " Prakticheskaya-Arif metika
Dlya Dyevitz," 1862; "Kurs Arifmetiki i Sobra-
niye Arifmeticheskikh Zadach," 2d ed. 1871; "Na-
clialnyya Osnovaniya Geometrii," 2d ed. 1871; and
"Arifmetika Dlya Nachalnykh Narodnykh Uchi-
lishch," 1872.

Bibliography : Entziklopedicheski Slovar, xvii. 430.
II. R. J. G. L.

L6WE ben BEZALEEL. See Judaii LOw


LOWE, JOEL : German commentator ; born in
1760; died in Breslau Feb. 11, 1802. He signed his
name in Hebrew writings as Joel 77'^3 ( = "son
of R. Judah Lob "). At the age of twenty he went
to Berlin, where he received instruction from Isaac
Satanow, who was a follower of Moses Mendelssohn.
In Berlin Lowe met Mendelssohn, his acquaintance
with whom soon ripened into friendship. Mendels-
sohn's influence Avas dmibtless instrumental in secur-
ing for Lowe the position of tutor in the house of
the influential David Friedlilnder. Lowe became a
most intimate friend of another prominent Men-
delssohnian, Isaac Abraham Euchel, whose first
work, a Hebrew biography of Mendelssohn, con-
tains a dedicatory letter addressed to Lowe. At the
close of his life Lowe was principal of the AVil-
helms-Schule in Breslau.

Lowe was an excellent Hebraist, grammarian, and
exegete, and, like most Mendelssohnians, was also a
" Schongeist." Conjointly with Aaron Wolfsohn he
edited "Ha-Meassef," in which periodical he pub-
lished a large number of poems and essays. He be-
longed to the bi'urists who assisted ISIendelssohn in
his commentaries on the Bible. His own main work
was a critical Hebrew commentary and an excel-
lent introduction to the Psalms (1788), which latter
forms a history of Biblical poetry; and he pub-
lished, also, Mendelssohn's German translation of
the Psalms in Hebrew letters. In company with
Aaron Wolfsohn, LOwe published Mendelssohn's
German translation of the Song of Solomon with a
Hebrew commentary. He was the first to translate
the "Haggadah shel Pesah" into German (1785).
Of his "' Ammude ha-Lashon," on the elements of
the Hebrew language, only the first part was pub-
lished (1794). He wrote also on chronology, and
was a contributor to Eichhorn's " Allgemeine Bibli-
othek der Biblischen Literatur." His plan to pub-
lish a Hebrew grammar on a large scale did not

s. E. SCHR.

LO WE, KONRAD : Austrian actor ; born at
Prossnitz, Moravia, Feb. 6, 1856. He took a law
course at the University of Vienna, and then went
on the stage (1878). After filling engagements in
various Austrian and German cities he was called in




1895 to the Hofburgtheater, Vienna, of which com-
pany he has since been a member. He plays heroic

LOwe has also been active as a writer and drama-
tist. He has published a volume of poetry enti-
tled "Leben uml Lieben" (Leipsic, 1890), and has
adapted Grabbe's " Herzog Theodor von Gothland "
(Vienna, 1892). S-

LOWE, LUDWIG : German physician ; born
at Berlin >Iarch 11, 1844. After graduating from
the gymnasium, he attended the universities of
Jena, Wiirzburg, Strasburg, and Breslau, leaving
the last institution with the degree of doctor of
medicine in 1872. In the following year he became
an assistant at the anatomical institute of the Uni-
versity of Strusburg, which position he held till
1875, when he became an assistant at the dermato-
logical hospital and dispensary of the Charite at
Berlin, resigning this position in 1876. In 1878 he
■was admitted to the medical faculty of the Univer-
sity of Born as lecturer on anatomy. He finally
returned to Berlin and establisiied himself as a spe-
cialist in diseases of the ear, nose, and throat.

Lowe has contributed several essays to medical
journals, and is the author of: "BeitrUge zur Ana-
tomic der Nase " (Berlin, 1878, 2d ed. 1883) ; " Bei-
trSge zur Entwicklungegeschichte des Nervensys-
tems" (vol. i., Berlin, 1880 ; vol. ii., Leipsic, 1883);
" Lehrbuch der Ohrenheilkunde," 1884.

F. T. H.

Bibliography : Pagel, Biog. Lex. 1901.

chael Siegfried Lowe) : German painter and en-
graver; born at Konigsberg, Prussia, June 24, 1756;
died there May 10, 1831. Aided by the friendship
and inHuence of the Friedlander family, he had
achieved such a reputation by 1780 that the em-
press Catherine II. of Russia commissioned him to
paint her portrait. His pictures were among the
most popular in the German exhibitions, and he
was one of the foremost miniaturists and pastel-
painters of his time. He was also a master of the
game of chess. His "Bildnisse Jetzt Lebender Ber-
liner Gelehrten mit Selbstbiographien " (Berlin,
1806-7) was praised by Goethe ("Werke," xxviii.
60 et seq.).

BiBLiOfJRAPMY: Aii(?. Hajren, IVeue PreusMsche Prnviiizial-
hliltter, HI. 'M~ et seq.\ Jolowlcz, Gesch. der Judeii in KO-
niashcrg, p. 102.
n. M. K.

LOWENBERG, JULIUS : German geogra-
pher; born at Strzelno, Prussia, 1800; died at Berlin
Dec. 12, 1893. He was educated in Berlin, where he
became accjuainted with Alexander vou Humboldt,
who assisted him in various ways. He wrote:
"Afrika" (1835); " Historisch-Gcographischcr At-
las" (1836-40); "Gesch. der Geographic" (1840);
"Alexander von Humboldt" (1842); "Humboldt's

Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 48 of 169)