Isidore Singer.

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Reisen in Anicrika und Asicn " (1844); "Gesch. der
Geographischen Entdeckungen " (1882); "DieEnt-
deckungs- und Forschungsreisen in den Beiden
Polarzonen" (1886). His last years he spent in tl^e
Jewish home for aged people in Berlin,

Bibliography: .41/(7. Zeil. de«Jud. Dec. 21, 1893; Kurschner,
lAteratur-Kalendcr, 1898.
J. D.

LOWENFELD, LEOPOLD : German physi-
cian ; born in Munich Jan. 23, 1847; educated at
the gymnasium and university in his native city
(M.D. 1870). During the Franco-Prussian war he
was assistant physician in a Bavarian field-hospital.
After several years of practise in the United States,
he settled permanently in his native city (1875).

Lowenfeld has published: "Studien ilber Aeti-
ologie und Pathogenese der Spontanen Hirnblutun-
gen," 1886; "Sexualleben urid Nervenleiden," 1891;
"Pathologic und Therapie der Neurasthenic und
Hysteric," 1893; "Lehrbuch der Gesammten Psy-
chotherapie," 1897; "Der Hypnotismus: Haudbuch
der Lehre von der Hypnose und der Suggestion,"
1901; "Die Psychischen Zwangserscheinungen, auf
Klinischer Grundlage Dargestellt, " 1904; "Die
Moderne Behandlung der Nervenschwache," 4th
ed. 1904. S.

LOWENGARD, MAX: German rabbi; born
in Wiirttemberg ; died at Basel May 25, 1876. He
was a friend of Berthold Auerbach and a diligent
student of Schelling's philosophy. Though a fer-
vent advocate of Reform in his youth, he became a
zealous supporter of Orthodoxy in the latter part of
his life, after having occupied rabbinates in Geben-
hausen and other communities of Wiirttemberg. He
was the author of " Beitrage zur Kritik der Reform-
bestrebungen in der Synagoge" (Stuttgart, 1841);
" Auch Einige Worte Ueber das Neue Gebetbuch im
Hamburger Tempel" (Tiibingen, 1842); and "Je-
hova, Nicht Moloch, War der Gott der Hebraer," a
refutation of Ghillany's "Die Menschenopfer der
Alten Hebraer" (Berlin, 1843). The first work ap-
peared under the pseudonym " Juda Leon."

Bibliography : Furst, Bihl. Jud. 11. 269 ; Steinschneider, Cot.
Bodl. col. 1629 ; Kayserling, Sterbetage, p. 22, Prague, 1891.

s. I. Bu.


LoEB BEN Saul.

LdWENSTAMM, SAUL: Rabbi and Tal-
mudist; born at Rzeszow 1717; died at Amsterdam
June 19, 1790. He is known as the author of "Bin-
yan Ariel" (Amsterdam, 1778), which title he chose
as a pun on " Ben Aryeh." As he tells in the preface,
he was appointed rabbi at CJ»t2pN^ (Lakacz, Hun-
gary?), and afterward at Dubno in succession to his
father-in-law, Abraham Kahana (d. 1749); and in
1755 at Amsterdam, on the death of his father, Levi


Besides "Binyan Ariel," Saul Lowenstamm wrote:
annotations on Niddah (Amsterdam, 1765), on tlie
Shulhan 'Aruk {ib. 1765), on the Pentateuch (t6. 1768-
1777), on the Mishnah (ib. 1775), and many approba-
tions and poems (1766-78). His " Binyan Ariel " is di-
vided into three parts: (1) annotations on the Penta-
teuch ; (2) on the Five Rolls; and (3) on some pas-
sages from tlie Talmud.

LOwenstamm devoted much attention to the bet
iia-niidrash founded by his father. Tlie generosity
of the members of the community enabled him to
build a new home, which he occupied June 22, 1778.

Some of the memorial addresses delivered on his
death liave been published. He was succeeded by
his son Jacob Moses Lowenstamm.




Bibliography : Landshutb, Talcdnt A)tghe Shcni, pp. 70, 118,
Berlin. 1884 ; Buber, Aiislie Shenu P- ^9. Crarow, 1»<9.5; Shc-
'erit Ym-ael Uransl. Polak),p. HIT; Wagenaar, Een 0\id <lc-
hiiuw, Amsterdam, 1881; Koenen, Geschiedenin der Yodeii
in Nederland, p. 369.
D. E. hh.


Russian niathoinatician ; born at Wolodurka, Russia,
in the second quarter of the nineteenth century. He
■wrote: "Bikku re ha-Limmudiyyot," explanations of
mathematical passages in the works of Abraham ibn
Ezra, Moses Maimonides, and Joseph Delmedigo.
He also annotated and published a second edition of
•'Shebile di-Rekia'," by Elias ben Hayyim Kohen
Hochheimer, on the rules of the calendar, with the
elements of geometry, trigonometry, and astronomy
(Warsaw, 1863).

Bibliography : Zeltlin, BiU. Poat-Mendds. p. 217.
u. S. Man.

rabbi; born at Meseritz, province of Posen, Feb. 1,
1821 ; died at Lemberg March 15, 1889. Upon the
recommendation of Ludwig Philippson he was
elected preacher in Szent Miklos, Liptau, Hungary
(1845), where he became known as the pioneer of
the modern synagogue service in Hungary. In 1857
be left Szent Miklos for the rabbinate of Butscho-
witz, Moravia, whence, shortly afterward, he was
called as rabbi to Lemberg. Lowenstein was an im-
pressive preacher and an indefatigable communal
worker. He was twice decorated by the Emperor
of Austria. In addition to some sermons, he pub-
lished a volume of poems under the title " Jildische
Klauge" (Briinn, 1862).

Bibliography : Teller, Shem "Olam, Cracow, 1889; Buber,
Amhc Shem, p. 126, Cracow, 1895.

LOWENSTEIN, L. H. : Hebrew scholar ; died
at Fraukfort-ou-the-Main about 1850. He was re-
viser in the publishing-house of Isaac Lehrberger at
Rodelheim, which office was afterward held by Se-
ligman Baer. He published: The Book of Prov-
erbs, edited from manuscripts, with a Hebrew com-
mentary and a German metrical translation (Frank-
fort-on-the-Main, 1838); "KolBokim," the Book of
Lamentations, with a Hebrew commentary and a
German metrical translation, to which he added
various dirges introduced into the liturgy of the
Synagogue («6. 1838); "Damascia: die Judenverfol-
gung zu Damascus und Ihre Wirkung auf die Oef-
fentliche Meinung, Nebst Nachweisungen liber den
Ursprungder Gegen die Juden Wiederholten Beschul-
digung des Ritualmords" (Rodelheim, 1840; 2d ed.
1841); "Mizmorle-Todah," an ode addressed to Moses
Montefiore on his return from the Orient (ib. 1841);
" Stimmen Berlihmter Christen liber den Damascener
Blutprozess " {ib. 1842). He also edited the Penta-
teuch with Targum Onkelos, Rashi's commentary,
and an explanation of the French words occurring
in the last-named (2 vols., ib. 1848).

Bibliography: Fiirst, BibLJwd. li. 270; Steinschneider, Cat.
Bodl. cols. 154, 1630.

D. S. Man.

born in Gailingen, Baden, Dec. 1, 1843. He at-
tended the gymnasium at Bischof.sheim-on-the-Tau-
ber, receiving at the same time instruction in the

Talmud from his father, who was district rabbi
there. He subsequently entered the University of
Wiirzburg (1862), attending concurrently the Tal-
mudic lectures of Rabbi Seligmann Bar Bamberger,
and then went to the yeshibah of Rabbi Israel Hil-
desheimer at Eisenstadt, Hungary. In 1872 he be-
came district rabbi in his native place, and ex-
changed that position in 1887 for his present one in
Mosbach, Baden, where he officiates as rabbi for the
three districts of Mosbach, Merchingen, and Wert-
heim. In 1891 he was decorated with the Zilhringer

L5vvenstein published: "Gesch. der Juden am
Bodensee"(1879), and "Beitiage zur Gesch. der Ju-
den in Deutsciiland," i. 1895, ii. 1898; since 190O
he has edited the -'Blatter filr Jiidische Gesch. und
Literatur," which appears as a supplement to "Der
Israelit " of !Mayence. S.

LOWENSTEIN, RUDOLF: German author;
born at Breslau Feb. 20, 1819; died at Berlin Jan.
6, 1891. When only nine years of age he was bap-
tized. Educated at the gymnasium at Glogau and
the universities of Breslau and Berlin, he received
the degree of Ph.D. in 1843.

As early as 1836 some of Loweiisteiu's poems had
been printed in the journals of Silesia; and his rep-
utation was established by the appearance in 1846
of his "Der Kindergarten," a collection of songs
for children. In 1848 he with David Kalisch and
Ernest Dohm founded the well-known " Kladdera-
datsch," of which he became one of the chief editors.

The revolution of 1848 found Lowenstein on the
liberal side, and he was expelled from Prussia in
1849 for his political activity. Returning to Berlin
in 1850, he resumed the editorship of "Kladdera-
datsch " and continued in this capacity for thirty-
seven years. In 1863 he became editor also of the
political part of the " Gerichtszeitung." In 1887 he
retired from public life.

Besides his "Der Kindergarten," he wrote "Ehret
die Frauen," Berlin, 1874, and many songs, most of
which were set to music.

His political poems in the " Kladderadatsch "
gained him a wide reputation, especially those writ-
ten during the eventful period 1860-80.

Bibliography: Jew. Chron. Jan. 9. 1891, p. 7 ; De le Rol,
Juden-Missi())u i. 354; Briimmer, Deutsches DicJder-Lexi-
koiu Eichstadt and Stuttgart, 1876. in m tt

8. F- T. H.

rian chess-master; born July, 1810, in Budapest;
died at St. Leonard 's-ou-Sea, England, July 20,
1876. He was educated at the gymnasium of his
native city, and received a civil appointment under
the administration of Louis Kossuth. On the down-
fall of the latter, Lowenthal was expelled from Aus-
tria-Hungary, and he emigrated to America (1849).
In 1851 he went to London, and thenceforward re-
sided permanently in England. At the Manchester
tourney of 1857 Lowenthal defeated Anderssen for
first place; in 1858 he lost a match with Morphy ;
and in the same year he gained first prize at Bir-

Lowenthal was for some time chess editor of
" The Illustrated News of the World " and of " The
Era." He was editor also of "The Chess Players'




Magazine" (1863-67). In 1860 he published "Mor-

phy's Games of Chess, with Analytical and Critical

Notes." Under the influence of W. G. Ward, with

whom he played chess, Lowenthal became a Roman


Bibliography : Diet. Nat. Dioy.

J. A. P.

LdWENTHAL, NATHAN : Russian histolo-
gist; born in 18.56; educated at the Academj' for
Physicians and Surgeons at St. Petersburg and at
the universities of Kiev and Geneva. From 1881
to 1884 he was assistant to Schiff at Geneva, but he
went to Lausanne in the latter j'ear as assistant
professor of histology, becoming professor in 1890.

LOwenthal is the author of the following mono-
graphs: "Ueber den Unterschied der Secundaren
Degeneration des Seitenstranges nach Hirn- und
Ruckenmarksverletzungen," in Pflilger's "Archiv
fiir Physiologic," 1883; "Contribution Experimen-
tale a I'Etude des Atrophies Secondaires du Cor-
don Posterieur et de la Colonne de Clarke," in "Re-
cueil Zoologique Suisse," 1885-86; (in collabora-
tion with Herzen) " Trois Cas de Lesion Medullaire, "
etc., in "Archives de Physiologic Normale et Patho-
logique," 1886; "Experimentalisch-Anatomischer
Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Bahnen im RUckenmark
und Gehirn " ; " Notiz ilber die Protoplasmastructur
der Kornzellen des Eierstockes, " and " Zur Kenntniss
desKeimfleckes im Ureie Einiger Sauger,"in "Ana-
tomischerAnzeiger," 1887-95; " Die Spermatogenese
bei Oxyuris Ambigua," "Die Befruchtung, Rei-
fung, und Teilung desEies von Oxyuris Ambigua,"
and " Die Harder'sche Driise," all in " Internationale
Monatsschrift fur Anatomic," 1889-96; "ZurFrage
liber die Anwendung von Terpentinol in der His-
tologischen Technik," in "Centralblatt fiir Phy-
siologic," 1889; "Technisch-Histologische JSTotiz "
and " Ueber eine Neue AlkoholischeCarminlosung,"
in "Zeitschrift fur Wissenschaftliche Mikroskopie,"
1893-1902; "Contribution a I'Etude du Lobe Olfactif
des Reptiles," in "Journal de 1' Anatomic et de la
Physiologic," 1894; " Driisenstudien " and "Beitrag
zur Kenntniss der Struktur und der Teilung von
Bindegewebszellen," in " Archiv fiir Mikroskopische
Anatomic," 1900-3; "Beitrag zur Kenntniss derBe-
ziehungcn der Taenia Semicircularis," in "Morpho-
logisches Jahrbuch," 1902. He has written also two
books: "Questions d'llistologie: La Cellule et les
Tissus," Paris, 1901; and "Atlas zur Vergleicheden
Histologic der Wirbclticrc," Berlin, 1904. S.

er and writer; born Feb. 25, 1819, at Sclimiegel ;
died at Posen Feb. 28, 1855. He attended the gym-
nasium in Li.ssa and the universities of Berlin and
Breslau, where he devoted himself principally to
the study of philosophy, mathematics, and the natu-
ral sciences. He took his degree at Halle in 1841,
and in 1844 passed the examination "pro facultatc
dorendi "at Berlin. Lciwenthal was tlic first Jew in
Prussia to be appointed a head teacher, and that at
a municii)al teclinical school ("Realschule") in Po-
sen. Besides many treatises in technical periodicals,
he published "Die Physiologic des Freien Willcns,"
Leipsic, 1843.

Bibliography : AUg. Zeit. des Jud. xlx. 203.

t* M. K.

LOWI, ISAAC : German rabbi ; bom at Adels-
dorf, near Erlangen, Bavaria, Jan. 31, 1803; died at
Flirth Dec. 26, 1873. He received his Talmudical
training at the yeshibah of Wolf Hamburger at
Fiirth, and studied philo.sophy and philology at the
University of Munich. He was rabbi of Uhlfeld
from 1827 to 1830. when he was elected district
rabbi of Fiirth. Though his election was duly
contirmed by the government (Dec. 1) the opposition
of the Orthodox party rendered necessary a decree
of installation by King Ludwig I. (March 10, 1831).
As early as Dec' 30, 1831, and Feb. 29, 1832, his ad-
versaries, among whom was his former teacher,
Wolf Hamburger, petitioned the government to de-
pose Lijwi for teaching irreligious doctrines in his
sermons and in the school and for introducing re-
forms into the divine services without regard to an-
cient customs and religious laws. For nearly eight
years this suit was pending, until the government,
by an order of Oct. 23, 1838 (renewed April 13, 1839),
enjoined upon Lowi "to be more careful in his
words and actions and to have more regard for those
who conform to the true Mosaic ceremonials and
who do not adhere to ' pernicious neology. ' " Lowi
was also sentenced to pay one-third of the costs of
the suit; in the following year he was enjoined
from performing the rite of confirmation. When
the Orthodox party renewed its attacks, the govern-
ment (1842) ordered a new election, which resulted
in a strong majority for LOwi, after which he was
allowed to perform the ceremony of confirmation.

Lowi's opponents ncvcrtlieless continued their
complaints and insisted upon Ins dismissal; the gov-
ernment again decided in his favor, but allowed the
dissatisfied members to elect for themselves an Or-
thodox rabbi who might officiate at weddings and
decide religious questions. The agitation against
L5wi gradually ceased. He stood in high esteem
with King Ludwig II., who knighted him in 1869.
In Lowi's last years Emil Neubilrger became his
assistant, succeeding him upon his death. From
1857 to 1872 the young congregation of Nuremberg
was included in his rabbinical district. When, on
Dec. 23, 1856, by order of the district government,
the magistrate of Fiirth requested him to serve as
the spiritual guide of the Nuremberg Jews, L5wi
declined, giving as his reason their religious indif-
ference. But when the government insisted and a
committee of the Jews of Nuremberg expressed
regret for their former conduct, he accepted the
added responsibility (Feb. 1, 1857). Lowi lent effi-
cient aid in establishing the Nuremberg congrega-
tion and in regulating its religious affairs.

BiRLinciRAPiiY: AUq. 7A'it.i}eft.Tud. 1839, pp. 244 r/ .ic(7.; 1841,
p. tilO; 184:5, p. 48; 1844, p. 2.59; 1847, p. 598: 1869. p. 745;
1874. pp. 24, 44: OHent, 1844, pp. 141, 164; Barbeck. Geitch.
(lerJuden in Nilrvhera und hllrth, pp. 90. 98, Nuremberg.
1878; Jost, Neuere Oe.«c/i. 1. 145; Zlenilich, Dif Israelitische
KvUusgcmeinde Nilniberg, passim, Nuremberg. 1900.
I). S. Man.

JUD AH IiOB: Husso- Polish scholar and journal-
ist; born in Grodno 1832; died in Warsaw Feb. 13,
1878. A son of tiie rabbi of Grodno, he was trained
in Talmud, and then studied l{iissian, German, Po-
lish, and French, wliich he mastered in a very short
time. Thus equipped he entered upon a journalis-




tic career. He publislied numerous articles in Rus-
sian papers, and wlien, in 1862, Daniel Neufeldt
founded the Jutrzenka, L5winsohn became an act-
ive collaborator on it, always defending the inter-
ests of his coreligionists. He was a great contro-
versialist, and had heated discussions with R. Hirsch
Kalischer in "Ha-Maggid,"and with L.J. Shapiro
in the " Jutrzenka. "

He settled in Serhei, government of Suwalki,
where he made the acquaintance of David Gordon,
editor of "Ha-Maggid," and Rabbi Hayyim Fillip-
power. About 1868 he passed his examination at
the Rabbinical Seminary of Wilna, where he Avas
ordained rabbi ; but he never accepted a rabbinate.

Of his first work, "Ha-Adam be-Zelem Elohim"
(Konigsberg, 1855), only a limited number of cop-
ies were printed, w-hich he distributed among his
friends. His numerous articles and essays on Jew-
ish literature and science he published under the
nom de plume p.Q.V

Bibliography: L. J. Shapiro, In Oan Perahim, pp. 63-65.
Warsaw, 1890 ; Shapiro and Gordon, in Ha-Maggid, 1878, No.
10, p. 80.

n. R. L S. B.

LOWISOHN, SOLOMON : Historian and poet ;
born in Mor, district of Stuhlweissenburg, Hun-
gary, in 1788; died there April 27, 1821. He stud-
ied at the yeshibah of Prague, among his fellow
students being his relative Moses Saphir, the hu-
morist. He subsequently became a corrector in
the printing establishment of Anton Edler von
Schniid in Vienna.

Lowisohn's works include: "Sihah be-'Olam ha-
Neshamot" (Prague, 1811); "Melizat Yeshurun "
(Vienna, 1816), poems; "Mehkere Erez," treating
of the topography of the Bible. He wrote also for
the Mishnah edition published in 1815 an essay on
the language of the Mishnah. Further, he trans-
lated and annotated the festival prayers, and part
of the ritual for the 9th of Ab (Vienna, 1819). His
most important work is "Vorlesungen iiber die
Neuere Gesch. der Juden" (ib. 1820), of which the
first volume only was published.

Bibliography : Ignatz Reich, Beth-El, i. 72-77 ; A. Biichler,
A Maori Chevra^KadUia TOrtenete, Budapest. 1891 ; A.
Biichler, Egii Mani/ar Zsidn K6lt6, in Izraelita Magyar,
EvkOnyve, i. 387-403 ; Pallas Lex. xl.
6. A. Bu.

L5WY, ADOLF: German physiologist; born
in Berlin June 29, 1862; educated at the gymnasium
and university of his native city (M.D. 1885), where
he became privat-docent in phj'siology at the latter
in 1895, and assistant professor in 1900. For his
monograph " Untersuchungen iiber die Respiration
und Circulation bei Aenderung des Druckes und des
Sauerstoffgehaltes der Luft," Lowy received a prize
from the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, in
1895. Numerous other publications of his have ap-
peare<l in Pfliiger's "Archiv fiir die Gesammte
Physiologic," in the "Archiv fiir Anatomie und
Physiologic," and in " Virchow's Archiv." S.

LdWY, ALBERT : English rabbi and commu-
nal worker; born at Aussee, Moravia, Dec, 1816.
He studied first at Olmiitz, and then moved to Vi-
enna, where under Professor Steinschneider he began
a systematic study of Hebrew and Arabic. A few

years after the formation of the Reform Synagogue in
London, Lowy was appointed minister in association
with the Rev. Professor Marks, whom he assisted
in compiling the prayer-book of the congregation,
lie served for fifty years, retiring in 1892. From
1871 to 1889 he acted as secretary of the Anglo-Jew-
ish Association, which, with Dr. Benisch, he had
helped to found.

LOwy's knowledge of Samaritan literature enabled
him to collect and catalogue the Samaritan manu-
scripts belonging to the Earl of Crawford and Bal-
carres. He printed in the "Trans. Soc. Bibl.
Arch.," 1875, the first specimen of a dialect of
Aramaic current among the Jews of Urmia; and his
contribution gave rise to the subsequent literature on
the subject. In 1891 he printed a " Catalogue of He-
braicaand Judaica in the Library of the Corporation
of the City of London," with a copious suljject-in-
dex. In recognition of his researches, the L^niver-
sity of St. Andrews conferred upon him in 1893 the
honorary degree of LL.D.

Lowy helped to found the Society of Hebrew Lit-
erature ; and he has been a frequent lecturer before
the Society of Biblical Archeology and other learned

Bibliography: Jew. Chrmi. Dec. 4, 1876; Jew. World, Dec.
22, 1899 ; Young Israel, 1897.
J. G. L.

LOWY, JACOB EZEKIEL : German rabbi
and author; born at Ilotzenplotz, Austrian Silesia,
Aug. 24, 1814; died at Beuthen Nov. 20, 1864. After
attending various yeshibot in his native country,
he became a pupil of Wolf Low in Nagy Tapol-
csany, and then, inclining to Hasidism, he went suc-
cessively to Lembergand Brodyin order to continue
his rabbinical education. Finally he went to Berlin,
where he acquired some secular learning. Having
obtained after great difficulties a license to marry,
he settled as a business man in Bielitz, and in 1846
was appointed district rabbi of Wadowice, with a
seat at Oswiecin (Auschwitz). In 1854 he was
elected rabbi of Beuthen, which position he contin-
ued to hold until his death.

Lowy was the author of "Bik^oret ha-Talmud:
Kritisch-Talmudisches Lexikon " (vol. i., Vienna,
1863), containing 150 articles for a proposed Tal-
mudic encyclopedia.

Bibliography : Die Neuzeit, No. 1, Vienna, 1865.

s. D.

LTJAH. See Almanac ; Calendar.

Russian writer; born at Balta Sept., 1878. He was
educated in a familj- of Hasidim, in the Odcssjx
Commercial School, and in the Riga Polytechnical
Institute. In 1897, while a student in the latter in-
stitute, he joined the Zionist movement. Shortly
after he went to Palestine, where he visited the
Jewish agricultural colonies, which he described in
a series of articles under the title "V Stranye Pred-
kov." Returning to Odessa in 1898, he wrote "Pa-
lestina," descriptive of the Holy Land and of the
condition of the Jews there (Warsaw, 1900). In
1900 Lubarsky graduated from the Riga Polytech-
nical Institute (as engineer), and is now (1904) pursu-
ing his studies in Berlin. He has contributed numer-




ous articles to the Russo-Jewish periodicals, and, in
1903, published a pamphlet, " Shestoi Kongress Sion-
istov," on the subject of the Sixth Zionist Congress.
His father, Abraham Elijah, is a well-known Zionist.
n. R. J- L. La.

IitfBECK: Free city of Germany; situated on
the River Trave, not far from the Baltic Sea; it
forms, with the surrounding territory, a free state.
In 1900 it had a population of 82,813, including 663
Jews. Like most of the free cities of Germany,
Labeck did not tolerate the Jews. In 1350 the city
council wrote to Duke Otto of Brunswick-Llineburg
requesting him to exterminate the Jews living in his
territory, as tiicy were responsible for the plague,
which would not cease until all Jews had been killed.
As the council
does not men-
tion any order
to this effect
in the city, it
is clear that
Jews could not
have lived
there before
then. In 1499
the local chro-
Reimer Kock,
states express-
ly that "there
are no Jews in
L I'l beck, as
they are not
needed here.'"
The Thirty
Years' war
and, perhaps,
the Chmiel-
nicki persecu-
tions in Poland
seem to have
caused a num-
ber of Jews to
go to Lubock.
The gild of the
complained in
16 5 8 that
" many Jews
and other su.s-

picioiis characters sneak daily into the citv
deal in precious metals" ; and the council decreed,
April 15, 1677. that no Jew should be permitted to
stay in the city overnight without the express per-
mission of the senate, which was rarely given. In
1680 two "Sciiutzjudeu" of the senate, Samuel
Frank and Natlian Siemsscns, are mentioned. But
•wlien the senate accej^ted Siemssen's son-in-law,
Nathan Gold.><clunidt, as "Sciiutzjude," tlie citizens
objected, and wherever he rented a liouse the neigh-
bors protested to the senate. It was, perhai>s. due
to an intrigue that Goidschmidt was accused of
having received stolen goods (Feb. 15, 1694); the
trial dragged on for at least five years, and its result
is not known. Tlie gilds continued to demand of

the council the expulsion of all Jcavs, and finally
saw their wishes fulfilled (March 4, 1699). In spite
of that victory of the gilds, Jews not only made
brief visits to the city, but the council permitted, as
early as 1701, one Jew to remain as " Schutz jude " in
consideration of an annual payment of 300 marks
courant (§84).

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