Isidore Singer.

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The great ditliculties which stood in the way of
prospective Jewish settlers in Liibeck suggested the
evasion of the prohibition by a settle-
Settlement ment in the neighboring territory of
in Neigh- Denmark. A number of Jews, mostly
borhood. Polish fugitives, settled in the vil-
lage of Moisling as early as 1700,
and, in spite of constant protests by the gilds, the
council had to grant them, as Danish subjects, the

right to enter
the city, al-
though under
great restric-
tions. Desir-
ing to obtain
over the Jews
in Moisling,
the city of Lii-
beck acquired,
in 1765, the
estate whose

w n e r h a d
feudal rights
over tiic inhab-
itants of that
village; when,
in 1806, the
King of Den-
mark ceded the
district tliat
included ^lois-

1 in g, to L li-
beck the Jews
there became
subjects of the
latter city.
But when Li'i-
beck was an
n e X e d to
France (Jan. 1,
1811) all dis-
ceased ; the

special taxes of the "Schutzjuden" were abolished,
and many Jews of Moisling, as well as of other places,
moved to Liibeck, where tluy at once purchased a
lot for a synagogue. In the following years their
numbers were rapidly augmented, especially in
consequence of the expvdsions during the siege of
Hamburg. As soon, however, as the French domi-
nation had ceased, the senate began to debate the re-
striction of the Jews, to whom it proposed giving " an
appropriate new constitution "(1815), while the gilds
peremptorily demanded their expulsion. Tlic Jews
protested against tliis viohition of tlieir rigiits, and,
together with the Jewish citizens of other free cities,
appealed to the Congress of Vienna, engaging Carl
August Buchholz as their advocate. But the city

New Synagogue at Liibeck.

(From a photograph.)





would not yield, in spite of the intercession of the
Prussian chancellor Prince Hardenberg and of the
Austrian chancellor Prince Mettoruich. The Con-
gress of Vienna finally adopted Article 16 of the
"Bundesakte," which guaranteed to the Jews in all
German states the rights which they had obtained
" from " the various states, instead of " in " the vari-
ous states, as the original text read (June 8, 1815).
Having thus obtained a free hand, the
Expelled senate of Liibeck decreed (March 6,
After Con- 1816) that all Jews should leave the
gress of city within four weeks. The Jews
Vienna, again protested, but finally were com-
pelled to accept the proposition of the
senate, which guaranteed to all Jews who would set-
tle in Moisling the rights of Liibeck citizens, sub-
ject to certain limitations (Sept., 1821); in 1824 all
Jews, with the exception of a few "Schutzjuden,"
had left the city. The senate now showed a certain
amoimt of good-will toward its Jewish subjects by
giving them a house in Moisling for their rabbi, and
by building a new synagogue, for which the congre-
gation was required to pay only a moderate annual

Since 1831 the Jews have had to serve in the mili-
tia; in 1837 a parochial school, subsidized by the
city, was opened ; and in 1839 the senate issued an
order which compelled the gilds to register Jewish
apprentices. A commission appointed in 1842 re-
ported that the condition of the Jews should be im-
proved by an extension of their rights, but their
emancipation did not become perfect until the law
of Oct. 9, 1848, abolished all their disabilities. In
1850 a new synagogue was acquired. This brought
to the young congregation considerable annoyance ;
the ill-disposed neighbors, who claimed that the
ritual bath connected with it spread an unbearable
smell of garlic, endeavored to obtain an injunction
against it (this building gave way to a new syna-
gogue in 1880). In 1859 the rabbi moved from Mois-
ling to Liibeck, and in the same year a parochial
school was opened in the city. In 1869 the school in
Moisling was closed, and in 1872 the Moisling syna-
gogue, which had not been used for some time, was
demolished. A law of Aug. 12, 1862, modified the
form of oath ("More Judaico") which Jews until
that time had been compelled to use, and introduced
a new form, which remained in force until the Ger-
man law of 1879, regulating civil procedure, abol-
ished it.

The Liibeck congregation has a parochial school
of three grades, and religious instruction for Jewish
children attending public schools has been made
compulsory by the law of Oct. 17, 1885. The city
pays to the congregation an annual subsidy. The
rabbis of the congregation have been: Akiba Wert-
heimer (called also Akiba Victor; up to 1816; d.
1835, as rabbi of Altona) ; Ephraim Joel, an uncle
of Manuel and David Joel (1825-51); Silssmann
Adler (teacher and preacher, 1849-51 ; rabbi, 1851-
1869); S. Carlebach, the present (1904) incumbent
(since 1869). The congregation has a number of
educational, devotional, and social organizations.
Bibliography: Jost. Neuere Gegch. de.r Israditen, 1. 32 et
seq.; Gratz. Gesch. xi. 324 et ^eq.: Carlebach, Gesch. der Jv-
den in LUhech und Moisling, Lubeck, 1898 ; Statistisches
Jahrbuch, 1903. D.

LUBELSKI, PHILIPP: Polish physician;
born at Zamosc 1788; died at Warsaw Feb. 3, 1879.
He began his career as an army surgeon under Na-
poleon I., who created him an officer of the Legion
of Honor. After the dose of the Franco-Russian
war Lubelski was appointed chief physician of the
military hospital at Zamosc. From 1826 he resided
permanently in Warsaw, where he engaged in pri-
vate practise.

His son, Wilhelm Lubelski (born at Warsaw
1832; died there 1890), was likewise a physician.
He studied medicine at Dorpat, Vienna, and Paris,
and held the position of physician in ordinary at the
hospital of the Orphan Asylum of Jesus at Warsaw.
He published four medical works (1861-69).

BiBUOORAPHY: Encyklnpedja Pmcszechna, Ix., Warsaw,
1901; Gurland, Yevreushi Kalendar, p. 117, St. Petersburg,

II. R. M. R.

LUBLIN : City of Russian Poland, in the gov-
ernment of the same name ; situated 60 miles south-
east of Warsaw; in importance the tiiird city of
Poland. Numbers of Jews were living in Lublin
in the fourteenth century. They were not allowed
to dwell in the city proper, but were restricted to
the suburb of Kazimierz on the Bystrzyc, a tribu-
tary of the Wierprz. This suburb was named after
Casimir III., by whose order it was assigned to the
Jews in 1396. Later it became known as the
"Piaski Zydowskie" (Jewish Strand). The Jews
were allowed gradually to occupy a district within
the city until the accession to the Polish throne of
Sigismund II. (1518), who confined the settlement of
the Jews to their original quarter. In the following
year the king imposed upon them a special tax called
"Striegeld," and, to please their competitors, the
Christian merchants, restrained their commercial en-
terprises. The manufacture of beer, which was at
that time exclusively in the hands of the Jews, was
now restricted by the king to those who had ac-
quired real property in the cit}-. In 1552 he pro-
hibited the Jews from dealing in food.

From the middle of the sixteenth to the middle
of the eighteenth century Lublin was a great center
of Jewish activity and the principal place of meet-
ing of the Council of Folk L.\xds.

At the end of the sixteenth century the Jews, in

consideration of the payment of special taxes, were

l)ermitted to reside in the Podzance

Special quarter of Lublin. The government
Taxes and record of licenses (part xxxvi., No.

Bestric- 14) of the year 1596 sliows that there
tions. were then 100 Jewish houses in Pod-
zance, and that the annual tax was
fixed at 80 florins and 27 grivins. Sigismund Au-
gust increased the tax on houses to 250 fl. Besides
taxing the tenants of the houses 70 fl.,he imposed
the following additional taxes: for 16 butcher-shops,
53 fl. 6 gr. ; for 20 hot-bath tubs. 80 fl. ; for a bath-
house and a liquor-shop at Podzance, 200 fl. The
number of Jews in the city at that time may there-
fore be estimated at about 2,000. Their numbers
steadily increased, and in 1630 the annual tax paid
by the'm amounted to 300 Polish guilders. Ladis-
laus IV. confirmed (March 21, 1633) the privileges
granted to the Jews by former kings of Poland.




Immediately prior to the Cossacks' Uprising in
1648 the Jesuits instigated a riot and attacked the
Jewish quarter. Twenty houses were ransacked,
eight Jews being killed and twenty wounded. The
Jesuits were prosecuted before Ladislaus IV. and
were severely punished. Later (1650) the Jesuits
estabhshed in Lublin a printing-press which ex-
isted till 1670. They published many works hostile
to the Jews, thus creating enmity between the
latter and the Christian inhabitants. To the influ-
ence of the Jesuits is attributed also the decree of
1650, forbidding Jewish apothecaries to prepare
medicine, and that of 1654, prohibiting performances
by Jewish musicians not having a special permit
from the government.

The Jewish population of Lublin in 1656 was

about 2,000 families, and, including those who for

safety fled from the neighboring vil-

Persecu- lages, there must have been in the city
tions and at least 10,000 Jews, most of whom
Massacres, were massacred by the Cossacks.
Among the martyrs were many promi-
nent rabbis and scholars. Some entered the cemetery
and, after engraving their names upon the wall, ar-
ranged to be buried alive rather than fall into the
hands of the mob and be tortured. Rabbi Samuel
b. David, in his "Hesed Shemuel"(ed. Amsterdam,
1699, pp. 2b, 4;3b), assigns the occurrence to the day
preceding the Sukkot festival of 5417 (= Oct. 15,
1656), and describes his own miraculous escape (see
Cossacks' Uprising).

Under the city magistrate Jan Carl Danielowicz
the Jews of Lublin fared better than they had done
at any previous time. In his charter of Nov. 21,
1675, concerning the rights of the Jews, Danielowicz
reviews the privileges granted by the former Polish
kings, which he declares to be a safeguard to Jewish
life and property. He enumerates the following
provisions: (1) The Jews of Lublin to contribute
no more than the customary real-estate tax of 700
Polish guilders (tliis tax covered the dwellings,
synagogues, charitable institutions, cemetery, shops,
wax-factories, and bath-houses). (2) All contracts
made between Christians and Jews residing in Pod-
zance, regarding the purchase and sale of mead,
beer, brandy, etc., to be valid. (3) The commercial
tax on Jews to be no higher than the same tax on
Christian citizens in proportion to their respective
numbers. (4) Jews to be exempt from having sol-
diers quartered among them either per-
Privileges manently or temporarily. (5) Jews to

for Jews, be exempt from furnishing food and
clothing supplies to the guard of the
city liall. (6) No encroachment to be made on the
Jewish cemetery. (7) In legal suits concerning
chattels appeals to be made to the city magistrate;
in other cases, to the Supreme Court. "I make,"
he says, "these provisions voluntarily, and promise
to fulfil tliem for the benefit of the Jews who have
petitioned me, and for the benefit of their descend-
ants, so long as I live; and I pray that my succes-
sors shall follow my example."

King John Sobieski in 1679 proliibited trading
between Jews and Cliristians during Christian holi-
days, and ordered the confiscation of any goods sold
on those days. King Augustus II. in 1720 further

restricted Jewish commerce, and annulled the leases
of shops to Jews in the Christian quarters of the
town on the ground that the Jews were keen com-
petitors of the Christian merchants. Augustus III.
forbade (1736) Jews to act as agents of Christians.
It is claimed that this restriction was formulated at
the solicitation of the Jewish congregation against
certain of its members, who, in order to shirk the
communal tax, and also to avoid the special govern-
ment tax, severed their connection with the syna-
gogue and transacted business as the nominal agents
of Christians, and shared the profits with them.
Stanislaus Augustus Poniatowski, the last King of
Poland, on his coronation in 1764, ordered the expul-
sion of Jews from Lublin and its suburbs. Later
they were permitted to return subject to curtailed
privileges and heavy taxes. The Russian army cap-
tured Lubhn in 1831.

Jewish communal life in Lublin began with the
above-mentioned settlement of Jews in the suburb
of Piaski, where they were permitted to form a con-
gregation under a charter and with a seal bearing the
emblem of a hornless deer. Not only were they al-
lowed to have their own civil laws,
Communal but they were even appointed attor-
Work. neysand judges in the general courts.
Indeed, to such an extent was this the
case that the way wodes of Warsaw specially assem-
bled in 1540 to prohibit such appointments.

The Jewish cemetery, situated on the Gradzisk
hill, was granted to the Jews byTenczinski in 1555;
but it had already been utilized as a Jewish burial-
ground, as is evidenced by the record of a tomb-
stone dated 1541.

The congregational minute-books, which had been
placed in the government archives, were destroyed
by fire in 1829. They contained valuable data for
the history of the Lublin Jews and of the Council
of Four Lands. There is left but one pinkes of the
hebra kaddisha beginning with 1685, interesting ex-
tracts from which are published in Nissenbaum," Le-
Korot ha-Yehudim be-Lublin," p. 14. The record
includes a proclamation of 1694 by the officers of the
burial society excommunicating evil-minded persons
who had denounced their Jewish neighbors for self-
ish purposes before Christian priests and noblemen.
These persons were blacklisted by the members of
the society, who pledged themselves not to give
them a decent funeral nor to bury them within the
Jewish cemetery. The offenders were, however,
afforded the opportunity to retract their denuncia-
tions and to give a solemn promise never to repeat
the offense {ib. p. 142).

Lublin possesses five synagogues: (1) The Mehar-
shal Synagogue, the oldest in the town, formerly at-
tended by Solomon Luria. It has
Syna- seats for about 3,000. (2) The Syna-
gogues and gogue of Zebi b. Closes Doctor ("Doc-
Charitable tor" meaning "Rabbi"; otherwise
Institu- known as Jeleno [Hirsch] Doctoro-
tions. wicz), founded by Zebi in 1669 by per-
mission of King Ladislaus IV. It ap-
pears that this synagogue was also rebuilt by Zebi to
commemorate tiie victories of King John Sobieski in
1683. (3) The Synagogue of Saul Wahl (d. 1617).
This synagogue is known also as the "Laufer ["run-




ners"] Synagogue," because it was formerly used by
visitors and strangers. (4) Tlie Kahal Synagogue,
often visited by Samuel Edels (d. 1631). (5) The
Parues Synagogue, founded by Abraham Parnes(d.
1763). There are also a "Tailors' Synagogue" and
several others of recent date.

Among the charitable and educational institutions
are: the Jewish hospital, housed in a modern build-
ing, with 56 beds; an asylum for the aged, for
widows, and for orphans; a Hebrew free school
(Talmud Torah) ; and a Jewish school, in which the
teaching of Hebrew and of secular knowledge is
combined under Jewish and non-Jewish masters.
On the yeshibot founded by various rabbis see Jacob
PoLLAK ; Shalom Shachna ; Solomon Luria ; Mei'r
ben Gedaliah Lublin.

The government census of 1896 gave the total
population as 48,758, of whom 23,788 were Jews.
In 1899 the total Jewish population of the govern-
ment of Lublin was 186,787. Lublin is an industrial
and manufacturing town, containing 3 distilleries, 3
breweries, 4 tanneries, 6 brick-factories, 4 soap-and-
candle factories, 3 tobacco-factories, 2 implement-
factories, and 1 flour-mill; also factories of yarn and
of linen and hemp goods. The Jews control most
of these, and nearly all the mercantile and banking

Bibliography: Sierpinski, Histnruczmi Ohraz Miasta Lub-
Una, Lublin, 1819 ; Ziellinski, Mono. Lublina. ib. 1877 ; Dem-
bitzer, Miktcbe Bikkoret, Letter 2, Cracow, 1893 ; Friedberg,
Le-Toledot ha-Dehls ha-'lhri he-Luhlin, ib. 1901 ; Nissen-
baum, Le-Korol ha-Yehudim be-Lublin,Luh\iii,1900; Jil-
dische'Statistik, Berlin, 1903; Ha-Mangid- 1853, No. 16; Ha-
Asif, 1886, p. 393; Bersbadskl, in Voskhod, Oct., 1895.
H. li. J. D. E.

Typography : The first Hebrew printing-
house at Lublin was founded in 1547 by Joseph
of Lublin, who printed the "Ketab Hitnazzelut le-
Darshanim " of David ha-Darshan (1548), and some
other books. In 1550 he obtained from Sigismund
August the monopoly of printing Hebrew books.

In 1558 a new printing-house was founded by
Jacob b. Moses, IVIeshullam b. Solomon, Eliezer b.
Isaac of Prague, Kalonymus b. Mordecai Jafe, and
Jacob b. David Gutrat. The first work printed bj'
them was the Pentateuch (1558) ; in the following
ye^j: they issued the Talmud treatises Shebu'ot and
Pesahim, which were followed by many other books
before 1579. In that year printing was suspended
till 1590, when it was resumed and carried on till 1603.
During that time the house printed Mordecai Jafe's
"Lebush" (1590), Jacob ben Asher's "Tur Orah
Hayyim " (1599), etc.

In 1606 Zebi Hirsch b. Kalonymus Jafe opened
a printing-house, where he printed the "Minhat
Yehudah " of Judah Lob b. Obadiah Eulenburg
(1609), and the "Tebu'ot Shor" of Ephraim Zalman
Shor (1615). In 1618 he began the printing of the
Talmud, which was completed in 1628. In 1642
Kalonymus b. Zebi Jafe opened another printing-
house, from which were issued, among other books,
the "Yalkut Shim'oni" (1643) and "Dammesek
Eli'ezer" (1646). The wars which broke out in
Poland caused a suspension of the work.

Fourteen years later a new printing-house was
founded by Jacob b. Abraham Jafe. He printed
the " 'Ammudeha Shib'ah " of Bezaleel of Slutsk
(1662), and the "Ketonet Passim," on the Pesah

Haggadah, by Joseph b. Moses of Przemysl (1685),
besides a great many pamphlets.

For nearly two hundred j'ears the printing of
Hebrew books at Lublin was suspended. In 1870
Ilirschenhorn and Schucidemesser opened a new
printing-house, and issued the collection of responsa
known as "Noda' bi-Yohudah " and other books.
In 1901 they printed a beautiful edition of the Bible
with various commentaries.

BIBLIOGRAPHY : Wolf, Bibl. Hehr. ii.; Zunz, (Jzar ha-Sifrut,
p. ] ; B. Frledberg, Zur Gcscfi. dei- Hebi: Tfipographie in
Liddin, MX); Ersch and Gruber, Encyc. section ii., part 38,
p. 56; Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. cols. 319,1316,1330,1705.
3918, s. V. Jafe.
J. B. Fr.

HaRaM) : Polish rabbi; born at Lublin (V) 1558;
died there ]\Iay 3, 1616. He was descended from
a family of rabbis, and he speaks of his father as
being an eminent Talmudist (Maharam, Responsa,
No. 1). His principal teacher was his father-in-law,
Isaac ha-Kohen Shapiro, rabbi of Cracow (ib. No.
105), and he distinguished himself so highly in the
knowledge of the Talmud and Posekim that in 1587,
when he was not yet thirty years old, he was invi-
ted to the rabbinate of Cracow. Up to that time he
seems to have lived in Lublin ; for in one of his re-
sponsa (No. 138), which bears neither date nor
place, he writes, "all my tools [i.e., books] are still
at Lublin. " According to Lewiustein (" Ha-Goren, "
i. 41-43), Lublin was from 1582 onward chief rabbi
of Lublin, at the same time that Simon Wolf Auer-
bach was head of the yeshibah there (but see Auer-
BACH, Simon [Ze"eb] Wolf). Owing to continual
quarrels between the pupils of these two Talmud-
ists, Lublin was ordered to leave the town.

It can not be said with certainty how long he re-
mained at Cracow, as there is only one (undated) re-
sponsum (No. 50) which he wrote while holding
that rabbinate. It seems certain, however, that he
left Cracow after 1591 in order to become rabbi at
Lemberg, a position which he held till 1613. In
Lemberg he was engaged in continual controversies
with Joshua Falk, author of "Me'irat 'Enayim";
particularly a bill of divorce issued by the latter at
Vienna occasioned lengthy discussions between them
(Maharam, liesponsa, Nos. 123 et seq.\ see also
Falk, Joshua ben Alexander ha-Kohen). Lub-
lin speaks in his responsa (Nos. 68, 102-103) of a
fire (referring to the fire of Lemberg) in which his
work " Seder Gittin " was burned.

According to a tradition, Lublin was forced by

the authorities of Lemberg, at the instigation of

Abraham Schrenzel, to leave the tow^n. The latter

thus avenged his teacher, Joshua Falk,

Leaves who had been insulted by Lublin.
Lemberg'. At this time (1613) the community of
Lublin being in want of a rabbi, Meir
accepted the rabbinate, and he continued to hold it
till his death. Wherever he settltd Lublin organized
a yeshibah, of which he was the head ; and owing to
his renown as a Talmudic scholar and casuist, the
number of his pupils was considerable. Among
them were Joshua HOschel of Cracow, author of
"Maginne Shelomoh," and Isaiah Horowitz, author
of " Shene Luhot ha-Berit," besides many others who
became prominent rabbis or heads of yeshibot. He




took special interest in his yesliibuh, and often he
signed his responsa "the one wlio is much occu-
pied with his pupils " (Hesponsa, Nos. 80, 81, et pas-
sim). He was consulted by rabbis even from Italy
and Turkey {ib. Nos. 12, 13, 21, 89).

His printed works are: (1) "MeiT 'Ene Haka-

mim" (Venice, 1619), novellie forming a casuistic

commentary on the Talmud, Rashi, and Tosafot;

publisiied by liis son Gedaliah. It has since been

republished several times, and is now

Works. printed in all the principal editions of
the Talmud under the heading " Maha-
ram." (2) "Manhir 'Ene Hakamim " {ib. 1619), a
collection of 140 responsa, published by his son
Gedaliah, who in collaboration with his brother Isaac
added a preface. His unpublished works include:
"Ma'or ha-Gadol," a commentary on the four Tu-
rim; "Ma'or ha-Katon," a commentary on the
"Sha'are Dura"; "Ner Mizwah," a commentary on
the "Sefer Mizwot Gadol"; "Torah Or," a homi-
letic commentary on the Pentateuch; "Or Shib'at
lia-Yamim," a collection, apparently unfinished, of
orally transmitted laws.

The method employed by Lublin in his commen-
tary on the Talmud was the opposite of that adopted
by him when lecturing to his pupils in the ye-
shibaJi. In the latter case, as is usual with great
casuists, he explained the passages of the Talmud,
of Rashi, or of the Tosafot at great length.or, as he
expressed himself, "by profound pilpul" (Maharam
on 'Ab. Zarah 22a; Hul. 2b; Niddah 2b). But in
his commentary or novellae he for the most part
adopted a short and simple explanation, giving as his
reason for not expounding a passage at greater
lengtli that he did not wish to dwell on it too long
(Hul. 9b, 81b). In certain cases where he employed
pilpul, he justified himself by saying that he was
obliged to do so as the students might otherwise in-
terpret the passage wrongly (Shab. 48a), or because
he wished to sharpen their minds (ib. 20a). He
showed a great tendency to coriect the text of the
Talmud (comp. Maharam on Git. 5, 6; Yeb. 59 et

IJeing a fearless critic, Lublin did not spare

even the Tosafists when their expressions seemed to

liim obscure (Maharam on Suk. 10; Bezah 7). He

was generally dogmatic both in his

Method of novelise and in his responsa; he de-

Interpre- clared on several occasions that his

tation. interpretation was the right one and
that the passage could not be ren-
dered otherwise (Maharam on Rliab. 67 et passim).
He often attacked Solomon Luria and Samuel Edels,
saying that their interpretations were erroneous and
might mislead students (Shab. SSb; Hul. 28a et pas-
gtm). In liis responsa he took for liis l)asis the Aha-
RONi.M, wliom lie declared to be of greater authority
than the Towifists, Maiinonides, or Morderai b. Hil-
lel (Responsa, Nos. 114, 133, 137). Ih; violently at-
tacked Joseph Caro's Shulhan 'Aruk, declaring that
it was a mixture of laws from difTercnt autliorit ies and
having no connection with one another (ib. No. 11 ;
Isserles, Responsa, No. 135). Lublin paid little lieed
to the Cabala, though it is evident from his re-
sponsum No. 34 that he believed in the sacredness
of the Zohar.

Bibliography: Buber. Anshe Shem, pp. 132-133; Gratz, 3d ed., x. 53-.H ; Horodetzki, in Hn-Ooreii, I. 5.5-til ;
Lewinsteln, ih. pp. 39-54 ; Nissenbaum. Le-Knrnt ha-Yehii-
dim be-LxMiiu PP- 31-34, Lublin, 1899; Steinschnelder,

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