Isidore Singer.

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Cat. Bodl. col. 1705 ; J. M. Zunz, */r ha-Zcdelf, pp. 28-42.
s. s. M. Sel.

LUBLINER, HUGO (pseudonym, Hugo Bur-
ger) : German dramatist ; born at Breslau April 22,
1846. He studied at the industrial school in Berlin,
and became manager of a cotton and woolen mill.
Inclination led him to dramatic composition. At
first he wrote occasionally only, but with such suc-
cess that he at length gave up business and devoted
himself wholly to the production of plays.

Among the best-known of Lubliner's works are:
"Nur Nicht Romantisch " (1865), one-act comedy,
the only one of his earlier efforts that still holds the
stage; "Der Frauenadvokat " (1873), three-act com-
edy, which has been performed at all the principal
German theaters; "Die Modelle des Sheridan"
(1875), four-act comedy; "Die Florentiner" (1876),
tragedy; "Die Adoptierten " (1877), drama; "Ga-
briele" (1878), drama; "Die Frau Ohne Geist"
(1879), comedy; "Auf der Brautfahrt" (1880), com-
edy; "Gold und Eisen" (1881); "Der Jour Fix"
(1882), comedy; " Aus der Grossstadt " (1883); "Die
Mitbiirger" (1884), comedy; (with G. von Moser)
"Gliick bei Frauen " ; (with Paul Lindau) "Frau
Susanne"; "Grafiu Lambach" (1886); "Die Glau-
bigerdesGluckes" (6th ed., Breslau, 1886); "Die
Frau von Neunzehn Jahren" {ib. 1887), the last two
as parts of the romance-cycle "Berlin im Kaiser-
reicli " ; " Die Armen Reichen " (1886), comedy ; " Der
Name" (1888), drama; "Im Spiegel" (1890), com-
edy; "Der Kommende Tag" (1891), drama; and
the following comedies: "Das Neue Stuck" (1894);
"Ausder Menschlichen Komodie" (1895); "An der
Riviera" (1895); "Die Junge Frau Arneck" (1895);
"Roman eines Anstandigen Madchens " (1896);
" Andere Luf t " (1897) ; " Das Ftinf te Rad " ( 1898) ; and
" Splitter und Balken " (1899). Some of the forego-
ing pieces were collected in " Dramatische Werke "
(4'vols., Berlin, 1881-82).

BritLiOORAPHY: Brnchhaus Konversations-Lexikon ; Mey-
ers Konveraationg-Le.vihon.
s. N. D.


Polish writer; born 1809 ; died at Warsaw 1868. After
the Polish revolution of 1831 he settled in Brussels,
where he published " Des Juifs en Pologne," an ex-
amination of the condition of the Jews in Russia
from the historical, legislative, and political points
of view. He wrote also, in Polish, " Obrona Zydow "
(Warsaw, 1858), a defense of the Jews living in Po-
lish territory; and a number of articles in Polish
periodicalson the Jewish (juestion. In 1861 he pub-
lisiied in Brussels a work entitled " Les Confiscations
des Biens des Polonais," in which he reviewed the
various xikases of Emperor Nicholas I. concerning
Poland, and criticized the cruel treatment of the
Polish Jews. In 1862 Luhliner was appointed libra-
rian at the University of Warsaw.

BiBi.iofJRAPHY : Orgelhrand, Enrf/klopedja Powszechna, vol.
Ix.; American Israelite, ix.iorz.
n. K. J. G. L.

LUBLINSKY, SOLOMON: German journalist
and writer; born at Joliannisberg, Prussia, Feb. 18,




1868. He was occupied for a time as a clerk in a
second-hand bookstore at Venice, after which he
engaged in journalism at Berlin. He is now (1904)
among the foremost Jewish writers. In addi-
tion to his journalistic work Lublinsky has written
the following works, all published in Berlin: "Jli-
dische Charactere bei Grillparzer, Hebbel, uud O.
Ludwig" and "Literatur und Gesellschaft im 19ten
Jahrhundert " (1899) ; " Multatuli " and " Der Impe-
rator," dramas (1901); "Gescheitert," a novel (1901);
"Hannibal," a drama (1902).

Bibliography: Kiirschner, Dcutscher Literatur-Kalender,
p. 811; Ahiasaf, l«9&-99, p. 117.
H. u. A. S. W.

LUBOML : Town in the government of Vol-
hynia, Russia. Jews lived there as early as the six-
teenth century, though the attitude of the Christian
inhabitants toward them was distinctly hostile. In
1557 the Jewish community resolved that none of its
members should buy property within the city, for
there was danger of its being attacked or set on fire
by the Christian inhabitants. In 1576 this decision
was reaffirmed by the leaders of the community with
the indorsement of K. Abraham Polyak. Those who
had violated this rule were warned to sell their prop-
erty to Christians, under penalty of a fine or of some
other punishment. Outside the town the Jews
owned eight parcels of land ; some of them leased
grist- mills, and others leased three lakes, paying
for their leases in money, pepper, saffron, and salt
fish to the total value of about 400 gold ducats.
The population of Luboml in 1897 was 4,600, of
whom 3,300 were Jews. It has 349 Jewish arti-
sans and 52 Jewish day-laborers. The seventeen
hadarim give instruction to 370 pupils, and 60 are
instructed in the Talmud Torah (1898).

Bibliography: Katz, Le-Korot ha-Yehudim, p. 7, Berlin,
1899 ; Regesty i Nadpisi, 1. 241, St. Petersburg, 1899.
H. R. S. J.

LUCAS, LOUIS ARTHUR : African explorer ;
born in London Sept. 22, 1851 ; died at sea Nov.
20, 1876. After traveling in the United States (1872)
and Egypt (1873), he organized an expedition to ex-
plore the Kongo. He left London Sept. 2, 1875, and
arrived at Khartum in Jan., 1876, leaving that place
in the following April. He next went with Colonel
Gordon to the Albert Nyanza, and navigated the
northern part of the lake in the first steamboat ever
launched on it. He returned to Khartum in Aug.,
1876, and reached Suakim on Nov. 18 of that year.
In connection with this journey, Lucas compiled a
vocabulary of Bisharin words, which was pub-
lished in the " Journal of the Anthropological Insti-

In the same year (1876), against the advice of
General Gordon and his staff, Lucas attempted to
cross Africa, but, becoming sick and paralyzed, he
soon had to return to Khartum. After lying ill for
three months, he died on a steamboat between Sua-
kim and Suez, and was buried at Jiddah.

Bibliography: Times (London), Dec. 26, 1876: Jew. Chrnn.
Dec. 29, 1876; Atherueum, Dec, 1876; Proceedings of the
Royal Geographical Societu, 1876 ; jDicf . Nat. Bing.

J. G. L.

LUCCA (Hebr. xpi^) : City of Tuscany, Italy.
Its Jewish community is known in literature espe-

cially through the Kalonymus family of Lucca,
whose ancestor saved the life of the German em-
peror Otto II. after the battle of Cotrone in Calabria
(982), and seems thereupon to have settled at Ma-
yence, where the family had extensive privihjges.
In the twelfth century the community again appears
in literature in the person of Abraham ibn Ezra,
who lived at Lucca for a time while writing his
grammatical works " Yesod " and "Sefat Yeter," as
^vell as his commentary on the Pentateuch and
Isaiah. He seems to have given instruction here in
Hebrew grammar and Biblical science; one of his
pupils, Hayyim, he mentions by name. The com-
munity was not a large one at that time ; for Ben-
jamin of Tudela, who visited it in 1165, found only
forty Jews, under the leadership of R. David Sam-
uel and K. Jacob.

In 1431 permission was granted to Angelo di Qaio,
a Jew from Forli, to settle in Lucca and to open a
bank for loans. A dispute arose, however, when
King Sigismund, as he passed through Lucca, forci-
bly impo.sed a tax of 1,500 gold florins on the Jew,
and Di Gaio left the city, while his son Gaietro
opened a bank elsewhere. Later a similar permis-
sion was granted in Lucca to Isaac Manuelli & Co.,
who with others had settled in the city, and had a
synagogue in a private house, besides a cemeterj-.
Certain enemies of the Jews lodged a complaint
against them with Pope Nicholas V. ; but he, annul-
ling the constitutions of Clement V. and a decree of
the Bishop of Lucca, declared himself in favor of the
Jews and confirmed their privileges. Other Jbws
who had banks in Lucca were David Dattali or da
Tivoli and Vitale Isaac. In 1489, however, as a
result of the anti-Jewish preaching of Bernardino
da Feltre (in whose way manj^ difficulties were
placed at first in order to protect the Jews), the
community decided to open a mont-de-pieta, and
the Jews, who had objected to its establishment,
were obliged to pay a fine of 1,300 florins.

Since their residence in Lucca was neither profit-
able nor secure, the Jews abandoned the city ; accord-
ing to some sources tiiey were driven from it. After
1500 they returned, but they were in general not
permitted to stay more than fifteen days consecu-
tively. There are records, dated as late as May,
1728, of the names of Jews who had permission to
make an extended residence in the city. After the
French Revolution the Bacciochi family desired in
vain to attract to the principality Jews who would
buy property from the state.

Lucca has never had a Jewish community of any
importance, and at present (1904) only about thirty
Jews live there.

Bibliography : Aronius, Regesten, Nos. 70. 136 ; Rosin, Die
Religionsphilosophie des Abraham ihn Es7-a, in Monats-
schrift, xlii. 21 ; Benlamin of Tudela, Itinerary, ed. Asher,
i. 37," ii. 16; Depping, Die Juden im Mittelalter, pp. 368
et seq.\ Regio Archivio di Stato di Lucca, 1. 208, 210-211,
362; lii. 387-388, s.v. Ebrei.
G. L E.— V. C.

LUCENA (njND''^X, njD"'^X): City near Cor-
dova, Spain, magnificentl}' situated, and surrounded
by strong walls and wide moats. In early times it
was inhabited almost exclusively by Jews who had
arrived together with its founders; hence it was
called "Jews' City," an epithet applied to




Granada and Tarragona. The Jews of Lucena, who
carried on extensive trade and industries, were, ac-
cording to an Arabic writer, richer than those of
any other city. They enjoyed the same freedom as
their coreligionists in the large Mohammedan cities.
Their rabbi, who was elected by the entire commu-
nity, was granted special privileges, and acted as
judge in the civil and criminal cases arising in the

The Jews lived peaceably until the Almoravidcs
came into power. A certain fakih of Cordova pre-
tended to have discovered a tradition according to
which the Jews had entered into an agreement with
Mohammed that they would embrace Islam at the
end of the fifth century after the Hegira. Yusuf
ibn Teshufin thereupon went to Lucena (1107) to
induce the Jews of that city to fulfil the promises
made by their ancestors. As the Jews suspected
Yusuf of caring for their money rather than for
their faith, they applied to Ibn Hamdin, the cadi of
Cordova, or, according to Conde, to ^he vizier Ab-
dallah ibn 'Ali, who induced the king to compro-
mise the matter by accepting a very large sum of
money. The Jews were glad to escape so easily.
A worse fate befell them thirty-nine years later un-
der the rule of the Almohades, whose leader, 'Abd
al-Mu'min, persecuted and robbed them and forced
them to accept Islam; and the flourishing and
wealthy city, the seat of Jewish science, was des-
troyed (1146). At the beginning of the eleventh
century several important scholars lived in Lucena,
as also their most brilliant pupil, Abu al-Walid ibn
Janah. When Ferdinand III. of Castile conquered
Andalusia he presented Lucena to the first bishop
of Cordova, Don Lope, his former teacher. Isaac
Alfasi founded a large Talmudic academy in Lucena,
and here also Isaac ibn Ghayyat, Isaac ibn Albalia,
and Joseph ibn Migash were prominent.

Bibliography : Idrisi, Oeografia, p. 265, Leyden, 1866; Conde,
Hi-itoria de, la Domiuncimi de lofi Arnl>es en Espaiui, ii.,
ch. xxiii.; Rios, i. 2H7 et seq., 300, 36.5 ; Dozy. Gesch. der
Maurcn in Spanien, ii. 388; Gritz, Gesch. v. 116 et seq.. 187.


M. K.

LUCERNE : City of Switzerland, in the canton
of the same name. Jews were living there as early
as the middle of the thirteentli century. The earli-
est records of the town contain regulations for the
sale of the flesh of animals slaughtered according to
ritual : " When a Jew slaughters an animal, the meat
.sliall be sold ' hinten an in der Schall,' and it shall
also be stated that it belongs to the Jew." The regu-
lations fiirtlicr say tliut the Jews wliohave obtained
rigiits of sojourn or citizenship " shall offend no one,
either by words or by deeds, either in the city or
wifliout it. And no one shall offend or injure the
Jews ' von deheines Kindes wcgen on des Kates
wissende,' on pain of paying a fine of five pounds,
Avithoul remission; and if tlie offender be so poor
tliat lie can not pay tliis fine, he shall nevermore set
foot in the city." As elsewhere in Switzerland, the
Jews in Lucerne were engaged in money-lending,
they alone being privileged to charge interest on
loans. In 1401 they were expelled from the city.

It was not until about 1864 tiiat a Jew (from En-
dingcn) again settled in Lucerne. The city lias now
(1904) a Jewish community numbering forty-two

members. In 1900 there were 336 Jews in the en-
tire canton.

Bibliography : Ulrich. jadische Geschichten in der Schweiz,
pp. 175 et seq.; Pfyffer, Gesch. der Stadt rmd des Kantnns
I/Mzern, p. 151; Kopp, Geschichtsbilder der Schweiz, i. 347
G. M. K.

LUCIFER ( •I'axT^opoc) : Septuagint translation
of " Helel [read " Helal "] ben Shahar " (= " the bril-
liant one," "son of the morning"), name of the day.
or morning, star, to whose mythical fate that of the
King of Babylon is compared in the prophetic vision
(Isa. xiv. 12-14). It is obvious that the prophet in
attributing to the Babylonian king boastful pride,
followed by a fall, borrowed the idea from a popu-
lar legend connected with the morning star; and
Gunkel ("Schopfung und Chaos," pp. 132-134) is
undoubtedly correct when he holds that it repre-
sents a Babylonian or Hebrew star-myth similar to-
the Greek legend of Phaethon. The brilliancy of the
morning star, which eclipses all other stars, but is
not seen during the night, may easily have given rise
to a myth such as was told of Ethana and Zu : he was-
led by his pride to strive for the highest seat among
the star-gods on the northern mountain of the gods
(comp. Ezek. xxviii. 14; Ps. xlviii. 3 [A.V. 2]), but
was hurled down by the supreme ruler of the Baby-
lonian Olympus. Stars were regarded throughout
antiquity as living celestial beings (Job xxxviii. 7).

The familiarity of the people of Palestine with
such a myth is shown by the legend, localized on
Mount Hermon, the northern mountain of Palestine
and possibly the original mountain of the gods in
that country, of the fall of the angels under the
leadership of Samhazai (the heaven-seizer) and Azael
(Enoch, vi. 6 et seq. ; see Fall of Angels). An-
other legend represents Samhazai, because he re-
pented of his sin, as being suspended between heaven
and earth (like a star) instead of being hurled down
to Sheol (see Midr. Abkir in Yalk. i. 44; Raymund
Martin, "Pugio Fidei," p. 564). The Lucifer myth
Avas transferred to Satan in the pre-Christian cen-
tury, as may be learned from Vita Adae et Evoe (12)
and Slavonic Enoch (xxix. 4, xxxi. 4), where Sataii-
Sataniel (Samael V) is described as having been one
of the archangels. Because he contrived " to make
his throne higher than the clouds over the earth and
resemble 'My power' on high," Satan-Sataniel was
hurled down, with his hosts of angels, and since
then he has been flying in the air continually above
the abyss (comp. Test. Patr., Benjamin, 3; Eplies.
ii. 2, vi. 12). Accordingly Tertullian ("Contra Mar-
rionem," v. 11, 17), Origen ("Ezekiel Opera," iii.
356), and others, identify Lucifer with Satan, who
also is represented as being " cast down from heaven "
(Rev. xii. 7, 10; comp. Luke x. 18).

Bibliography : Cheyne, Encm- B'dil.: Pulini. Da.s Buck Je-
gainh, ISO-.', p. 96.


LUCUAS: Toward the end of the reign of the em-
peror Trajan, in 116, the Jews of Cyhene rebelled,
their leader being Lucuas according to Eusebius
(" Hist. Eccl." iv. 2), Andreias according to Dio Cas-
sius (Ixviii. 32). These two statements can not be
harmonized, us some historians have attempted to do,
by supposing that either of the two names was a sym-
bolic one (Lucuas = " the bright or shining one,"




Andreias = " the brave ") ; for the authors would
not have passed over such an explanation in silence.
3Ioreover, Euscbius and Dio Cassias refer to differ-
ent phases of the rebellion. According to a later
source, Abu al-Faraj, Lucuas sought refuge in Pal-
estine, where he was defeated by Marcius Turbo.
According to Eusebius he was proclaimed king; and
the Papyrus Parisiensis No. 68 (published by Wilcken
in "Hermes," xxvii. 46-4 et seq.) refers perhaps to

Bibliography: Hunter, Der Jildische Krieg. p. 18; Krauss,
in R. E. J. XXX. 200; Gratz, Gesch. 3d ed., iv. 115; Scbiirer,
Gesch. 3d ed., 1. 665.
a. S. Kr.

journalist; born at Komorn in 1825; died at
Reichenau Aug. 29, 1885. As early as 1848 he
was editor of the "Esti Lapok " in Budapest and
of the " Magyar
Vilag," advocating
in both periodicals
the cause of the
Con servati ves.
About fifteen years
later he went to
Vienna, where, with
Georg Apponyi and
Paul Sennyei, he
founded the "De-
batte," which ad-
vocated the estab-
lishment of a dual
government in
and the political
«qualitj' of the two
countries. When
Count Julius An-
drassy was premier,
Ludassy was chief
of the Hungarian
press bureau and
"was at the same
time ministerial
councilor in the de-
partment of the in-
terior. He returned
to Vienna, however, where he was commissioned by
Minister Beust to edit the " Tagespresse, " the organ
of the imperial court party during the war of
1870-71. In recognition of his services he was
created a Hungarian noble.

One of his sons, Julius Ludassy, whose pen-name
is "Julius Goose," is one of the editors of the " Frem-
denblatt" in Vienna. He has written several come-
dies, among them "Maximen," "Spleen," and "Gar-
Bibliography : Pallas Lex. xl


Coin of Bar Kukba Bearing
a Lulab.

(After Madden.)

Representation of a Lulab on a Glass Dish Found In the Jewish Catacombs

at Rome.

(In the Moseo Borgeano at Rome.)

Agal, Por es Hamu, p. 320.
L. V.

LUKE, See New Testament.

LULAB : Name given to the festive palm-branch
which with the Etrog is carried and waved on the
Feast of Tabernacles (Sukkot). The three constit-
uents of the lulab are : (1) a shoot of the palm-tree
in its folded state before the leaves are spread out ;

this must be at least three handbreadthslong, so that
it may be waved, and must be bound round with
a twig or tendril of its own
kind; (2) three twigs of
myrtle of the species Avhich
has its leaves in whorls of
three; and (8) two willow-
branches of the kind of
which the wood is reddish
and the leaves are long and
entire (Suk. 29b, 32b, 34a).
The myrtle-twigs and wil-
low-branches are tied to the
lower end of the palm-
branch — the former on the
right, and the latter on the

left — by means of three rings of palm-strips. These
branches constitute with the etrog the "four spe-
cies" ("arba'at ha-
minim ").

The use of the
lulab is closely con-
nected with the
reciting of the
Hallel (Ps. cxiii.-
X V i i i . ) . In the
Second Temple it
was waved during
the recitation of the
passages expressive
of thanksgiving or
prayer, viz., Ps.
cxviii. 1-4, 25 (Suk.
37b). The manner
of waving was as
follows: Facing
east and holding
the lulab in the
right hand and the
etrog in the left, the
worshiper shook the
former in the direc-
tions east, south,
west, and north,
upward and down-
ward, forward and
backward ; this was
in acknowledgment of God's sovereignty over nature
(ib.). After the additional sacrifices of the day had
been offered the lulab and etrog were
In the carried in procession around the altar
Temple, in the court while Ps. cxviii. 25, or the
refrain NjnVK'in ini 'JK, was chanted.
On each of the first six days one such processional cir-
cuit ("hakkafah") was made; on the seventh day
seven circuits took place, and at the end the
etrogs were eaten by the children (Suk. 45a; see also
Hosiia'na Rabbah). According to tradition, the
carrying of the lulab was observed in the Temple
throughout the seven days of the feast, but outside
of it on one day only. After the destruction of the
Temple, R. Johanan ben Zakkai ordained that the
practise should be observed everywhere during
seven days, "in remembrance of the Temple" (Suk.
41a, 43b).

This ordinance is observed in the synagogue (ex-




In the

cept on Sabbath). The mode of carrying and
waving the lulab and ctrog is the same as it was
in the Temple, but the first waving takes place be-
fore the commencement of Hallel, while the usual
formula of benediction is recited:
"Blessed art thou . . . concerning
the holding of the lulab." After the
Musaf service (which takes the place
of the additional sacrifices in the
Temple) the processional circuits, the precentor or
hazzan leading, are made around the reading-desk,
or bemah, on which the Torah-scroU is held in an up-
right position, while the hosannas (hymns beginning
and closing with the words n: VB^n) are chanted, in
the same manner as in the Temple.

The ordinance is binding on every observant Jew.
One should not break fast before carrying it out.
In countries where, owing
to the cost, not every
household can afford a
lulab and an etrog, the
poor are allowed the use
of those belonging to their
wealthy brethren. Usu-
ally the congregation owns
a lulab and an etrog Avhich
are carried from house to
house, so that children
and feeble persons who
can not come to the syna-
gogue may observe the
commandment and be al-
lowed to break their fast
in due time.

The ordinance of the
lulab is derived from Lev.
xxiii. 40: "And ye shall
take you on the first day
the fruit of goodly trees,
branches of palm-trees,
and the boughs of thick
trees, and willows of the
brook : and ye shall rejoice
before the Lord your God
seven days." Aside from
the palm-branch and the
willows the passage does
not specify what shall be
used ; and tlie interpreta-
tion of the " fruit of goodly
trees " and tJie " boughs of
thick trees " to mean the
etrog and myrtle respect-
ively, as also the precise
manner of using the four
species, rests on tradition.
A question as to the cor-
rectness of the accepted
interpretation of the pas-
sage is raised in Lev. R.
XXX. 15 (comp. also Tan.,
Emor, 20) ; and the answer
is, quoting Prov. xxx. 24,
"There be four things
which are little upon the earth, but they are ex-
ceeding wise," that the "wise" explained the four






(Aft»r IMcart.)

species to mean etrog, lulab, myrtle, and willow-
branches. A justification is attempted in Suk. 32b
on the ground that "boughs of
thick trees" implies a tree whose
leaves cover the branches, and
that this is characteristic of the
myrtle, or a tree whose fruit and
wood taste alike (have the same
aroma), which again is a peculi-
arity of the myrtle. The pres-
ence of the latter characteristic
is given as justification for the
choice of the etrog also {ib. 37a).
lu Ta'an. 2b the four species are
put in close relation with the
prayers for the annual rainfall
(comp. also Lev. R. xxx. 13),
which was believed to be deter-
mined upon on the Feast of
Tabernacles (R. H. 16a; comp.
Suk. 87b) ; and it is added that
the choice of them is suitable,
for as "they can not exist with-
out water, so also the world can
not exist without water."

In addition to these explana-
tions, the Midrash {ib. 9-14;
comp. Tan., Emor, 17) indulges
in many symbolical explanations
of the four species, e.g., they
refer to God Himself in His
various attributes and activities;
they remind one of the three
patriarchs and Joseph, or of the
four mothers of Israel; they
represent the great Sanhedrin
with the scholars and their dis-
ciples and scribes attached to it ;
or the whole people of Israel in
its four divisions of (1) pious
and learned, (2) learned but not
pious, (3) pious but not learned,
and (4) those who are neither;
and lastly they symbolize the
four chief constituents of the
human body — the spinal column,
the heart, the eye, and the
mouth. The Samaritans and
Karaites refer the passage in
Leviticus to the parts constitu-
ting the booth ("sukkah"), pointing to Neh. viii.
15, where, however, some different species ("olive-
branches " and " branches of wild olive ") are enu-

The assumption — drawn from the fact that Plu-
tarch ("Symp." iv. 6, 2) and Josephus ("Ant."

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