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xili. 13, § 5: "for it is the custom among the Jews
for each to have on the Feast of Booths a thyrsus of
palms and citrons"; comp. also II Mace. x. 7) refer
to ihe lulab as "thyrse" {dvpaoq), and the latter, in
" Ant."iii. 10, § 4 ("carrying in their hands a bunch
of myrtle, willow-branches, palms, and citrons"), as
e'lpeoiuvrj — that the carrying of the lulab was con-
nected with the Bacchic celebrations, or with the
Pyanepsia and Thargelia, ignores the spirit and tend-
ency of the Judaism of the 3Iaccabean period. It



Lulab.

(From a photf>graph.)



207



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



JLulab



is repudiated, in his manner, even by Tacitus
("Hist." V. 5).

BiBLiOfiRAPHY: Haremberg, in BihUoth. Luhec. iii. 4^^ : A.
Biichler. in R. E. J. xxxvii. 181-;ilKJ (on the passages in Plu-
tarcb, Josephus, and Tacitus) .

A. I. M. C.

LULIANI BEN TABRIN : Palestinian sciiol-
ar of the beginning of the fourth century. The
name, whicli is the equivalent of " Julianus ben Tibo-
rianus," lias been corrupted into nsy p NJO^f'V
in Pesik. R. 7 (ed. Friedmann, p. 26a). His father's
name, the usual form of wliich is P"l2t3> is written
also ""XinaLJ (Ex. R. xliv.) and pID (Gen. R. xcviii.
24). Luliani is particularly known as the transmit-
ter of haggadot of his teacher, Isaac Nappaha. He
is frequently mentioned in pre-Talmudic literature
and in the Midrash. There is, however, one hagga-
dah ascribed to Luliani himself: "When the lesser
people listen to the great and yet the latter do not
alleviate the burden of the former, they shall ac-
count for it to God " (Ruth R., Introduction, G) ; but
a similar sentence is ascribed to R. Isaac in Deut.
R. i. 8. The statement of Midrash Tehiilim (to Ps.
xviii. 29^that Luliani transmitted a haggadah of R.
Ishmael is apparently a mistake due to the abbrevi-
ation ^ ""). Luliani is mentioned also as having asked
his teacher Isaac a halakic question (Yer. Meg. 75c).
Luliani was the father of the Hiyya b. Luliani who
is frequently mentioned in the Jerusalem Talmud
and who is stated to have caused rain to fall in time
of drought (Ta'an. 25a).

Bibliography : Bacher, Ag. Pal. Amor. ii. 210 et patsaim ;
Heilprln, Seder ha-Dorot, ii.
S. S. M. Sel.

LUMBBOSO. See Lombroso.

LXJMBROZO, JACOB or JOHN: Physician,
planter, and trader resident in the palatinate of
Maryland, America, in the middle of the seven-
teenth century; born at Lisbon; died between Sept.
24, 1665, and INIay 31, 1666. From Portugal he re-
moved to Holland, uud ultimately established him-
self in Maryland Jan. 24, 1656. His arrival formed,
directly or indirectly, an important event in the life
of the province. He early exercised his profession,
and apparently enjoyed a lucrative practise. On
Sept. 10, 1663, letters of denization were issued to
him, together with certain privileges, enabling him
to take up land under the liberal terms established by
the proprietary — a privilege of which he promptly
availed himself. A " Mistress Lumbrozo " was liv-
ing in Sept., 1663, having arrived in Maryland in the
preceding year. She was probably not of Jewish
descent. Lumbrozo appeared as a witness in a law-
suit in 1657, and served as a juror in 1663. In 1665 he
was granted a commission to trade with the Indians.
He seems to liave been in active intercourse with
London merchants and to have corresponded with a
sister in Holland. He amassed considerable wealth
both in real and in personal property.

Although Jews were resident in Maryland prob-
ably from its settlement, Lumbrozo is the first Is-
raelite — indeed the only one of that time — of whose
faith there is documentary evidence. He was one
of the earliest medical practitioners in the palati-
nate, and for nearly a decade continued to be an im-



portant figure in its economic activity. His career
is of widest interest in its relation to the history and
nature of religious toleration in Maryland. After
living for at least two years in undisturbed quiet as
a recognized Jew, and probably as a professed one,
he was in 1658, through the activity of zealots and
in consequence of his own indiscretion, arrested,
under the provisions of tlie so-called Toleration Act
of 1649, for "blasphemy," that is, for denial of the
doctrine of the Trinity, thus becoming liable to pun-
ishment by death and forfeiture of lands and goods.
The general anuiesty proclaimed in the province ten
days later, upon the accession of Richard Cromwell
to the English protectorate, gave him freedom.
Whether in consequence of his high economic impor-
tance or because of the milder interpretation put
upon the statute in the case of discreet unbelievers,
no further attempt Avas made to vindicate the letter
of the law ; and thereafter Lumbrozo graduall}' suc-
ceeded in exercising most of the rights of a fully
naturalized citizen.

Record exists of a Johii Lumbrozo, born in June,
1666, who apparently was a posthumous child of
Jacob's. But the widow married very soon after
his birth ; and the name " Lumbrozo " figures no more
in Maryland colonial records.

Bibliography : Hollander, Some Unpuhlished Material Re-
latino '" Dr. Jacob Lumhrozo of Maryland, in Puhl. Am.
Jew. Hist. Sac. No. 1 (1893), pp. 25-39; idem. Civil Statusof
the Jeu'.s in Maruland, 162^-1776, ib. No. 2 (1894), pp. 33-44,
and references therein cited.
A. J. H. Ho.

LUMLEY, BENJAMIN : Director of Her Maj-
esty's Theatre, Drury Lane, London; born in Can-
ada 1811; died in London March 17, 1875. He was
the son of Louis Levy, a Canadian merchant who
died in London about 1831. Benjamin was educated
at King Edward's School, Birmingham, and early
in life assumed the name "Lumley." In 1832 lie
became a solicitor in London, and from 1837 to 1842
was a parliamentary agent, publishing in 1838 a
standard book on " Parliamentary Practise on Pass-
ing Private Bills." From 1836 to 1841 he super-
intended the finances of Her Majesty's Theatre for
Laporte, and on Sept. 25, 1841, succeeded him in
the management. lie transformed tlie whole sys-
tem of opera, and employed artists like Grisi, Per-
siani, Mario, Tamburini, and Lablache in grand op-
era, and Taglioni, Cerito, and Elssler in the ballets.
These latter he made much more elaborate, introdu-
cing the famous "pas-de-quatre" in 1845. In 1847,
however, as the result of many quarrels with his
"stars," a rival opera-house was opened in Covent
Garden, and Lumley was saved from ruin only by
securing the services of Jenny Lind. On her retire-
ment from the stage in 1849, Lumley's fortunes be-
came embarrassed; and his attempt at controlling
the Paris Opera House in 1850-51 led to further pe-
cuniary difficulties. After the burning of Covent
Garden Theatre in 1856 Lumley resumed the man-
agement of the Drury Lane house; but he failed to
make it pay, and finally became reduced to such
circumstances that he accepted the results of two
benefit performances (1863). He introduced into
England over thirty Italian operas, including Doni-
zetti's "La Favorita," Verdi's "Ernani" and "La
Traviata," and Auber's " Masaniello. "



Luncz
Liuria



THE JF.WISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



208



Lumley wrote two fantastic works of lictioii:
"Sirenia," 1862; and "Another World," 1873; the
latter, describing a Utopia in the planet Mars, had
some success, and ran through three editions. He
published also his "Reminiscences," 1864.

Bibliography: Times (London), March 19, 1875; lUustrnted
Spoi-ting and Dramatic NeiVK, March 21, 1875; Boase, Mod-
ern English Biog.; Diet. Nat. Biog.

Gt. Li. — J.

LUNCZ, ABRAHAM M O S E S : Russian
scholar and editor; born Dec. 9, 1854, at Kovno,
Russia; went when very young to Jerusalem, where
he still (1904) lives. Luncz, who has been blind for
many years, has founded, in conjunction with Dr.
Koisewski, an institution for the blind at Jerusalem.

In the exploration of the Holy Land, Luncz has
rendered great services from the historical, geo-
graphical, and physical standpoints, through his
guide-books for Palestine, his Palestine annuals, and
his Jerusalem almanac: (1) "Netibot Ziyyon we-
Yerushalayim : Topograpliy of Jerusalem and Its
Surroundings" (vol. i., 1876); (2) "Jerusalem,
Jahrbuch zur Beforderung einer Wissenschaftlich
Genauen Kenntnis des Jetzigen und des Alten Paliis-
tina" (Hebrew and German, 6 vols., 1881-1903);
(3) " Literarischer Palastina-Almanach " (Hebrew;
since 1894). He owns a Hebrew printing-press, from
which he has begun the issue of a Palestinian library,
Estori Farhi's "Kaftor wa-Ferah " and Schwarz's
"Tebu'otha-Arez " being the first works published.
He has now (1904) in the press a new edition of
tlie Jerusalem Talmud with commentary and intro-
duction.

Bibliography : Sokolow Sefer Zikharnn, p. 184.
8. M. L. B.

LUNEL (Hebr. ^'J1^) : Chief town of the de-
partment of Herault, France; at times it is called
im^ hllJ2 and inn' nyp3 (see Zerahiah Gerundi,
preface to "Ma'or," and I. de Lattes, "Sha'are Ziy-
yon," p. 75). The Jewish community here is an
ancient one; important in the eleventh century, it
became still more prominent in tiie twelfth. Benja-
min of Tudela, who visited it in 1166, says ("Itiner-
ary," i. 3) that it consisted of 300 members, some
of whom were very learned and wealthy and took
pleasure in offering hospitality to poor students
eager to attend its famous academy. This institu-
tion had become so important in tiie twelfth centurj'
that it was at times called the "dwelling-place of
the Torah" ("Ma'or" to Pes. vii.), and the "vesti-
bule of the Temple" ("Temim De'im," No. 7),

The lords of Lunel were in general very well dis-
posed toward the Jews. In 1252 one of tiiem,
Gaucelin, employed two Jews of liis dominion as
intermediaries to consult the Spanisii Jewish doctor
Ibraliiin in behalf of Alphonse of Poitiers, whose
eyesight liad become seriously affected. In 1295
Rosselin of Lunel, in spite of the interdictions of the
Cliurcli councils, pawned the revenues of his barony
to a Jew named Tliauios. In 1319 the Jews of Lu-
nel were arrested, and tlie property was seized of
those among them who were cliarged with having,
during the preceding Holy Week, "in outrageous
mockery " carried a crucifi.x through the .streets of
Lunel and trailed it in the dust (MS. Aubais, in the
Nlmes Librarv, fol. 60).



At present there is not a single Jewish family
in Lunel, and only a few vestiges of the synagogue
remain in the former Hotel de Bernis (now belong-
ing to A. Menard) in the Rue Alphonse Menard.
According to a document in the municipal archives
(case 5, book i.. No. 2319) the cemetery was situ-
ated on the Mas Desports road.

The following scholars, or "sages of Lunel," are
mentioned in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries:
MeshuUam b. Jacob, a very learned man; Judah b.
Saul ibn Tibbon, physician and translator; Samuel
ibn Tibbon, translator of Maimonides' "Moreh Ne-
bukim " ; the Talmudists Zerahiah b. Isaac ha-Levi
(Gerundi), Jonathan b. David ha-Kohen, and Mano-
ah ; Abba Marl b. Moses b. Joseph (Don Astruc of
Lunel), author of the "Minhat Kena'ot," a collec-
tion in which he preserved the letters exchanged
from 1303 to 1306 between the champions of ortho-
do.xy and the advocates of science and philosophy
(among the former were the Lunel rabbis Isaac b.
Abigdor Simeon b. Joseph, called "En Duran of Lu-
nel," and Mei'r b. Isaiah; among the latter, Solomon
b. Isaac, called the " prince," who was commissioned
in 1286, together with several other Jews, to collect
the taxes imposed by King Philip the Fair upon the
Jews in the jurisdiction of the seneschal of Carcas-
sonne); the physician Solomon, who is probably
identical with Maestro Solomon Davin, author of a
work on fever; Sen Samuel, commentator of the
" Moreh Nebukim " ; and the astronomer Salmon ;
and in the fourteenth century, the philosopher
Asher b. Abraham Cohen.

Several scholars from Lunel bore the surname
"Yarhi"(="of Lunel"), among them: Abraham
b. Nathan ha-Yarhi, David ha-Yarhi, Aryeh Ju-
dah ha-Yarhi b. Levi (Zunz, "Literaturgesch." p.
495; idem, "Z. G." p. 469), and Solomon b. Abba
Mari ha-Yarhi, who lived in* the second half of the
fourteenth century and wrote a Hebrew grammar
entitled "Leshon Limmudim." The name "Lunel "
is still a very common one among the Jews of
southern France.

Bibliography : Saige, Lck Juiff: du Languednc. passim : Re-
nan-Neubauer, Les Rablnns FraiigaiX pp. 513 et 8eq.; Idem,
Les Ecrivains Jui/.s, pp. 401, 4()4 et xnq.; B<?darrides, Les
Juifn en France, pp. lt*l', 143, 144; Abbe A. Roiiet. JV"o( ice
mirja Villc de Lunel au Mnmn Age, pp. 13-77 ; Thomas
Millerot, Jfi.stoire de la Ville de Lniicl. pp. 27, 40 et sea.;
Dom Vaissete, Histnire Generale du Languednc, iv. 161 ;
Griitz, Gesch. vll. 28 et seq.; S. Kahn, _Lc,s Ecnles Jtiives et la
Faculte. de MMecine de Montpellier, pp. 7, 11 ; Gross, Gallia
Judaica, pp. 277 et seq.
G. S. Iv.

liUNTSCHITZ, SOLOMON EPHRAIM.

See Kl'HKAIM, SOLO.MON BEN AaRON.

LTJNTZ : Name of a family descended from the
Loans, or Loanz, family of Worms. According to
a family tradition, Elijah, the sixth in line of direct
descent from Mo.ses, son of Joselman Loans, emi-
grated from Worms and settled in the little town of
Kelm (Chelm; now in the government of Kovno)
about the year 1700, and became its rabbi. He left
a son, Meir (b. 1709), who.se first son, Elijah of
Krozhe (Krozher; 1723? -1814), was a wealthy and
pious Talmudist, and whose descendants adopted the
name of Habinowitz. His second son, Ezekiel, be-
came rabbi of Shavli about 1749, and continued in
that position until his death in 1808. One of Eze-
kiel's sons, Moses, enjoyed the rare distinction of



209



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



liUnoz
liuria



Oeing magistrate of SUavli. Another son, Getzel,
was the great-grandfather of Wolf Luntz of Riga,
a well-known communal worker and one of the
founders of the Zionist movement in Russia. Abra-
ham Moses Luncz of Jerusalem does not belong to
this family, whose pedigree follows:






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BiBMOGRAPHY : Judah Lob Luntz, liiobez Shoshanim. pp. 58-
64, Warsaw, 1891. _ „^

n. R. P. ^i.

LUPERIO (LXJPERCIO), ISAAC : A Jew,
perhaps a Marano, of Spanish descent; lived at
Smyrna. His apology, written in Spanish and di-
rected against a monk at Seville, and an interpreta-
tion by him of Daniel's "seventy weeks," entitled
"Apoloxia Repuesta y Declaracion de las Setenta
Semanas de Daniel, Contra lo Que Escrivio una Per-
sona Residente en Ruan," appeared in a Latin trans-
lation at Basel, 1658.

Bibliography : Kayserling, Bibl. Esp.-Pnrt.-.Tud. p. 64 : De
Rossi, BibUothe.ca Judaica Ant i christian a, p. 58; DeRossi-
Hamberger, Hi><t. Wurterb. p. 186.
G, M. K.

VIII.— 14



litJPSCHtJTZ. See Lipschitz ; Lipschutz.

LURIA: A family with wide ramifications and
several of whose members were distinguished for
mj'stioal tendencies and rabbinical knowledge.

Abraham b. Nissan Luria : Russian rabbi and
grammarian of the first half of the nineteenth cen-
tury. He was rabbi of Skod (Shad ?) in Lithuania,
and is known chiefly through his grammatical work
" Nisyonot Abraham " (Wilna, 1821). It consists of
two parts, of which the first is on the grammatical
passages in Rashi's commentary on the Bible, and
the second on similar passages occurring in the older
commentaries on the Mishnah and Talmud.

Bibliography: Furst, Bihl. Jud. h. 257; Fuenn, Safah le-
Nc'emanim, p. 149, Wilna, 1881.

David, b, Aaron Iiuria : Russian educator ; born
in Minsk about 1800 ; died in Konigsberg, Prussia,
July, 1873. The son of wealthy parents, he was
given a liberal Jewish education, which he later
supplemented by the acquisition of a knowledge
of the secular sciences. After Lilienthal's failure
(1842) to induce the Jews of Minsk to establish a
school for Jewish children, Luria took up the work
and succeeded beyond all expectations. At first op-
posed by the Orthodox, he soon overcame all oppo-
sition, and in 1843 gained control of the Talmud
Torali of Minsk. As its superintendent, he trans-
formed it into a modern institution ; and his admi-
rable management won the recognition not only of
the local authorities, but even of the central govern-
ment (see " Journal of the Ministry of Public Edu-
cation," vol. 53, i. 40).

Luria's success not only turned his former antag-
onists into warm supporters, but induced the well-
to-do Jewish merchants to open a school for their
children so that they might be enabled to receive
as good an education as was given to the orphans in
the Talmud Torah. Thus a merchants' school was
founded, also under Luria's management; but it
failed on accoxmt of circumstances over which he
had no control. The support it had received,
however, encouraged him to establish the Midrash
Ezrahim or citizens' school, for children of the mid-
dle class, which proved a great success, although its
fees were more than double those of the local gym-
nasium. But all his hopes were destroyed when his
classes in the Talmud Torah and his Midrash Ezra-
him were closed by order of the government, to
make room for the government schools which were
then being established in Jewish communities.
Greatly disappointed, "his only rewards being a
gold medal from the czar and a short poem by Gott-
lober" ("Ha-Nizzanim," p. 214, Wilna, 1850), he re-
tired to his books and his studies, and for the rest
of his life took but little interest in public affairs.

Luria was the author of " 'Omer ba-Sadeh " (Wil-
na, 1853), a book for the young, in which Biblical
passages are explained in a moral and patriotic sense.

bibliography: Yevreiskaya Biblioteka, iii. 360 etjeq^Ha-
Shahar, Iv. 569; Zeitlin, Bibl. Post-Mendels. pp. 220-221.

Enoch Zundel b. Isaiah Luria : Russian
preacher and author; died in Brest-Litovsk Feb. 13,
1847. He lived for several years in Wilna, and
later became successively preacher in New Zhagory
and Novogrudok, both in the government of



Ziuria



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



210



Kovno. He wrote "Kenaf Renanim" on "Perek
Shirah" (Krotoschin, 1842; Presburg, 1859; War-
saw, 1888). He wrote also "Motot Kenafayim,"
sermons and addenda to his former work, but it re-
mained in manuscript. A review of tlie "Kenaf
Renanim" is given in "Orient, Lit." 1842, No. 26.

Bibliography: Fuenn, iJ'eneset Fisra€l,p.312; Felnberg, 'Jc
Tehillah, p. 228, Warsaw, 1886.
H. R. P. Wr.

Isaac ben Solomon Ashkenazi Luria
(ARI) : Founder of tlie modern Cabala; born of
German parents at Jerusalem in 1534; died at Safed
Auff. 5. 1572. While still a child he lost his father,
and was brought up by his rich uncle Mordecai
Francis, tax-farmer at Cairo, who placed him under
the best Jewish teachers. Luria showed himself a
diligent student of rabbinical literature; and, under
the guidance of Bezaleel Ashkenazi, he, while quite
young, became proficient in that branch of Jewish
learning. At the age of fifteen he married his cousin,
and, being amply provided for, was enabled to con-
tinue his studies undisturbed. When about twenty-
two years old, becoming engrossed with the study
of the Zohar, which had recently been printed for
the first time, he adopted the life of a hermit. He
removed to the banks of the Nile, and for seven
years secluded himself in an isolated cottage, giving
himself up entirely to meditation. He visited his

family only on the Sabbath, speaking
Lives as very seldom, and always in Hebrew.
Hermit. Such a mode of life could not fail to

produce its effect on a man endowed
by nature with a lively imagination. Luria became
a visionary. He believed he had frequent inter-
views with the prophet Elijah, by wliom he was in-
itiated into sublime doctrines. Ho asserted that
while asleep his soul ascended to heaven and con-
versed with the great teachers of the past.

In 1569 Luria removed to Palestine; and after a
short sojourn at Jerusalem, where his new cabalistic
system seems to have met with but little success,
he settled at Safed. There he formed a circle of
cabalists to whom he imparted the doctrines by
means of which he hoped to establish on a new basis
the moral system of the world. To this circle be-
longed Moses Cordovero, Solomon Alkabiz, Joseph
Caro, Moses Alshecli, Elijah de Vidas, Joseph Hagiz,
Elisha Galadoa, and Moses Bassola. They met
every Friday, and each confessed to another his sins.
Soon Luria had two c!as.sesof disciples: (1) novices,
to whom he expounded tlie elementary Cabala, and
(2) initiates, who became the depositaries of his se-
cret teachings and his formulas of invocation and
conjuration. Tlie most renowned of the initiates

was Hayyim Vital of Calabria, who.
Disciples, according to his master, possessed a

soul which had not been soiled by
Adam's sin. In his company Luria visited the sep-
ulchcrs of Simeon hen Ynhai and of other eminent
teachers, the situation of which had been revealed
to him by his constant mentor, the prophet Elijali.
Luria's cabalistic circle gradually widened and be-
came a separate congregation, in which his mystic
ioctrines were supreme, influencing all the religious
ceremonies. On Sabbath Luria dressed himself in
white and wore a fourfold garment to signify the



four letters of the Ineffable Name. His followers
looked upon him as a saint who had the power to
perform all kinds of mira'^les, while he himself pre-
tended to be Messiah ben Joseph, the forerunner of
Messiah ben David.

Luria used to deliver his lectures extempore and,
with the exception of some cabalistic poems in Ara-
maic for the Sabbath service, did not write anything.

The real exponent of his cabalistic sys-

His tem was Hayyim Vital. He collected

Utterances, all the notes of the lectures which

Luria's disciples had made; and from
these notes were produced numerous works, the
most important of which was the " 'Ez Hayyim," in
six volumes (see below). At first this circulated in
manuscript copies; and each of Luria's disciples
had to pledge himself, under pain of excommunica-
tion, not to allow a copy to be made for a foreign
country; so that for a time all the manuscripts re-
mained in Palestine. At last, however, one was
brought to Europe and was published at Zolkiev in
1772 by Satanow. In this work are expounded both
the speculative Cabala, based on the Zohar, and the
practical or miraculous Cabala (n''tJ'J?0 n?3p), of
which Luria was the originator.

The characteristic feature of Luria's sj'stem in the
speculative Cabala is his definition of the Sefirot and
his theory of the intermediary agents, which he
calls " parzufim " (from iipoatjTTov =" face "). Before
the creation of the world, he says, the En Sof filled
the infinite space. When the Creation was decided
upon, in order that His attributes, which belong
to other beings as well, should manifest them-
selves in their perfection, the En Sof retired into
His own nature, or, to use the cabalistic term, con-
centrated Himself (inVJ? JIX DVDV). From this con-
centration proceeded the infinite light. When in its
turn the light concentrated, there appeared in the
center an empty space encompas.sed by ten circles
or dynamic vessels ("kelim") called "Sefirot," by
means of which the infinite realities, though form-
ing an absolute unity, may appear in their diver-
sity; for the finite has no real existence of itself.
However, the infinite light did not wholly desert the
center; a thin conduit (-|"1J">V) of light traver.sed the
circles and penetrated into the center. But while
the three outermost circles, being of a purer sub-
stance because of their nearness to the En Sof, were
able to bear the light, the inner six were unable to
do so, and burst. It was, therefore, necessary to re-
move them from the focus of the light. For this
purpose the Sefirot were transformed into "figures"

("parzufim"). The first Sefirah, Keter,

The was transformed into the potentially

Sefirot. existing three heads of the Macro-

prosopon ("Erek Anfin"); the second
Sefirah, Hokmah, into the active masculine principle
called " Father " (" Abba ") ; the third Sefirah, Binali,
into tiic passive, feminine principle called "Mother "
(" Imma"); the six broken Sefirot, into the male child



Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 52 of 169)