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above, for he attacks the views expressed in the
prayer-book as blasphemous, and repeats the old
accusations that the Jew does not consider the
" goyim " as human beings, that he prays for their
misfortune (ib. xxxii. 193), and that when a Chris-
tian comes to his house he says to him "Sched
willkomm," which the Christian understands as a
welcome, though in reality the Jew is calling him a
"devil" (ib. xxxii. 222). Luther praises the "dear
Emperor Charles " for having expelled the Jews from
Spain {ib. xxxii. 231, evidently meaning Ferdinand,
Charles V. 's grandfather), and expresses great satis-
faction at a recent edict of expulsion from Bohemia.
He repeatedly urges that their synagogues be burned,
and is sorry that he can not destroj'^ them with hell-
fire. He further advises that their houses be torn
down, their books taken from them, their rabbis
prohibited from teaching; that no safe-conduct be
granted them ; that their usury be prohibited ; that
their public worship be interdicted; that they be
forced to do the hardest labor ; and he admonishes
everybody to deal with them in a merciless manner,
"even as Moses did, who slew three thousand of
them in the wilderness." The invectives which he
uses against them are vile even for sixteenth-cen-
tuiy standards. After admonishing his readers not
to have the slightest intercourse with the Jews, he
says: "If that which you already suffer from the
Jew is not sufficient strike him in the jaw. " The most
fanatic statement is the following: "If I had power
over them I would assemble their most prominent
men and demand that they prove that we Christians
do not worship the one God, under the penalty of
having their tongues torn out through the backs of
their necks " {ib. xxxii.- 257).

His " Shem Hamphoras " was written to refute a

statement made by some Jews that Jesus performed

liis miracles with the aid of magic art.

"Shem He attacks cabalistic and rabbinical

Hampho- literature, saying that if Jews possess
ras." the knowledge of magic art they must
have had it from Judas Iscariot {ib.
xxxii. 342 et seq.). In both works he repeatedly de-
clares it useless to attempt the conversion of any
Jew, for a Jewish heart is so "stocksteineisentoifel-
hart " that it can never be changed {ib. xxxii. 276).
He also quotes, in his "Table-Talks," a report that
in a church of Cologne is the statue of a dean who
was a convert from Judaism and who had ordered
the statue to be made with a cat in one hand and a
mouse in tlie other, just as and cat
will never live in harmony, neither will Jew and
Christian {ib. Ixii. 37n.




These books aroused grave fears among the Jews,
and Josel Rosheim asked the city council of Stras-
burg to allow him to publish a book in refutation of
Luther's pamphlets (Jul}^ 11, 1543); but this the
council considered unnecessary. Josel complains
that although he made seven attempts to see Luther
he was never admitted, and in his memoirs, written
in the year following Luther's death, he speaks with
"bitterness of the great reformer's attitude toward the
Jews, expressing the hope that lie was in hell, both
body and soul ("R. E. J." xvi. 92; see also, on
Josel's relations with Luther, Feilchenfeld, "Rabbi
Josel von Rosheim," p. 121, Strasburg, 1898).
Luther often referred to the Jews in his commen-
taries on the Bible, as in his exposition of the 109th
Psalm, in which he explains the reference to the
lot of the wicked to be a prophecy of Israel's mis-
ery. The argument that the sufferings of the Jews
are the just punishment for their rejection of Jesus
is as common with him as with all medieval theo-
logians. The totally different attitudes which he
took at different times with regard to the Jews made
him, during the anti-Semitic controversies of the
end of the nineteenth century, an authority quoted
alike by friends and enemies of the Jews.

Bibliography: Luther's S(lmmtliche Werke, 67 vols., Er-
langen and Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1826-57 (the edition used
for the references given in the text) ; Herzog-Hauck, Real-
Encyc. s.v. Bibelilbersetzungen Deutsche and Luther;
Gratz. Gesc7i. 3d ed., ix. 196, 304 et seq., 311 et seq. ; Geiger,
JM. Zeit. V. 23-29. j)

LUTSK (LUTZK) : District city in the govern-
ment of Volhynia, Russia, situated on the right bank
of the Styr at its junction with the Gizhtza. Be-
tween the years 1224 and 1227 about 300 Karaite
families removed from Wilna to Volhynia, and some
of them settled in Lutsk. About the same time a
number of Rabbinite Jews also came to Volhynia.
Lutsk Jews are mentioned in Witold's charter of
privileges granted to the Jews of Lithuania July 1,
1388. Reference is made to them also in the grant
of the Magdeburg Rights to the burghers of Lutsk
by Ladislaus Jagellon Oct. 31, 1432, whereby the
Jews and Armenians of that city are accorded the
same rights as those of Cracow and Lemberg, except
as regards the collection of customs duties, which the
king reserves for himself. Toward the end of the
fifteenth century the Jewish community of Lutsk
had acquired considerable wealth and influence, and
some of its members figured prominently as tax-
farmers. Tlie records of that time
In the mention the names of the brothers
Fourteenth Ostashka and Jonathan Ilyich, Shakna
and Novakhovich, Israel, Esko, Judah,

Fifteenth Enka Momotlivy, and Olkon. The
Centuries, last-named is probably the Alkan
Danilevich to whom King Casimir
Jagellon at the time of his death owed 415 kop
groschen, a debt partly repudiated by his heir,
Alexander Jagellon.

On the expulsion of the Jews from Lithuania in
1495 the extensive estates owned by the wealthy
Jews of Lutsk were distributed among Alexander's
favorites. Thus on June 26, 1495, he presented to
the Polish nobles Soroka and his brother two estates
in the district of Lutsk belonging to the Jews Enka
Momotlivy and Itzkhak Levanovich; on March 12,

1496, he gave the estate of Topoli, formerly the
property of the Jew Simchich, to the alderman of
Lutsk ; on June 5, 1496, he presented another Jew-
ish estate to Prince 0.strozhski; and on July 31,

1497, for the encouragement of Christian settlers, he
made to the Christian inhabitants of Lutsk a general
grant of the vacant lands and houses belonging to
the exiled Jews. On the return of the Jews to the
city in 1503 they organized two separate communi-
ties, one Rabbinite and the other Karaite, having
their respective synagogues, as appears from a
decree issued by King Sigismund Dec. 22, 1506,
by which he grants the petition of the Jews of
Lutsk for the removal of the burdensome tax of 13

kop groschen on each of the two syn-
Jewish Tax- agogues. To some extent at least the
Collectors. Jews regained their former wealth and
influence, becoming prominent as be-
fore in the farming of the taxes and as leaseholders,
and engaging in important commercial underta-
kings. The more important of them were Shamakh
Danilevich and Missan Kozka (1507) ; Mishko Pol-
chekovich, Abraham Shakhnovich, Mordas Chaga-
dayevich, Frush, Nissan Shimchich, and Rebinko
Leveyevich (1509). In 1509 the collection of taxes
in Lutsk and in other towns was awarded to the
Jew Michael Jesofovich, who again farmed the taxes
on salt and wax in Lutsk from 1520 to 1526.

During the first half of the sixteenth century the
Jews of Lutsk continued to share in the prosperous
condition of their coreligionists throughout Poland
and Lithuania. They were often granted special
privileges and exemptions, as is evidenced by a
number of contemporary documents. By a royal
decree dated July 18, 1528, the Jews equally with
the burghers were freed from the payment of taxes
to the crown for a period of ten years, and of mu-
nicipal taxes for five years. This decree was issued
in response to a petition for such exemption on ac-
count of a destructive fire which had devastated the
city. Similarly in 1551 the Jews of Lutsk, in com-
mon with those of other towns, were exempted from
the payment of the special tax called "Schereb-
schisna " ; and on July 30, 1556, King Sigismund
August exempted them from the payment of cus-
toms duties on all commodities except wax and salt,
on the same conditions as the Christian inhabitants.

Documents of the middle of the sixteenth century
bear witness to the growing friction between the
Jewish community of Lutsk and the local authori-
ties. In 1545 both the Rabbinite and
In the the Karaite community made com-

Sixteenth plaint that Prince Matvei Chetvertin-

Century. ski, ignoring the privileges granted to
the Jews of Lutsk by the king, had
blocked the road to their cemetery and cut off
access to a certain pond. An inspector sent to in-
vestigate the case reported thereon to King Sigis-
mund August, who ordered the prince to reopen
the road and to abstain from further obstructing it.
As time went on the friction increased, due largely
to the great power of the Jewish leaseholders and
tax-farmers, who were under the immediate jurisdic-
tion of the king, and who naturally refused to ac-
knowledge the authority of the local officials. For
instance, in 1560 Mendel Isakovich, a Lutsk Jew,




complained to the king that tlie authoiities of Vol-
hynia had placed under their jurisdiction his (Men-
del's) secretaries and other employees engaged in the
collection of the taxes. The king ordered that
henceforth these officials should not be interfered
with. Again, in 1561, the burgomaster and alder-
man of Lutsk complained in the name of the burgh-
ers that the agents of the Jewish leaseholder Yeska
Shlomich had caused them great damage by collect-
ing during the fair of St. Simon large sums for the
privilege of selling spirituous liquors, in conse-
quence of which the visitors had departed and the
burghers " were obliged to wander in the villages
like Gipsies." Moreover, the same agents had pro-
hibited the burghers from leaving the town with
spirituous liquors in their possession, thereby caus-
ing them pecuniary loss. In 1566 the burghers of
Lutsk descended on the royal estate of Guidovskoye
and seized the Jew Shmoila Gooshich, whom they
put to death notwithstanding the protest of the
other employees on the estate. In 1569 the alder-
man of Lutsk, Prince Koritzki, imprisoned the Jews
of the city on account of the non-payment of their
share of the tax levied on the Jews of Lithuania.
King Sigismund August, however, ordered their re-
lease, .since they had already paid the poll-tax of 15
groschen determined upon by the Diet of Grodno.
The king ordered also the removal of the seals
which had been placed on the synagogue and
other property of the Jews. In the same year
the whole of Volhynia was added to Poland, and
the members of both of the Jewish communities
of Lutsk took the oath of allegiance (June 23,

A considerable number of legal documents dating
from the latter half of the sixteenth century make
mention of the Jews of Lutsk and of their relations
to their neighbors. In 1571 John Stefanovich, the
superior of the monastery of Derwansk, stated in
his will that he had paid in behalf of the town secre-
tary of Lutsk the sum of 2i groschen to the Jews
Izel and Yesko for the building of a cellar. In the
list of property left by Andrei Ru.sin, Bishop of
Piusk and Turov, reference is made to certain docu-
ments belonging to a Jew and relating to three prop-
erties "at the end of tiie crooked bridge of Lutsk " ;
also to ten documents written in Hebrew. Among
the servants of the bishop arc enumerated several
bought from this Jew. In 1583 Batko (Simeon) Mi-
sanovich, who had recently been baptized, requested
the alderman of Lutsk to enter in the city records
his becjuest to his son Mosiikaof certain moneys due
to him (Simeon).

A ninuber of documents preserved in tiie central
archives of Kiev, and dated 1563, aflord interesting
information concerning the lite of the Jews of Lutsk
at tiiis time. Among tliese is the complaint of the
Jew Yakiuia Lcveyevich, a soldier in tiie service of
Prince Constaiitin Ostrozhski, against his fatiierin-
law, Ni.s.san Habiyevich of Klevan, who in Yakh-
na's absence iiad visited his house, taken away liis
wife and his goods, and had then disaitpeared. Tiie
enumeration of the articles abstracted includes
Turkisli knives, a Hungarian sword with silver
mountings, a silver dagger, saddles, and gold or-
naments, besides househr)ld utensils.

In 1601 Prince Grigori Sangushko Koshirski pre-
sented for entry in the city records of Lutsk a copy
of the lease to the Jews Abraham
In the Shmoilovich of Turisk, Getz Pert-
Seven- sovich of Torchinsk, and their
teenth heirs, of liis estates in the town of
Century. Gorokhov, the estate and village of
old Gorokhov, and a number of other
estates and villages. The lease was for a period of
three years, and the lessees were permitted among
other things to exercise complete jurisdiction over
the peasants, even to the extent of inflicting the
death penalty if necessary.

On March 6, 1625, Leib Israilevich and Ilia
Abramovich, Jewish scholars of Lutsk, reported for
entry in the city records an attack made upon
them by the nobles Lesetzki and their followers
while the complainants were accompanying to
the cemetery the body of Leib Isakovich. The Le-
setzkis had filled in the freshly dug grave, had
destroyed the bridge leading to the cemetery, had
nailed fast the cemetery gates, and had refused to
allow the burial to take place until a debt due to one
of them should have been paid. The priest, ap-
pealed to by the Jews, ordered the Lesetzkis not to
molest the Jews; but the nobles collected an armed
mob, drove off the Jews, many of whom were
wounded, and threw the body of Isakovich into the

In Oct., 1637, the burghers of Lutsk lodged a com-
plaint against all the Jews to the effect that they
paid nothing into the city treasury, that they had
freed many from local jurisdiction, that they
had built many others on land belonging to the
burghers, and had established on the city walls
breweries and distilleries, thus diminishing the city's
power of defense; further, that they had refused
to perform military and guard duty, and that they
had purchased liquor fiom the merchants of places
outside of the city limits, reselling it within the city.
Complaint of excessive taxation was also made by
Jewish leaseholders and their representatives.

In 1647 one of the priests of Lutsk forbade the
communicants of his church to buy meat from Jew-
ish butchers. The matter was carried to the courts,
and the priest was ordered to pay damages.

During the Cossack uprising under CuMiELNirKi
(1648-49) the community suffered severely,
and a number of Jews were killed. In 1662 the Diet
of Volhynia cxemjitcd the Jews of Lutsk and other
Volhynian towns from the payment of all taxes ex-
cept that on braid.

In 1637 Lutsk possessed a yeshibah which was des-
troyed luobably by the Cossacks in 1648. In the
"SeferZikkaron" of the Karaites (Neubauer, "Ginze
Petersburg." p. 130) is a statement concerning
the Karaites of Lutsk and commencing as,follows:
" These arc the names of the members of our com-
munity who were killed by the Cossacks." During
the same uprising the ]u-ayer-houses were destroyed
and all the books burned (Graetz, "Hist." Hebrew
ed., vol. vii.). In 1690, at the re(|uest of Charles
XII. of Sweden, Mordecai ben Nissan, sexton of a
Karaite synagogue, went to Lutsk and wrote an
account of his observations in " Leluish Malkut,"
in wliicli he denounces the Rabbinite Jew.s.




Among the tombstones in the Jewish cemetery are
those of: Hannah Ginzburg, died in 1317 (?); a
woman who died in 1595 ; Rabbi Eliakim Getzel, died
in 1715; Rabbi Mordeccai ben Shalom, died in 1723;
Judah Zeeb ben Tobias, martyred in 1764; and tlie
maggid of Lutsk, Meir ben Hayyim, died in 1819
("Ha-Meliz," 1860, No. 19).

In 1791, the year of its annexation to Russia,
Lutsk contained only fifty houses owned by the
burghers; the rest belonged to the Rabbinite Jews
and the Karaites. In 1864 there were 3,423 Rabbin-
ite Jews and 221 Karaites in a total population of
4,973; in 1895 the numbers were 12,007 and 72 re-
spectively in a total population of 15,125. In the
last-cited year the community possessed eighteen syn-
agogues and prayer-houses besides a Karaite prayer-
house, one Jewish hospital, and one Jewish dispen-
sary. At the same date there were in the district of
Lutsk, exclusive of the city, 42 Karaites and 18,775
other Jews in a total population of 188,036.

Bibliography : Regesty, i., passim; Russko-Yevreiski Ar-
khii\ i., ijassim.

a. R.

IiTJTZYN : Russian town in the government of
Vitebsk; it is situated near a chain of mountains and
surrounded by lakes and streams. Lutzyn is an
ancient city, and was fortified by the Livonian Order
in the twelfth century. According to tradition and
local inscriptions, Jews began to settle at Lutzyn in
the fifteenth century ; but when Ivan the Terrible
conquered Polotsk, Lebezli, and Lutzyn, those of
the Jews in the neighborhood who did not flee were
exterminated. The Jews of Polotsk and Lebezh
were drowned by the order of Ivan, but the Jews
of Lutzyn, according to tradition, escaped, together
with a number of the Poles and Catholic clergy.
At the end of the sixteenth century, after the Rus-
sians had been driven out, Jews again commenced
to settle in and around Lutzyn, but their number
remained small until the second half of the eight-
eenth century. After the first partition of Poland
(1772) the Jews of Lutzyn became the subjects of
Russia, but they remained an unorganized commu-
nity, without rabbi, charitable institution, or ceme-
tery, until 1783. At this time a great misfortune befell
them. Some Catholic priests and Jesuits attempted
to convert the Jewish tailor Moses, and when the
latter, during a dispute, answered in a way tliat was
unpleasant to his opponents and reflected upon the
Christian religion, he was burned alive. On the day
after this crime was committed, the Jews collected
the ashes of their martyr, buried them with impress-
ive ceremonies on the spot where he had been burned,
and decided to organize themselves; they finally
succeeded in bringing to justice the murderers of
their "kadosh" (martyr).

In 1795 David Ziony was appointed rabbi of
Lutzyn ; he held the rabbinate for two years, and
died at the age of thirty-eight. His eldest son,
Naphtali, succeeded him when not quite twenty
years of age, and served his community more than
fifty years. He established several charitable insti-
tutions, and, when he died in 1848, was succeeded
by his eldest son, Aaron Selig. R. Aaron Selig died
in 1875, after occupying the rabbinate for twenty-
seven years. He was the autlior of " Sefer Ziyyoni "

(WHna, 1872), on various religious and theological

Aaron Selig was succeeded by Eleazar Don-Echi,
a nephew, and his oldest son-in-law. The latter is
the author of "Eben Shetiyah," and is the present
(1904) rabbi of Lutzyn.

In the early spring of 1883 a Christian girl, who
had been for several months a servant in the house-
hold of the Jew Zimel Lotzov, disappeared, and
was afterward found drowned near the town. The
procurator of the government, influenced by the
clergy, made out a case against the Lotzov family
and the whole community. Prince Urusoff, the
Russian jurist and philanthropist, left
Blood Ac- St. Petersburg to defend the Jews, the
cusation. result being that the jury declared
them innocent of any connection with
the drowning of the girl. But the procurator was
not satisfied with this verdict and transferred the
case to the courts of Vitebsk, where Lotzov and his
wife were sentenced to Siberia— Lotzov to penal
servitude for life in the government mines, his wife
to imprisonment for six years. Prince Urusoff again
defended them, but his eloquence, as well as the
testimony of physicians and other witnesses, failed
to save them, because the representatives of the gov-
ernment used every possible means, lawful and un-
lawful, to influence the minds of the Vitebsk judges.
The Lotzovs were declared guilty, not as murderers
themselves, but as the shelterers of murderers who
had killed a Christian girl for some unknown reason.
The Jews of Lutzyn contributed materially to the
establishment of Jewish agricultural colonies in
Kherson, Yekaterinoslav, and northwestern Russia.
In 1835 many Jews of Lutzyn sold their property
for small sums and went to South Russia, where the
government gave them farming land. A few dec-
ades after the migration to the Kherson and Yeka-
terinoslav colonies, two Jewish agricultuni* colonies
were founded by the government near Lutzyn.

Lutzyn has a population of 6,000, half of which
are Jews. Of these 310 arc artisans and 65 day-
laborers. The educational institutions consist of:
a Jewish one-class school with 30 pupils, 20 hadarim
with 150, and a Talmud Torah with 42; there are
also 49 Jewish pupils attending the district and
common schools.

Bibliography: Lmitzinskniic Diicln Pn Ohvineniiiu Lntzo-
vykh, Ourevicha i Mauhh v Ulnstvi/c Marii Dricli i Steno-
grafichcski Otcliet, St. Petersburg, 1885.
H. R. i- ^^■

LUXEMBURG : Grand duchy of central Eu-
rope, its capital bearing the same name. The
sources do not definitely indicate when Jews first
settled in Luxemburg. The first record of a Jew re-
siding there occurs in a document of the year 1276.
At this time the Jewish jiopulation of the duchy
seems to have been small and in indigent circum-
stances; for the impoverished nobility of Luxem-
burg transacted their money affairs with the Jews
of Treves, Coblenz, Saarburg, and Wittlich. Dur-
ing the entire Middle Ages the Jews
Early lived in a ghetto, where there were a

History. Jews' gate, a cemetery, and a syna-
gogue. It appears that subsequently
the cemetery ceased to exist; for down to the be-
ginning of the nineteenth century the Jews buried




their dead at Freudenburg, in the district of Saarburg,
province of the Rhine. As elsewhere in the Ger-
man empire, the Jews of Luxemburg were the "scrvi
camerae " of the German emperors, and as a source
of income to the imperial exchequer they were
placed by the emperors under the protection of the
local princes. Thus, on May 7, 1350, at the time of
the Black Death, Charles IV. ordered the governor
and the provost of Luxemburg to look to the safety
of the Jews living tliere. In 1370, Avhen the Jews
of Brussels were accused of having desecrated a
holy wafer, "Weuzel, Duke of Brabant and Luxem-
burg, expelled all the Jews from Brabant; and none
are met with in the country during the next fifty
or sixty years.

With the beginning of the Burgundian rule (1441)
Jews are again found at Luxemburg; each of them
had to pay two gulden for a protection that was
merely nominal. In March, 1470, notwithstanding
the presence of the governor and the militia, the
townspeople attacked the Jews, plundered and de-
molished their houses, and maltreated them, so that
they were barely able to flee to the castle on the
Bockfelscn (Clausener Berg), to which they were ad-
mitted by the governor and whence they subse-
quently reached places of safety.

In the beginning of the sixteenth century there

were Jews at Echternach, Luxemburg, Arlon, and

Igel. But no Jews are mentioned after 1527, and

probably none were living at Luxemburg from the

time of the Spanish rule, 1555, to the end of the

eighteenth century, although Maranos seem to have

lived there in the seventeenth century.

In the All the more worthy of note is it that.

Sixteenth as is shown by a tablet in the wall of

Century, the present fortress of the city, the fa-
mous citadel of Luxemburg was built
by a Jewish engineer, Isaac de Traj'bac, in 1644.
Little is known of the Maranos* occupations. They
were probably engaged in retail business; for by a
decree of the provincial council, dated April 15, 1513,
they were forbidden to sell cloth otherwise than by
the piece. They were never required to wear the
so-called Jews' hat or yellow badge; and although
they were compelled to take an oath "more Juda-
jco" they were not required to submit to the humil-
iating ceremonies that usually accompanied it. A
decree of Philip V., issued Sept. 6, 1703, determined
the poll-tax that traveling Jews had to pay at the
bridges of various cities, this decree being con-
firmed Sept. 20, 1720. These conditions seem to

Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 54 of 169)