Isidore Singer.

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have obtained during the entire eighteenth century
down to the beginning of the French Revolution ;
for as late as 1787 a Jew complained of this unjust
tax, without receiving satisfaction.

By the laws of Jan. 2H and July 20, 1790, and
Sept. 27 and Nov. 13, 1791, the Jews were granted
equal civic rights with the other citizens. The
community, numbering seventy-five persons, was or-
ganized by a law of March 17, i>*Oii, and was placed
under the jurisdiction of the consistory of Treves.
When, on the termination of the French rule, Luxem-
burg was incorporated with tiie Netherlands (1H15),
the community was joined to the synagogue of Maes-
tricht; and when Ilniland was sei)arate(l from Bel-
gium by the Belgian revolution of 1830 the grand

duchy of Luxemburg became autonomous, and the
Jewish community independent. A rabbinate, sub-
ventioned by the state, was organized,
In the the first incumbent being Dr. Samuel
Eighteenth Hirsch (1843-66), former rabbi of Des-
and sau. As an advocate of religious re-

Nineteenth form he had to contend with manj'
Centuries, difficulties. He was succeeded by the
French rabbi Sopher, of Dijon (1866-
1870). In 1871 Dr. Isaac Blumenstein was elected
rabbi, and upon his death (Aug. 3, 1903) Dr. Sam-
uel Fuchs was called to the rabbinate. A new cem-
etery was laid out in 1884, and a handsome new
synagogue was built in 1894. On Jan. 12, 1899,
the supreme court declared the community, as
represented by its president, to possess the rights
of a corporation. There are also Jewish communi-
ties at Ettelbrlick, Grevenmacher, Esch, and Meder-
nach; and Jews are living in about twenty other
smaller localities. The communities of Ettelbrlick
and Grevenmacher have each their own cemetery;
at Esek a new synagogue was built in 1899.

The grand duchy has about 1,200 Jews in a total
population of 236,543, and the capital 407, in 20,938.
Only the community in the city of Luxemburg is
officially recognized. It is under city and state su-
pervision, and enjoys all the privileges accorded
other ecclesiastical bodies. The affairs of the com-
munity are directed by a board of seven members,
whose election is subject to confirmation by the
government. Although legall^^ the Jews of Lux-
emburg have full civic rights, they hold no govern-
ment offices and are not represented in municipal
councils. One exception, however, is to be recorded,
due principally to local circumstances. In Hamm,
near Luxemburg, the office of mayor is held
by a Jew, Jules Godchaux, his predecessors having
been his father, Samson, and the latter's cousin, Paul
Godchaux. The Luxemburg Jews are engaged
in industry, commerce, and agriculture. In their
cloth-, glove-, and furniture-factories, they employ
hundreds of working men, thus contributing materi-
ally to the national wealth. Socially, the Jews are
on the same footing as the other citizens; and anti-
Semitism has made no progress there, although
clericalism in its organ "Luxemburger Wort " lias
occasionally started an anti-Jewish agitation. In
one case the editor was fined 500 francs for libeling
Jews and Judaism (April 2, 1889).

D. I. Bl.

LiTJZ : 1. Older name of the city of Beth-el (Gen.
xxviii. 19, XXXV. 6, xlviii. 3; Josh. xvi. 2, xviii. 13;
Judges i. 23).

2. Name of a city in the land of the Hittites, built
by an emigrant from Beth-el, who was spared and
sent abroad by the Israolitish invaders because he
showed them the entrance to the city (Judges i. 26).
" Luz" being the Hebrew word for an almond-tree, it
has been suggested that the city derived its name
from such a tree or grove of trees. Winckler com-
pares the Arabic "laudh" ("asylum"). Robinson
("Researches," iii. 389) identifies the city either with
Luwaizah, near the city of Dan, or (ib. iii. 425) with
Kamid al-Lauz, north of Heshbon (now Hasbiyyah);
Talmudic references seem to point to its location
as somewhere near the Phenician coast (Sotah




46b; Sanh. 12a; Gen. R. Ixix. 7). Legend in-
vested the place with miraculous qualities. "Luz,
the city known for its blue dye, is the city which
Sennacherib entered but could not harm; Nebu-
chadnezzar, but could not destroy; the city over
which the angel of death has no power; out-
side the walls of which the aged who are tired of
life are placed, where tliey meet death " (Sotah 46b) ;
wherefore it is said of Luz, " the name thereof is
unto this day " (Judges i. 26, Hebr.). It is further-
more stated that an almond-tree with a hole in it
stood before the entrance to a cave that was near
Luz ; through that hole persons entered the cave
and found the way to the city, which was alto-
gether hidden (Gen. R. I.e.).

3. Aramaic name for the os coccyx, the "nut"
of the spinal column. The belief was that, being
indestructible, it will form the nucleus for the resur-
rection of the body. The Talmud narrates that the
emperor Hadrian, when told by R. Joshua that the
revival of the body at the resurrection will take its
start with the "almond," or the "nut, "of the spinal
column, had investigations made and found that wa-
ter could not soften, nor fire burn, nor the pestle and
mortar crush it (Lev. R. xviii. ; Eccl. R. xii.). The
legend of the " resurrection bone," connected with
Ps. xxxiv. 21 (A. V. 20: "unum ex illis [ossibus]
non confringetur ") and identified with the Cauda
equina (see Eisenmenger,"Entdecktes Judenthum,"
ii. 931-933), was accepted as an axiomatic truth by
the Christian and Mohammedan theologians and
anatomists, and in the Middle Ages the bone re-
ceived the name "Juden Kn5chlein " (Jew-bone;
see Hyrtl, " Das Arabische und Hebrtlische in der
Anatomie," 1879, pp. 165-168; comp. p. 24). Aver-
roes accepted the legend as true (see his "Religion
und Philosophic," transl. by Mailer, 1875, p. 117;
see also Steinschneider, "Polemische Literatur,"
1877, pp. 315, 421; idem, "Hebr. Bibl." xxi. 98;
idem, "Hebr. Uebers." p. 319; L5w, "Aramaische
Pflanzennamen," 1881, p. 320). Possibly the legend
owes its origin to the Egyptian rite of burying " the
spinal column of Osiris " in the holy city of Busiris,
at the close of the days of mourning for Osiris, after
which his resurrection was celebrated (Brugsch,
"Religion und Mythologie," 1888, pp. 618, 634).
Bibliography : Jastrow, Diet.; Levy, Neuhehr. WOrterh.


Karaite writer and bibliographer; born at Lutsk at
the end of the seventeenth century ; died, according
to Firkovich, at Chufut-Kale, Crimea, or, according
to another source, at Lutsk, March, 1766. He was
well versed in rabbinical literature and was also
a diligent student of Cabala. An indefatigable and
able copyist, he went in 1751 to Chufut-Kale, where
there was a flourishing Karaite community which
possessed a rich library of Karaite manuscripts.
He was received into the house of the Karaite writer
Mordecai ben Berakaii Yerushalmi, and succeeded
Samuel Kala'i as teacher of the bet lia-midrasli at
Chufut-Kale. Luzki rendered great services to Ka-
raite literature both as copyist and as writer. To
his labors are due the preservation of many valu-
able works; and his book on bibliography (see be-
low), although sometimes lacking critical sense.

became an indispensable guide to the student of
ancient Karaite literature.

The following are Luzki 's works in the chrono-
logical order of their composition, as given by him-
self in his"Orah Zaddikim": "Be'er

Works. Yizhak," commentary on Judah Gib-
bor's "Minhat Yehudah " on the Pen-
tateuch; "Siah Yizhak," commentary on the prayer
nnQD TlSt;' ^JIK for the Day of Atonement ; " Reshit
Hokmah," commentary in three volumes on the
daily prayers; "Me'irat 'Enayim," code in two vol-
umes, of which the first, entitled "Ner Mizwah,"
comprises the Commandments and their explana-
tions, and the second, entitled " Ner Zaddikim," enu-
merates the differences between the Rabbinites and
the Karaites and gives a genealogy of the Karaite
scholars and a list of their works; "Sha'are Zedek,"
on the calendar ; " 'Akedat Yizhak," on the laws con-
cerning the slaughtering of animals, and on the ten
Karaite articles of belief; "Kebod Elohim," com-
mentary on Joseph ben Mordecai Troki's mystic
prayer "Ha-Elef Leka"; "Arba' Yesodot," on the
four dogmatic principles, namely, the creation of
the world, the existence of an invisible God, His
holiness and spirituality, and His unity ; " Tefillah le-
Mosheh," questions and answers exchanged between
God and Moses; "Halikot '01am," description of
the creation of the world and of the nature of all
things according to their quantitative and quali-
tative attributes; " 'Ene Yizhak," commentary on
Elijah Bashyazi's calendric tables; "Toledot Yiz-
hak." religious poems, enigmas, letters, etc., in two
volumes; "Ture Zahab u-Nekuddot ha-Kesef," on
the precepts, in two volumes, of which the first,
"Ture Zahab, "enumerates in verse all the precepts,
arranged in the order of the 620 letters of the Deca-
logue; the second, "Nekuddot Kesef," being a com-
mentary thereon; "Sefer Bereshit," a mystic ex-
planation of the Creation; "Rekeb Elohim." on the
mysteriesof the Divine Chariot; "Kebod Melakim,"
a mystic explanation of the letters of the Hebrew
alphabet; "Sefer ha-Tappuah," on the Creation and
on the Divine Chariot, according to the modern
Cabala; "Libnat ha-Sappir," on the ten Sefirot.

The only two writings of Luzki's which have been
printed are: (l)"Orha-Hayyim"(Koslov, 1835), com-
mentary on Aaron ben Elijah's philosophical work
"'Ez Hayyim," and (2) "Orah Zaddikim" (Vienna,
1837), which is an abridgment of the " Ner Zaddi-
kim." Another redaction of the last-named work,
prepared by Luzki in 1756 at the request of Mor-
decai ben Berakah Yerushalmi, and entitled "Ig-
geret Mikra'e Kodesh," gives a fuller descrijjtion of
the works enumerated in the "Orah Zaddikim."

Luzki was a strong believer in Cabala, which he
defends in his " Or ha-Hayyim. " " Libnat ha-Sappir,"
and "Sefer ha-Tappuah." He asserts that the Zohar
was composed before the Mishnah, although it be-
came known only at the time of Joseph Gikatilla.
Had Maimonides, he says, known this divine book
he would not have spent his time on the futilities of
philosophy; and when Luzki criticizes the Cabala
it is only the practical and not the speculative
Cabala. Luzki cites the great rabbinical authorities
who believed in the authenticity of the Zohar, from
Abravanel down to Joseph Delmedigo. According











Luigi Luzzattl.

to him there were cabalists even among the Karaites.
Luzki was the author also of many religious po-
ems, five of which have been incorporated into the
Karaite ritual (part iii., beginning).

Bibliography : Flrkovich, AJme Zikkarnn, No. 4.")! ; Jost,
Gesch. den Judenthums utid Seive7- SeMen, ii. 370,- Fiirst,
Gesch. des Karitert. ili. 107 et seq.; Neuhauer. Aus der Peters-
hurger Bihliothek, pp. 82 et seq.; Gottlober, Bihkoret le-
TnUd(jt ha-KaraHm, p. 203. ^

K. I. Bh.

liXJZZATTI, I.UIGI : Italian statesman and
political economist; born at Venice March 11, 1841 ;
studied at the University of Padua (Doctor of Law
1863) and in Venice. While in the latter city he

was strongly influenced
byPoliteo, professor of
philosophy, and by Za-
nella, the lyric poet and
teacher of literature
from Vicenza. At the
age of twentj' Luzzatti
had already given lec-
tures on economics in
Venice. He was an
enthusiastic supporter
of the doctrine of free
trade. At twenty-two
he became a teacher at
the Istituto Tecnico in
Milan; in 1867, pro-
fessor of economics
in the University of
Padua; and in the
same year the government appointed him commis-
sioner for the Paris Exposition.

In 1869 he became general secretary under Min-
ghetti in the agricultural department of the ministry.
Shortly afterward he entered Parliament as deputy
from Oderzo, and later was chosen as the represent-
ative of Padua.

Luzzatti has held liis seat in Parliament uninter-
ruptedly for more than thirty years. He is one of
the leaders of the Right, and has repeatedly been
president of the budget committee. In matters re-
lating to economic development he has rendered his
country incalculable service. He introduced the
ideas of Sciiultze-Delitzsch into Italy, and made
them national. He also labored in behalf of co-
operative associations and for the establishment of
postal and school savings-banks. He is an authority
on all fiuestions connected with the tariff, and has a
firm grasp of liic subject of coiiunercial treaties.

Luzzatti is a tireless worker, speaker, and writer.
At all times he upholds Italy's friendship with
Fiance. He has fn^quently been entrusted by suc-
cessive Italian governments with delicate inter-
national negotiations. As one of the delegates who
arranged (1902) tin; commercial treaty with Fiance,
lie received the grand cross of the Legion of Honor.
When in 1901 King Victor Einiiiaiiuel III. estah-
lislicd tlie Order of Labor, Luzzatti, in recognition
of his labors in behalf of the working classes, was
the first to receive the new decoration, lb; fights
against the Agrarians, wlio have now become so jxjw-
erful in Germany ; and he endeavors to make proj)-
aganda in favor of commercial treaties to prevent
" Middle- Age economics " from invading Europe.

From Feb., 1891, to May, 1892, and from July,
1896, to June, 1898, Luzzatti was minister of the
treasury in Rudini's cabinet. He then returned to
his chair of economics at the University of Rome.
At present (1904) he is minister of the treasury in
the cabinet of Giolitti.

His works include the following: "II Socialismo

e le Questioni Sociali Innanzi ai Parlainenti d'Eii-

ropa," 1883; "Schultze-Delitzsch," 1883; "Emula-

zione e Progress! delle Banche d'Emissione in

Italia," 1886; "L'Abuso del Credito e la Finanza

Italiana," 1889; "La Pace Sociale all' Esposizione

di Parigi," 1890.

Bibliography: Telesforo Sarti. Tl Parlamento Suhalpinn e
Nazionale, Terni, 1890; De Gubernatis, Diz. liiog.; Leone
Carpi, II Riiiorgimenti) Italinno, Bingrafie Stnrico-PtAi-
tiche, vol. i., Milan, 1888 ; Luigi Branzi, I Mo7-ihnvdi di Moii-
tecitorio, Turin, 1889; Num^a Eiiciclopedia Italiana, 1895,
Supplement, iv. 201 ; Jew. Chron. Nov. 6, 1903.
s. S. MuN.

LUZZATTO (LUZZATTI) : Name of a family
of Italian scholars whose genealogy can be traced
back to the first half of the sixteenth century. Ac-
cording to a tradition communicated by S. D. Luz-
zatto the family descends from a German who im-
migrated into Italy from the province of Lausitz,
and who was named after his native place (" Lau-
satia," "Lausiatus" = "Luzzatto"). The name
"Luzzatti," which one branch of this family bears,
can similarly be traced back to the plural form " Lau-
siati." The German rite is credibly reported to
have been observed in the family synagogue (Scuola
Luzzatto) in Venice.

The earliest member of the family of whom there
is record is one Abraham Luzzatto, who lived at
Safed at the beginning of the sixteenth century.
His descendants may be grouped with some degree
of probability in the following pedigree:
Abrabam Luzzatto

Isaac (Safed) Samuel (Venice; c. 1567)


Jacob (b. 1550) Abraham (d. 1593)



Judah (d. 1605)

(b. 1590; d.l663)


(Padua; b. 1027; d. 1669)


f I I

A slier naphael Solomon Benedetto Mosra Hayyim


(b. 1707; d. 1747)

Isaac ( Epliraiin

Jacob (Triest; Monleral
d. 1762) (b.l720; d. 1799)

(d. 1838)


Samuel David
(b. IWKI: d. 1865)

Fllosseno Isaia Benianilno

Bibliography: AutnhinorafJn ili S. D. I,iizzntt<> Prfrcdnta
di AUuuc yotiz'w Stoiico-LUUi unc mlia Fcuiiiulut Luz-




zattn a Datare del SecoJo Decime Sesto, Padua, 1878-82;
Brann, Die Familie LuzzatUu in Samuel David Luzzatti) :
Ein Oedenhbrich ztiin Hundertsten Geburtstng, Berlin,
1900; Mortara, Jndice. g. Be. — J.

Benedetto (Baruch) Luzzatto : Italian preacher
ami poet; flourished iu the seveiiteeuth century at
Padua, where he was chief rabbi toward the close
of Iiis life. He united Talmudic learning with pro-
found classical scholarship, and was especially well
versed in history and philosophy. In 1636 he wrote
ji finished Italian sonnet for his friend Immanuel
Porto Rapa's mathematical treatise "Porto Astro-

Luzzatto was highly esteemed by contemporary
scholars. The anatomist and botanist Giovanni
Weslingio was his intimate friend, and Leon of Mo-
dena in a list of his pupils praises his halakic learn-
ing. None of his works has been published.

Bibliography: S. D. Luzzatto. Autnhiografla., p. 12; Brann,
in Samuel David Luzzatto, ein Gedenkbuch, p. 36.

i\ I. E.

Beniamino Luzzatto : Italian phj'sician ; born
at Padua Dec. 3, 1850; died there June 22, 1893;
son of Samuel David Luzzatto. Educated at the
university of his native town (M.D. 1872), he be-
came physician at the general hospital. In 1876 he
Avas appointed lecturer on pathology, and in 1882
assistant professor and chief of the propedeutic
clinic of Padua University.

Luzzatto wrote essays on the systolic murmur

of the apex of the heart (Padua, 1875); on chronic

broncho-pneumonia and tuberculosis (Milan, 1876);

on tetanus trauinaticus in pregnancy (Padua, 1876) ;

and he was also the author of: "Embolia dell'

Arteria Pulmonale," Milan, 1880; " Vade Mccum

<li Percussione," Padua, 1882; "Lezioni di Pro-

pedeutica Clinica," ^■6. 1883.

Bibliography: Page), Bio(7. l/cr.
s. F. T. H.

Ephraim Luzzatto : Italian physician and
poet; born at Sau Daniele, Friuli, in 1729; died
at Lausanne, Switzerland, in 1792; studied medicine
at the University of Padua, graduating in 1751.
After practising in Italy for some years, he settled,
in 1763, in London, where he was appointed physi-
cian in the hospital of the Portuguese congregation.
In 1792 he left Loudon, and was on his way to Italy
when he died. Luzzatto was a highly gifted He-
brew poet, and he exercised his talent with equal
success in national, mythological, moral, and some-
times amorous themes ; the beauty of his style and
the richness and delicacy of his vocabulary place his
productions far above the average. He seems, how-
ever, to have lacked conviction and to have wavered
sometimes between the extremes of religion and
atheism, between Judaism and paganism.

Luzzatto wrote "Eleh Bene ha-Ne'urim," poems
on various subjects (London, 1766), and "Kol Sha-
l.ial " (Berlin, 1796). A second edition of the former
work was published by Meir Letteris (Vienna, 1839).

Bibliography: Cannolv, in Reime Orientale. 1. 459; S. D.

Luzzatto, in Busoh's Knlender, p. 152; D. A. de Sola, in Oi'i-

evt. Lit. i. 7 : nelitzsch, Zur Gesch. der JUdischcn Poesie,

p. 92; Kdkehe Yizhak, xxii. 20: Mortara, Indice, p. 36.

s. ■ I. Bu-

Filosseno (Philoxene) Luzzatto : Italian

scholar; son of Samuel David Lxtzzatto; born at

Triest July 10, 1829; died at Padua Jan. 25, 1854.

Luzzatto (whose surname is the Italian equivalent
of the title of one of his father's principal works,
"Oheb Ger," which was written at the time of
Filo.sseno's birth) showed from childhood remark-
able linguistic aptitude, and having mastered several
European languages, he devoted himself to the study
of Semitic languages and Sanskrit. When a boy of
thirteen he deciphered some old inscriptions on the
tombstones of Padua which had puzzled older
scholars. Two years later, happening to read
D'Abbadie's narrative of his travels in Abyssinia,
he resolved to write a history of the Falashas. In
spite of his premature deatli, he wrote .several im-
portant works: "L'Asia Antica, Occidentale e
Media" (Milan, 1847); "Memoire sur I'lnscription
Cuneiforme Persane de Behistan," in "Journal de
rinstitut Lombard " {ib. 1848) ; " Le Sanscritisme de
la Langue Assyrienne " (Padua, 1849); "Etudes sur
les Inscriptions AssyriennesdePersepolis, Hamadan,
Van, et Khorsabad " (/6. 1850); "Notice sur Abou
Jousouf Ilasdai ibn Shaprout " (ib. 1852) ; " Memoire
sur les Juifs d'Abyssinie ou Falashas" (printed pos-
thumously in "Arch. Isr." xii.-xv.). He also trans-
lated into Italian eighteen chapters of Ezekiel, add-
ing to the same a Hebrew commentary. Luzzatto
contributed to many periodicals, mostly on philolog-
ical or exegetical subjects. Of special interest are
his observations on the inscriptions in the ruins of
the ancient Jewish cemetery in Paris ("Memoires
des Autiquites de France," xxii. 60).

Bibliography: S. Cahen, in Arch. fsr. xv. 270 ct feq.; Furst,
Bibl. Jud. ii. 281; H. S. Morals. Emi)ient hraelites, pp. 218
et seq., Philadelphia, 1880. ^ ^ „

s. M. Sel.

Isaia Luzzatto : Italian notary ; born at Padua
Sept. 27, 1836; died there Nov. 7, 1898; son of
S. D. Luzzatto; graduated in law at the university
of his native city. He was for some time at-
torney for one of the principal Jewish families of
the community. His life was saddened by illness and
other troubles. Besides a small work, written in his
youth, on the battle of Legnano, he wrote various
books to serve as a guide for the publication of his
father's writings: "Materiale per la Vita di S. D.
Luzzatto" (extract from the "Corriere Israelitico "),
Triest, 1877; "Index Raisonne des Livres de Cor-
respondance de Feu S. D. Luzzatto de Trieste, Pre-
cede d'un Avant-Propos et Suivi'd'un Essai de
Pensees et Jugemenls Tires de SesLcttresInedites,"
Padua, 1878; "Materiale per la Illustrazionc degli
ScrittiEditi e Inediti di S. D. Luzzatto," ib. 1878;
"Catalogo Ragionato degli Scritti Sparsi di S. D.
Luzzatto, con Riferimento Agli Altri Suoi Scritti,
Editi e Inediti," ib. 1881.
Bibliography : Vessillo Israelitico, 1898, p. 380.

U. C.

Jacob ben Isaac Luzzatto: Oriental rabbi and
preacher; nourished at Sated in the second half of
the sixteenth century. In the piukes of Venice it
is stated that a Jacob Luzzatto died in tiiat city
April 13, 1587, at the age of about sixty: he may
well have been the subject of this article, though
there is nothing to sustain the identification.

Luzzatto was the author of " Kaftor vva-Ferah "
or " Yashresh Ya'akob " (Basel, 1580), containing be-




sides some stories from tlie "Sefer Hasidim," 165
haggadot explained according to Rashi, tlie Tosa-
fot, Solomon b. Adret, and R. Nissim ; parallel pas-
sages being cited from the Yerushalmi, Midra-
shim, and cabalistic works. The particular object
of this work was to defend the Haggadah against
the attacks of ecclesiastical censors. As at the end
of the book Luzzatto calls himself "corrector," S.
D. Luzzatto concluded that it was Jacob Luzzatto
who wrote the "Haggahot," or explanatory notes to
the Talmud, printed at Basel, 1578-80, under the
censorship of Marco Marino. The object of those
notes was to show that the haggadot which seem to
be directed against Christianity have really an alle-
gorical meaning. Luzzatto wrote also "Kehillat
Ya'akob " (Salonica, 1584), novellae on the Talmud,
and edited and supplied a preface and index to
Solomon Molko's " Sefer ha-Mefo'ar " (Cracow, 1570)
and to Menahem Recanati's "Ta'ame ha-Mizwot"
(Basel, 1581). From his preface (rimed) to the lat-
ter work, it is seen that though born at Safed,
his Hebrew pronunciation was that of the German
Jews, indicating his German origin.

Bibliography : Fuenn, Keneset Yvf^-ael, p. 554 ; Fiirst. Bihl.
Jud. ii. 277 ; Jellinek, In Orient, Lit. vli. 221 ; S. D. Luzzatto,
Autnbirigrafia, in Mose, 1. 83-86; Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl.
col. 1230.
S. M. Sel.

Moses Hayyim Luzzatto: Italian cabalist and
poet; born at Padua 1707; died at Acre May 6, 1747.
His father was the wealthy merchant Jacob Luz-
zatto, and his mother also was a descendant of the
Luzzatto family. He was carefully educated by his
father in Latin and in other languages. At the
age of thirteen he entered the Talmud Torah of his
native city, which wg,s then widely known through
the teachings of Judah Minz, and which numbered
among its instructors Isaiah Bassani and Isaac Hay-
yim Cohen de Cantarini, with the former of whom
Luzzatto was especially intimate. He read omniv-
orously in the library of the Talmud Torah, being
attracted particularly by the cabalistic works he
found there.

Benjamin ha-Kohen Vital of Reggio (comp. Kauf-
mann in "Monatsschrift," xli. 700 et seq.), a pupil
of Moses Zacuto and father-in-law of Bassani, seems

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