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Dlscorsl Storlco-Rellglosl agli Studenti Israellti. Padua, 1870.

Introduzione Critica ed Erraenutlca al Pentateuco. Padua,
1870.

AutoblograUa (first published by Luzzatto himself In " Mos^,"
l.-vl.). Padua, 1882.

Isaiah Luzzatto published (Padua, 1881), under the respective
Hebrew and Italian titles " Reshimat Ma'amare SHeDaL " and
" Catalogo Raglonato degli Scrltti Sparsl dl S. D. Luzzatto," an
Index of all the articles which Luzzatto had written in vari-
ous periodicals.

The "Penine Shedal " (= "The Pearls of Samuel
David Luzzatto "), published by Luzzatto's sons,
is a collection of eighty nine of the more interest-
ing of Luzzatto's letters. These letters are really
scientific treatises, wliich are divided in this book
into different categories as follows: bibliographical
(No8. i.-xxii.), containing letters on Ibn Ezra's
"Yesod Mora" and "Yesod Mispar"; liturgical-
bibliographical and various other subjects (Nos.
xxiii.-.xxxi.); Bibiical-exegetical (Nos. xxxii.-lii.),
containing among others a commentary on Ecclesi-
astes and a letter on Samaritan writing; other exe-
getical letters (Nos. liii.-lxii.); grammatical (Nos.
Ixiii.-lxx.); historical (Nos. Ixxi.-lxxvii.), in which
the antiquity of the Book of Job is discussed ; philo-
sophical (Nos. Ixxviii.-lxxxii.), including letters on
dreams and on tiie Aristotelian philosophy; theo-
logical (Nos. Ixxxiii.-lxxxix.), in the last letter of
which Luzzatto proves that IbnGabirol's ideas were
very different from those of Spinoza, and declares
that every honest man should rise against the
Spinozists.

Bibliography: Bernfeld, In .'^rfer ha-Shanah. II. 27H et
iie<j.; Idem, in Oedenhtmch zum Ihimlertsten (irhurlHtag



Luzzattos, Berlin, 1900; Educatorc Israelita, xlii. 313,357,
368; xiv. 19; Geiger, in Jild. Zeit. iv. 1-22; A. Kabana, in
Ha-Shiloah, lii. .i8, 337; iv. 58, 153; J. Klausner, ib. vil.
117-126, 2i;}-228, 299-305; 8. D. Luzzatto, Autohiografia,
Padua, 1882 ; idem, in Ha-MauQid, ii.. Nos. 17-19, 22, 23, 30,
33; ill., Nos. 1, 13, 14, 21, 22, 31-33; vi., Nos. 12, 15, 16, 21-23;
H. S. Morals, Eminent Israelites of the Nineteenth Century,
pp. 211-217, Philadelphia, 1880 ; Senior Sachs, in Ha-Lebanon,
ii. 305, 327, 344.

S. M. Sel.

Simeon (Sinxhah) ben Isaac Luzzatto : Ital-
ian rabbi and apologist; born about 1580; died Jan.
6, 1663, at Venice, where he was rabbi. Luzzatto
was one of the most prominent demagogues of his
time, and when still a young man he had already
acquired renown as a rabbi and scholar. He is
styled " rabbi " at the head of a long responsifm en-
titled "Mish 'an Mayim," which he wrote in 1606
in regard to the "mikweh"of Rovigo ("Mashbit
Milhamot," pp. 38b-o6b). He shared the rabbinate
of Venice with Leon of Modena, who held him in
great esteem; according to Wolf ("Bibl. Hebr." iii.
1150), they wrote together a work on the Karaites.
The above-mentioned responsum shows him to have
been an authority in rabbinics; and he is quoted by
Isaac Lampronti ("Pahad .Yizhak," i., s.v. n^'H
ndpniO nya), Raphael Meldola(" Mayim Rabbim,"
No. 11), Mordecai Jaffe ("Lebush," end of "Eben
ha-'Ezer"), and other rabbinical authorities.

As may be seen from his Italian writings, Luz-
zatto was well acquainted with ancient literature
and philosophy as well as with the literature of his
time, while he is praised by Joseph Delmedigo as a
distinguished mathematician (comp.
His"Di8- Conforte, "Kore ha-Dorot," p. 50a).
corso." Luzzatto wrote two important work*
in Italian — " Discorso Circa il Stato
degli Hebrei" (Venice, 1638) and "Socrate" (ib.
1651). The former is a treatise on the position of
the Jews, particularly of those that lived in Venice.
It is an apology for the Jews in eighteen arguments,
each of which forms a chapter. For instance, one
chapter defends them on the ground of their useful-
ness in commerce ; another explains the causes of de-
creases in certain revenues of a state and shows that
encouragement of the activities of the Jews would
tend to increase those revenues. He points out that
the Jews are especially fitted for commerce; that
they loyally observe the laws of the state ; that the
Venetian republic reaped great advantages from
their relations with them. The chief merit of this
book is its impartiality, for while Luzzatto depicts
the better characteristics of the Jews he does not
ignore their faults. He shows remarkable knowl-
edge of the commerce of his time and of the political
intlueuces that affected it. According to him, the
common people felt little antipathy toward the
Jews, upon whom, to some extent, they depended
for their living. It was among the patricians that
the fanatical religious zealots were found who, out
of envy, advocated restrictions and even banish-
ment. Wolf translated the last three chapters into
Latin; they comprise (1) an examination of Hebrew
liteVature and of the various classes of Jewish schol-
ars; (2) an account of the directions in which the
Jews were permitted freedom, and of their suffer-
ings; and (3) a survey of the Jews in non-Italian
countries (" Bibl. Hebr." iv. 1115-1135). The thir-



227



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Luzzatto
Lydda



teenth chapter was translated into Hebrew by Rcg-
gio in liis " Iggeret Yasliar " (i. 65-70).

In the second work, "Socrate," written in liis
youth, Luzzatto endeavors to prove the impotence
of human reason wlicn unaided by divine revelation.
It is in the form of a parable, in which he puts his

thoughts into the mouth of Socrates.

His Reason, being imprisoned by Orthodox

"Socrate." Authority, appealed for liberation to

the Academy of Delphi, which had
been founded to rectify the errors of the human
intellect. The academy granted her petition not-
withstanding the remonstrance of Pythagoras and
Aristotle, who argued that Reason, when free, would
spread abroad most frightful errors. Liberated Rea-
son caused great mischief, and the academicians did
not know what to do, when Socrates advised
combining Reason with Revelation. It is apparent
that Luzzatto was a thinker and a believer as well ;
he did not share Manasseh b. Israel's dream that
the ten tribes still exist together in some part of
the world. He maintained that Daniel's revelation
refers not to a future Messiah, but to past historical
events. This utterance of Luzzatto was either mis-
understood or deliberately perverted by the convert
Samuel Nahmias (Giulio Morosini), who, in his " Via
della Fide," makes Luzzatto say that Daniel's reve-
lation may perhaps point to Jesus as the Messiah
(comp. Wolf, I.e. iv. 1128).

Luzzatto, who dedicated this book to the doge
and Senate of Venice, stated that his ancestors had
settled in Venice two centuries previously. In the
first book (pp. 5a, 99a), Luzzatto quotes a work of
his own entitled "Trattato dell' Opinioni e Dogmi
degl' Hebrei e del Riti Loro Piu Principals " Jacob
Aboab asserts that he saw in Venice a collection of
Luzzatto 's speeches and responsa, which included
a decision in regard to the use of a gondola on the
Sabbath.

Bibliography : Furst, Bibl. Jud. ii. 283 ; Uratz, Geach. 3d ed.,
X. 147 et seq.; S. D. Luzzatto, A.utobiografia (in Mose, i. 3()0
et seq.); Nepi-Ghirondi, Toledot Gedole Yigraeh pp. 316-317 ;
Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 2597.
p. M. Sel.

LWOW, AARON MOSES BEN ZEBI
HIBSCH : Grammarian, scribe, and dayyan of
Lemberg in the eighteenth century. He wrote:
" Shirah Hadashah " (Zolkiev, 1764), a Hebrew gram-
mar in verse, divided into six poems with explana-
tions in prose, composed after the model of Elijah
Levita's " Perek Shirah " ; " Ohel Mosheh " (ib. 1765),
a complete Hebrew grammar in four parts, follow-
ing Kimhi's "Sefer ha-Zikkaron " and criticizing
Zalmau Hanau (RaZaH) ; also " Halakah le-Mosheh,"
novellre on the Talmud and decisions ; and " Ohel
Mo'ed," a treatise on the Hebrew language, both of
which works are still unpublished.

Bibmography: Furst, BiW. Jttd. ii. 284 ; Buber, ^Hshe S?ieni,
p. 26.
II. R. M. Sel.

LYDDA or LOD (nb) ■ City in Palestine, later
named Diospolis ; situated one hour northeast of
Ramleh, about three hours southeast of Jaffa, and,
according to the Talmud (Ma'as. Sh. v. 2; Bezah
oa), a day's journey west of Jerusalem. It seems to
have been built originally by a descendant of Ben-



jamin (I Chron. viii. 12), and to have been occupied
again by Benjaraites after the Exile (Ezra ii. 33;
Neh. xi. 35). According to the Talmud (Yer. Meg.
i. 1) it was a fortified city as early as the days of
Joshua. At the time of the Syrian domination the
city and district belonged to Samaria, and Deme-
trius II. (Nicator) apportioned it to Judea (I Mace,
xi. 34; Josephus, "Ant." xiii. 4, § 9). Cestius Cal-
lus, Roman proconsul under Nero, burned Lydda
when he advanced upon Jerusalem from Ctesarea
(Josephus, "B. J." ii. 19, § 1), but soon afterward it
is named as the capital of one of the toparciiies into
which Judea was later divided, svirrendering as such
to Vespasian {ib. iii. 3. § 5; iv. 8, § 1). Josephus
describes it as a " village " equal in size to a " city "
("Ant." XX. 6, S2).

At a time which can not definitely be fixed, but
which was during the Roman period, the name of
the place was changed to Diospolis, which name is
found on coins stiiick under Septimius Severus and
Caracalla. The city is frequently mentioned by
Eusebius and Jerome. It became a bishopric at an
early date, its bishops signing at the various coun-
cils either as bishops of Lydda or as bishops of
Diospolis (comp. Reland, "Palestinaex Monumenlis
Veteribuslllustrata," p. 877 ; Robinson, " Palastiua,"
iii. 263 et seg.). At an early date Lj'dda was a center
of the veneration of St. George, for both Anto-
ninus Martyr (c. 600) and Benjamin of Tudela refer
to it as the burial-place of the saint (comp. Reland,
I.e.). On the varying fortunes of the city see Rob-
inson, "Palastina" {I.e.). The present village of
Lidd still preserves traces of the historical Lydda,
which is described in tradition as second only to
Jerusalem (comp. Van de Velde, "Reise Durcli
Syrien und Palastina," i. 332; >Kink-Levy, "Palas-
tina," pp. liSetseq. ; Schwarz, "Das Heilige Land,"
p. 104; Neubauer, "G. T." pp. 76 et mq.; Socin,
"Palastina und Syrien," 2d ed., pp. 11 et seq.).

After the destruction of Jerusalem, Lydda was
famous as a seat of Jewish scholarship, and the acad-
emy which flourished there is frequently mentioned
in the Talmud and other works of traditional litera-
ture. The term "scholars of the South" ("zikne
Darom," Hul. 132b; Zeb. 23a: "rab-

Aiter the banan di-Daronia," Lev. R. 20. 163b;
Fall of "rabbanan mi-Duroma." Yer. M. K.
Jerusalem, iii. 82; and simply "Deromayya,"
Yer. Pes. v. 32) doubtless refers to the
Lydda teachers of the Law, whose wisdom is rec-
ognized also in the sentence " Ha-rozeh she-yahkim
yadrim " = " Let him who wishes to attain to wisdom
go to the South "(B. B. 2.')b ; comp. also Schi^rer,
"Gesch." ii. 302).

Rabbi Eliezer lived at Lydda (Yad. iv. 3; Sauh.
32b); R. Tarfon taught there (B. M. 49b); and it
was also the scene of R. Akiba's activity (R. H.
i. 6). Responsa from Lydda are often mentioned
(Tosef., Mik. vii. [viii.], end); but despite the
reputation which the teachers at the academy en-
joyed, there seems to have been a certain feeling of
animosity against them in consequence of their ar-
rogance, and it was therefore denied that they pos-
sessed any deep knowledge of the Law (comp. Pes.
62b; Y^^er. Pes. 32a; Yer. Sanh. 18c, d; Baclier.
"Ag. Pal. Amor." i. 60, iii. 16).



Lying
Lyons



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



228



At Lydda, iu the garret of one Nitsa, during the
Hadrianic persecutions, was adopted the historical
resolution that where nuirtj-rdoni was the only al-
ternative, all the religious laws, excepting three,
might be transgressed, the three exceptions being
the laws concerning idolatry, incest, and murder
(Yer. Sheb. iv. 35; Sanh. 74a; Yer. Sanh. iii. 21;
conip. Pesik. xiii.)- At another meeting held in
Nitsa's garret the question whether the study of the
Law is more important than the practise of the Law
was unanimously decided in the attirmati ve (Kid. 40b :
comp. Sifre to Deut. xi. 13 [ed. Friedmann, p. 79b]
and parallels).

Bibliography : Grat/. Oe.sc/i. 2d. ed.. iv. 170, especially note
17 • Jost, Gesch. des Judenthums rnul Seiner Sekten, ii. 80,

T E. N.

LYING (Hebr. "shakar," "kazab," "kal.iash,"
and "shaw ") : Telling a falsehood with the intent of
deceiving.— Biblical Data : Lying is most vigor-
ously condemned in the Law : " Keep thee far from
a false matter "(Ex. xxiii. 7); "Neitherdeal falsely,
neither lie one to anotlier" (Lev. xix. 11). Regard-
ing the false oath see Peiuury. Lying on the
witness-stand to harm anotlier is a crime specially
mentioned iu the Decalogue (Ex. xx. 16), and the
punishment is tliat the false witness be dealt with as
the one witnessed against would have been dealt
with if guilty (Deut. xix. 15-21). Regarding lying
in fraudulent dealing see Fu.\UD and Mistake.

Lying is abhorred throughout Scripture as an
offense against the holy God who " iieth not " (I
Sam. XV. 29; Ps. Ixxxix. 34-35); it is "an abomina-
tion of the Lord " (Prov. xii. 29). " He that telleth
lies shall not tarry in my sight" (Ps. ci. 7; comp.
xxiv. 4 and xv. 2). "They speak falsely every one
witli Ills neighbor; with flattering lips and with a
double heart. . . . The Lord shall cut off all flatter-
ing lips" (Ps. xii. 3-4, Hebr. [A. V. 2-3]). "Speak
ye every one the truth to his neighbor . . . love
no false oath : for all these are things that I hate,
saith the Lord" (Zech. viii. 16-17). "The remnant
of Israel siiallnotdo iniquity, nor speak lies; neither
shall a deceitful tongue be found in their mouth "
(Zeph. iii. 13). With the Psalmist, one should " hate
every false way "and "abhor lying" (Ps. cxix. 104,
128. 163).

In Apocryphal and Rabbinical Litera-
ture : IJen Sira warns against the habit of lying as
even worse than theft, because it brings ruin and
di.sgrace (Ecclus. xx. 24-26; comp. vii. 12-14); he
warns also against duplicity of tongue (ib. v. 9, 14;
xxviii. 13), wiiieh "is a snare of deut h " (" Didaciie,"
i.4). The spirit of lying is one of the seven evil spirits
in man (Test. Twelve Pair., Reuben, 3). "Hate
lying in order that the Lord may live among you
and Hclial Hee from you," warns Dan (ih. Dan, 1-6).
Especially emphatic are the Rabbis in condemning
lying. "God's seal is truth " (Shab. 55a; Gen. R.
Ixxxi.). "He who changes his word acts as if he
were worshiping other gods" (Sanh. 92a). Among
the "three God hateth is he who speaks the thing he
means not," "with duplicity of tongue "(Pes. 113b).
" Liars can not behold the majesty of God " (Sotah
42a). " To conceal the truth, or to deceive others by
creating a false impression, even for a good purpose.



is a transgression of the command, ' Thou shalt keep
thee far from a false matter ' " (Shebu. 31a). To
pretend an affectionate feeling in order to win the
good opinion of another is sinning against truth
(Tos. to B. K. vii. 8). The Shammaites declared it
sinful even to lavish, at the wedding-feast, lauda-
tions on a bride which are not in harmony with the
truth, as, for instance, to call her beautiful when
she is ugly (Ket. 17a). " In case of doubt, train thy
tongue always to say ' I do not know,' lest thou be
caught in an untruth" (Ber. 4a). "Never tell a
child ' I shall give you so-and-so ' unless you actu-
ally will give it to him; else the child will learn to
utter untruths himself " (Suk. 46b). "Canaan, in
his last will, told his children not to speak the
truth " (Pes. 113b). " Let thy ' yea ' be ' yea ' and thy
' nay ' ' nay ' " (B. M. 49a). " Truth will abide ; false-
hood will not abide " (Shab. 104a). In case a life de-
pends upon your telling a falsehood, as, for instance,
when a robber or murderer inquires after one h«
pursues, the law permits lying (Ned. ii. 4; Shulhan
'Aruk, Yoreh De'ah, 232, 14; see also Hypocrisy;
Thiitii). In the Daily Prayers the silent prayer be-
gins with the words, " My God, keep my tongue from
evil and my lips from speaking falsehood!" (Ber.
17a) ; and at the beginning of the Morning Prayers
are recited these words, taken from Tauna debe
Eliyahu Rabbah 21 : " At all times man should be
God-fearing in secret also, and ever confess the truth
and speak the truth in his heart."

Bibliography: Hambureer, R. B. T.s.v. Wahrhaftigkeit ; F.
Perles, BotisseVs Religion des Judenthums, pp. 71-74, Ber-
lin, 1903.

LYON, ABRAHAM DE : One of the first Jew-
ish settlers in Georgia, U. S. A. ; ancestor of the
Well-known family of that name which has figured
prominently in the annals of that state. According
to a family tradition he was born in Spain. The
early records, however, invariably describe him as
"a vineron from Portugal " and as having been for
years prior to his emigration "a vineron in Portu-
gal." He went to America in the same year that
the colony of Georgia was founded by Oglethorpe,
and settled in 1733 in Savannah, where he soon be-
came a freeholder.

The trustees of the colony were especially desir-
ous of making Georgia a wine-producing country ;
and De Lyon soon attracted the attention of their
agents by his ability as a horticulturist and vine-
grower. He introduced viticulture and cultivated
several kinds of grapes, among them the Porto and
Malaga, to great perfection. He proposed to the
trustees that if they would lend him £200 sterling he
wouki employ that sum, witli n further sum of his
own, in importing from Portugal " vines and vine-
rons." His proposition was accepted," and the
money was sent to Oglethorpe, who, however, gave
only a part of it to De Lyon, claiming that "he had
other uses for the money."

In his journal, under date of Dec, 1737, Col. Will-
iam Stephens, the agent of the trustees, gives an
elaborate description of De Lyon's vineyard.

De Lyon probably reinoveil from Georgia about
1740, when the illiberal policy of the trustees caused
i)oth Jewisli and Christian settlers to leave; and
there is a detinite record of Mrs. De Lyon's depar-



229



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Lying-
Lyous



ture in that year iu the trustees' journal. In all like-
lihood, however, De Lyon soon returned to Savan-
nah and died there.

Bibliography: Charles C. Jones, Historji nf Georgia, i. 378;
Mc//i, in Publ. Am. Jew. Hist. Soc. i. 10: Leon Hiihner,
The Jews of Georgia in Colonial Times, ib. x. 6.5 95, and
authorities there cited.
A. L. He.

LYON, GEORGE LEWIS: English journalist
and communal worker; born at Portsea, England,
Dec. 11, 1828; died in London Feb. 14, 1904. After
acting for a time as secretary of the Portsmouth
Hebrew Benevolent Institution, Lyon went to Lon-
don in the early fifties and became secretary of the
Jews' and General Literary and Scientific Institu-
tion. On resigning this position he devoted himself
to financial journalism, and became city correspond-
ent of many London and provincial newspapers.
In Feb., 1873, he founded and edited the "Jewish
World," which journal, however, passed into other
hands some years before his death.

Lyon was secretary of the Jews' Infant School
and subsequently of the Jews' Emigration Society.

Bibliography: Jewish Year Book, London, 1903; Jew.
Chron. Feb. 19, 1904.
J. G. L.

LYON, HART. See Htrsch, Levin Joseph.

LYON (LEONI), MYER : Operatic singer and
hazzan; died at King.ston, Jamaica, about 1800;
uncle of John Braliam ; both he and liis nephew
were choristers at the same time at the Great Syna-
gogue, London. Lyon was also a public singer;
and his voice was said to have surpassed that of his
nephew in sweetness and melodj'. His first appear-
ance was at Covent Garden (1775) in " Artaxerxes."
He subsequently joined Giordaui in the manage-
ment of an English opera-house in Dublin, and was
also engaged by Palmer for tlie Roj'alty Theatre.
He finally became hazzan in the English and Ger-
man Synagogue, Kingston, Jamaica, being the first
qualified hazzan in the English colonies.

Lyon composed many morceaux for both theater
and synagogue, particularly for the "Musaf" of
Hosh ha-Shanah and Yom Kippur.

Bibliography: Jeiv. Chron. Dec. 2(3, 1SV3: Humphreys, 3/c-
Hioir.s of De Castro, London. 1824: Picciotto, Sketches of
Anglo-Jetvish Historii : Thcspiait Diet.
J. G. L.

Tlie name "Leoni " is given to the melody as.so-
ciated in English hynnials with the verses commen-
cing "The God of Abraham praise." These Avere
comjioscd by Thomas Olivers, a Wesleyan minister
London, on a Friday evening in 1770, and was deeply
(1725-99). He had attended the Great Synagogue,
moved by the service, carrying away a keen imprcs
sion of the singing of Mj'er Lyon (Leoni) in the
closing hymn Yiodal. Lyon afterward gave him
tlie melody, and Olivers called it by his name. The
hymfi was an iiumediate success. Eight editions
were called for in two years, and the tliirtieth edition
was rea('hed in 1779.

The melody thus furnished was the tune then (and
still) used by the English Jews for the concluding
liymn in the Sabbath eve service. Tlie characteris-
tic and effective tune, of no great age, is also utilized
among Continental Jews on the festivals. A tune by
the lat(! Sir John Stainer is now more often sung



with Olivers' verses iu the Church of England
service.

Bibliography: a. Bar, Ba'al Tefillah, No. 760. GoteborK,
1877, and Frankfort, 1883; Cohen and Davis, Voice of Prater
and Praise, ^o. 2S, London. 1895*; Humn.% Ancient and
Modern, No. tjfll, 1st tune, ih. 187,'); Jew. Chron. Dec. 36,
1873; J. Julian, Dictionary '>/ Humnologu.p. U'lft, ih. 1692;
Mortgomerv, Cliristian PHnlmodu, j). 28, ih. 1828.
.1. F. L C.

LYON, ROBERT: American journalist, horn
in London, England, Jan. 15, 1810; died in New
York city March 10, 1858. After a brief business
career in London, he emigrated to the United States
(1844), and, meeting no success in a manufacturing
enterprise, began to publish (Oct. 26, 1849) "The
Asmonean," the first American Jewish weekly of its
kind, which he conducted until liis death. He ed-
ited at tlie same time tlie New York "Mercantile
Journal," an organ devoted to trade. For a time
Lsaac M. Wise and other Jewish writers of the day
were regular contributors to "The Asmonean,"
which, liowever, failed to win more tiian local fame.

Bibliography; Morals, Eminent Israelites of the Nineteenth
Century, pp. 221-233.
A. A. S. I.

LYONS : City on tlie Rhone, France. Jews
seem to liave been establisJied in the surrounding re-
gion at an early date. Tlie fact that Pope Victor in
the fifth century prohibited the Archbishop of Vi-
enne (France) from celebrating Easter with the
Jews shows not only that there were Jews in the
towns surrounding Lyons, but also that the Chris-
tians were on terms of comparative intimac}' with
them.

It is chiefiy in the ninth century that the presence

of Jews in Lyons is incontestably demonstrated.

They then formed a prosperous com-

First munity and lived in a special quarter

Mention, situated at the foot of the Fourviere

hill, of which one street is still called

"Rue Juiverie." Protected by the King of France,

Louis le Debonnaire, and by Juditli, his wife, they

were special objects of aversion to the bishop Ago-

BAKD, who, however, succeeded only in alienating

himself from his sovereign, and failed utterly in his

struggle against them.

The Jews continued to live in Lyons until tlie
middle of the thirteenth century. The arrival of
Pope Innocent IV., who took refuge in the domain
of the archbishop, seems to have been fatal to them.
The council held at Lyons in 1245 under the presi-
dency of the pope expressed indignation at the rela-
tions existing between Jews and Christians and tried
to repress the former. Not only were they pre-
cluded from holding any oflice; they were also
obliged to Avear on their dress a jiiece of (.'loth of a
special color and circular in form. About the stxme
time Archbishop Philip of Savoy, setting an example
which was to lie imitated three years later by Jean,
Bishop of Vienne, expelled them from Lyons.

For nearly a century there were no Jews, except
temporary residents, in the whole district. A manu-
script copy of a tarifT of taxes paid to the archbishop
or metropolitan chapter for merchandise in 1340
shows that every Jew who passed through Lyons
was obliged to pay 12 deniers on entering the cit}-
or else to receive a blow ("Archives du Rhone," an
inedited manuscript).



Lyons
Lyra



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



230



Beginning with tiie fouiteentli century, official
records show that Jews had returned to Lyons and



Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 57 of 169)