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were living there. The ordinance of Charles V.,
dated Sept. 27, 1364, decreeing that the Jews of
Lyons should contribute to the common charges,
clearly proves their presence in tiie city. At that
time they lived in the same quarter.
In the St. Georges, which their predecessors
Fourteenth had occupied two centuries earlier.
Century. In 1379 Jean de Tabaru drove tliem
out of the Rue Doree, adjacent to the
Rue Juiverie, and bade them settle in another quar-
ter, situated on the right bank of the Rhone. Their
number increased daily, as is seen from a document
of the time in which the city complains of the
benefits derived by the clergy from the Jews
("Archives du Rhone," carton CC, 290). In 1386
Charles VI. by letters patent renewed the ordinance
of his father ordering the Jews to contribute to the
e.xpenses of the city (" Archives de la Ville de Lyon,"
CC, 290). They had then, as under Louis II., a
conservator of their rights, the " magister Judao-
rum." In 1393 the archbishop claimed jurisdiction
over the Jews, who protested, declaring themselves
subject to the king. They lost their case, however,
as is shown by a document of the fourteenth cen-
tury in which are found the names of certain Jews
of Lyons: Josson of Montmelian, Josson of Ver-
menton, Dalmon Moyses, Saussin, and Abraham
Noblet ("Archives du Rhone," ch. metrop., fols.
116-119).

The edict of Sept. 17, 1394, by which Charles VI.

exiielled all Jews from France, did not immediately

affect those at Lyons. Several histo-

Expulsion. rians give 1420 as the date of their

definite departure from the city and

of their arrival atTrevoux, whither they transferred

tlie gold- and silver-thread industry. The names

"Trefousse," " Dreyfus," etc., are probably Alsatian

corruptions of "Trevoux," as certain malcontents

aniong these Lyonnaise Jews were driven out later

from Trevoux and took refuge in Alsace.

From this time until the middle of tlie eighteenth
century Jews were not allowed to live in Lyons.
Two documents, dated respectively 1548 and 1571,
sliow that tiicir })r('sence was at tlicsc dates consid-
ered a scandal to the city and the Christian religion.
Toward the end of the reign of Louis XV. several
Jewish families again settled at Lyons. Some of
them came from the cities of the south— Avignon,
Carpcntras, and Cavaillon; others, from Hordeaux
or .Vlsace. At tlic very l)eginiiing of this reign
the conmiunity numbered about fifteen families. A
siK-cial vault was assigned to them for burial in the
ground adjoining tlie hospital; and the mortuary
records, still extant in the arciiivesof the city, show
that between the years 1767 and 1787 thirty-two
bodies were interred there. The syn-
Syndic of die of the new comnuinity was Elijah
the Com- Rouget of Avignon. In a U'tter dated
munity. 1781 the lieutenant-general of the jm)-
lice of Lyons confers this dignity
upon him and indicates to him the formalities to be
observed before the iiiagistiates by those Jews who
liv(! in the city and l)y those who are merely pass-
ing through Lyons, Tlie successor of Elijah ]{ou-



getin the sj-ndicate was Benjannn Naquet, who held
the office for twenty years.

During the Revolution little attention was paid to
the Jews of Lyons, since there was onl}^ a small
number of them in the city, and they passed unno-
ticed. One of them, however, figures among the
victims executed by the revolutionary tribunal
which was instituted under the Reign of Terror;
this was Azariah Vidal, executed in 1793.

After becoming French citizens bj' the decree of
the convention of Sept. 27, 1791, the members of the
Lyonnaise community in 1795 acquired for a ceme-
tery, at a cost of 12,000 francs, a piece of land lo-
cated at the Guillotiere.

The history of the community during the first half
of the nineteenth century includes nothing of par-
ticular interest. Numbering only 200 souls under
the empire and 500 under the Restoration and the
constitutional monarchy, it was controlled after 1808
by the consistory of Marseilles, its affairs being reg-
ulated by a board of administration. Of the numer-
ous administrators may be mentioned Isaac Helft
(1808-18), Isaac Cerf of Ricqies (1828-38), and
Nordheim (1838-51). Religious services were held
in a modest prayer-house, first in the Rue Bellecor-
difere, on the second floor of a house occupied by
numerous tenants, then on the ground floor of one
in the Rue du Peyrat. Until 18.50 the service was
performed by an officiating minister. In that year
a decree of the president of the republic instituted
a rabbinate at Lyons, which inclu-
The ded in its jurisdiction the department

Rabbinate, of the Rhone, of the Is&re. and of
the Loire. On Dec. 26, 1850, Jacques
Weinberg, rabbi atRibeauville, was called to fill the
post.

In 1854 the suggestion was made, to create a new
consistory with Lyons as its center. This was
effected Aug. 24, 1857: it comprises the depart-
ments of the Loire, the Ain, the Is^re. the Jura, the
Saone and Loire, and the Doubs. The consistory
of Lyons has been represented at the central con-
sistory by the Orientalist Salomon Munk (1858-67);
by >fichel Alcan, professor in the Conservatoire
des Arts et Metiers (1867-77); by the poet Engine
Manuel (1877-1900); and by M. Camille Lyon, de-
partmental chief in the council of state (the present
representative). In the ten years succeeding its
foundation the Israelitish population had become
doubled. The consistory obtained from the munic-
ipal council of Lyons for the site of a synagogue a
parcel of land situated in one of the most beautiful
(juarters, on the Quai Tilsitt, facing the hill of the
Fourviere. On June 23, 1864, thenew
The Syna- synagogue, built according tothe plans
gogue. of Abraham Ilirsch, was inaugurated.
It is considered to be one of the most
beautiful in France. In 1864 a home for the aged
was built. In 1870 a new cemetery, adjacent to the
old one, was i)urchased. The various presidents of
the consistory have been: J. Kuppenheim, Abra-
ham Hirscli, Leon Kahn, ami Henri Gaisman. M.
Weinberg, who was the first to occupy the post of
grand rabbi after tlie creation of the consistory, and
who died in 1H79, was succeeded by the jiresent
(1904) incumbent. Alfred Levy, who was installed at



231



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Lyons
Lyra



Lyons July 1, 1880, liaving previously been rabbi
at Dijon (1867-69) and at Luueville (1869-80).

The Jews of Lyons at present (1904) number about

1,500 in a total population of 466,767. The annual

communal budget includes 40,000

Present francs for religious purposes and
Condition. 25,000 francs for charities. Besides
the home for tiie aged mentioned
above, tliere are : a board of charities, destined es-
pecially to help poor travelers, of whom there are al-
ways a great number at Lyons ; two women's chari-
table societies ; a young women's society for the pro-
tection of poor girls; a young people's society for
educating poor boys; and two mutual aid societies.

Among tliose members who hold honorable offices
and render distinguished services to the state may
be mentioned: Edouard Millaud, senator; Abraham
Hirsch, honorary chief arcliitect of the city of Ly-
ons; Aron, councilor of the Court of Appeal; Aron,
chief engineer of the Paris-Lyon-Mediterranean Rail-
way Company ; Brahm, solicitor of the Court of Ap-
peal; Edmond Weil, professor in the faculty of
medicine; Emmanuel Levy, lecturer in tlie faculty
of law ; Lang, director of the Ecole la Martinifire ;
Levy Leon and Weil, professors at the Lycee; Sey-
ewetz, subdirector of the school of chemistry; Marc
Levy, professor attlie school of commerce; Isidore,
commandant of artillery and subdirector of tlie
arsenal.

Bibliography: Menestrier, Histnire Consulaire de Lyoii;
Prudhomme, Les Juifs en Dmiphine, Grenoble, 1883 ; Ar-
chives du Rhone, carton CC ; ib., Actes Capitulaires, E 1 ;
Archives de la Ville de Lyoj}, carton BB; Archives de
Viilefranche, carton AA ; A. Levy, Notice s%ir /e.s Israelites
de Lyon, 1894; Baluze, Opera Agohardi, Paris, 1866; In-
auguration du Temple Israelite de Lyon, Lyons, 1864 ; MS.
Lyons, No. 1464.
G. A. L.

LYONS, ISRAEL : Hebrew teacher and author;
born in Poland ; died 1770. He emigrated to Eng-
land and settled in Cambridge. Here he ])ractised
the craft of silversmith and acquired a reputation
as a Hebrew scholar. This led to his appointment
as " teacher of the Hebrew tongue " in the Univer-
sity of Cambridge. He wrote "The Sciiolar's In-
structor, or Hebrew Grammar, with Many Additions
and Emendations Which the Author Ilas Found
Necessary in His Long Course of Teaching Hebrew,"
a second edition of whicli appeared in 1757 and a
fourth in 1823, while liis treatise "Observations and
Enquiries Relating to Various Parts of Scriptui'c
History " was printed by the Cambridge Press in
1768 and published by subscription.

Bibliography : Nichols, Literary A necdutes, ii. 327, 419, Lon-
don, i8ia.

J. I. Co.

LYONS, ISRAEL : English astronomer, bota-
nist, and mathematician; born at Cambridge 1739;
died in London 1775; son of Israel Lyons. In his
earliest youth he showed a remarkable aptitude for
study, especially for mathematics. He began in
1755 the study of botany, which he continued till liis
death. In 1758 lie published a "Treatise on Flux-
ions," dedicated to his patron. Dr. Smitii, master of
Trinity College; and in 1763 "Fasciculus Plantarum
Circa Cantal)rigiam Nasceiitium, Qiue post Raium
Observataj Fuere." Lyons was invited by Sir Jo-
seph Banks, president of tlie Royal Societ}', who had



received his earliest lessons in science from him, to
lecture at 0.\ford in 1762, but he soon returned
to Cambridge. He was appointed by the board
to accompany Captain Phipps (afterward Lord Mul-
grave) on a voyage to the north pole in 1773. On
his return he married and settled in London, where
he died in about a year. At the tifhe of his death
lie was engaged in publishing some papers of Ed-
mund Ilalley, secretary of the Royal Society.

BiBLioORAPHY : Nichols, Literary Anecdotes, 11. 327-328 and
lii. 660, London, 1812; Maunders. Treasury of Biography;
Carmoly, Medecina Juifs, Brussels, 1844; Jew. Chron. Nov.
27, 1863.

J. I. Co.

LYONS, JACaUES JUDAH : American
minister; son of Judah and ]\Iary Lyons; born in
Surinam, Dutch Guiana, Aug. 25, 1814; died in New
York Aug. 12, 1877. He was educated in Surinam,
and was minister of the Spanish and Portuguese
congregation there, Neweh Shalom, for five years.
He left Surinam in 1837 and went to Richmond, Va.,
where for two years he was minister of the Congre-
gation Beth Schalom. In 1839 he was elected min-
ister of the Spanish and Portuguese congregation
Shearitli Israel, New York city, in succession to Isaac
Seixas, and served the congregation thirty-eight
years, successfully combating every movement to
change the form of worship in his congregation.

Lyons was among those who founded The Jews'
(now Mount Sinai) Hospital ; he was actively con-
cerned in founding the Jewish Board of Delegates
and Hebrew Free Schools and was superintendent
of the Polonies Talmud Torah School, in connection
with his own congregation. For many j'ears he
was president of the Hebra Hased ve-Emet and of
the Sampson-Simpson Theological Fund. Lyons
was an ardent student and collected a library that is
now in possession of the Jewish Theological Semi-
nary of America. In 1857, in connection with the
Rev. Dr. Abraham De Sola of Montreal, he prepared
and published a Hebrew calendar covering fifty
years, together with an essay on the Jewish calendar
svstem.
■ A. F. H. V.

LYRA, NICOLAS DE: French exegete; born
at Lyre, near Evreux, Normandy, about 1270; died
at Paris Oct. 23, 1340. The only certain dates in
connection with his life are furnished by his epitaph
in the monastery of the Minorites at Paris, which
has been edited by Wadding. He entered the Fran-
ciscan order at Verneuil in 1291 and studied later at
Paris, where he became doctor of theology and
taught at the Sorbonne until 1325, Avhen he was ap-
pointed provincial of his order for Burgundy.

Lyra, who was later declared to be of Jewish de-
scent, Avrote an anti-Jewish work entitled " De Mes-
sia Ejusque Adventu Pra?terito." His most impor-
tant activities, however, were exegetical. Of the
four metliods of interpretation indicated in the
mnemonic verse

" Litteni pestii docet, quid credas allefforia,
Moralis quid iigas, quo tendas anagogia,"

he was the first to emphasize as the most important
that dependent upon tlie literal sense ("sensus litte-
ralis "), and he endeavored to apply this system of
Biblical exegesis to the exclusion of all others. His



Lyre
Ma'arib



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



232



chief work, to which he devoted himself from 1322
to 1330, is his "Postilla Perpetuae, sive Brevia
Commentaria in Universa Biblia " (tirst printed at
Rome 1471-72, Cologne 1478, Venice 1482, and
often since, either in whole or in part). After his
death his book was supplemented by such additions
as the general introduction, "De Libris Canonicis et
Non Canonicis," and by numerous prefaces. The
" Postillae " includes fifty books of commentary on
the entire Old and New Testaments and the Apoc-
rypha, which latter is regarded as less binding in
character. There are also thirty-five books of " Mo-
ralities " (•' Moralia "). The author presents his point
of view in the three prologues to his work, especially
in the second — "De Intentione Autoris et Modo Pro-
cedendi." Even in cases which tradition has inter-
preted mystically he still considers the literal mean-
ing as the decisive one; he offers esoteric explana-
tions but seldom, and then almost always with a
Christological tendency, for he seeks to find the
deeds of the New Testament the fulfilment of the
words of the Old.

Lyra used the original texts of the Old and New
Testaments rather than the corrupt Latin transla-
tions. His knowledge of Jewish tradition was drawn
from Rashi, whom he transcribes almost word for
word, and who also was an advocate of literal exe-
gesis (" peshat "). Raymond Martin was his author-
ity for Aramaic and Arabic, and he was frequently
indebted to many others, particularly to Thomas
Aquinas on the Book of Job. During the Middle
Ages, Lyra was highly esteemed and widely read on
account of his sound scholarship, judicious interpre-
tation, and freedom from dogmatic prejudice. Lu-
ther frequently used Lyra's works ; to them he owed
his rabbinical knowledge, especially his acquaint-
ance with Rashi, and it is to this influence that the
well-known verse alludes — "Si Lyra non lyrasset,
Lutherus non saltasset."

Bibliography: Wadding, ^?i;iaZe« Afuiontm, v. 264 et sey.,
vii. 237 et seq.; Fabricius, Bihliotheca Latina, xiii. 35() et
geq., Hamburg, 1736; Herzog-Hauck, Real-Encuc xil. 28 et
seq.; Nicolas von Lt/ra und Seine SteUuna in dej- Gesch.
der Mittelnlterlichen SchrifterkUlrung, In Katholik, li.
940 et seq. (1H.59); Fischer, Des Nicolw< von Lyra PostiUcB
Perpetuce, In Jahrbuch filr Protest ant u<che TIteoIogie,
1889; Siegfried, Raschis EinfluAs anf Nicolas von Li/ra
und Luther, In Archiv fU.r Erforschung des Altcn Testa-
ments, 1. 428, 11. 36; Maschkowskl, Raschis Einfluss auf
Nicolas von Lyra in der A^Megung des Exndns. in Stade's
Zeitschrift, 1891. See also the works of Richard Simon, Dies-
tel, and Reuss.
T. G. We.

LYRE. See Harp and Lyre.

LTSIAS : Syrian statesman of royal descent ;
died lf52 u.c. (I Mace. iii. 32; Josephus, "Ant." xii.
7, § 2). When Antiochus Epiphanes undertook a
campaign against the Parthians in I66-I60, he ap-
pointed Lysias regent and guardian of liis heir, An-
tiochus v. (Eupator), who called Lysias brother (II
Mace. xi. 22). The new viceroy was ciiarged with
tlie suppression of the Jewish revolt, and on the de-
feat of liis generals he himself led a strong army
against tlie rebels (165). He seems to have marched
along tlie Palestinian coast to southern Judea, but



he was defeated at Beth-Zur, south of Jerusalem,
and was obliged to retreat to Antioch (I Mace. iii.
34-36, iv. 26-35; "Ant." xii. 7, ^ 5).

According to II Maccabees, which Niese regards
as the best authority on the subject, this campaign
took place after the consecration of the Temple bj^
Judas Maccabeus. The same source states also that
Lysias made peace with Judas and quotes the letter
in which the former is supposed to have granted the
demands of the Jews (II Mace. xi. 1-21).

According to I Maccabees, however, this peace
was not concluded until a later date. After the
death of Antiochus Epiphanes, Lysias went to Judea
(163) with the young king Antiochus V- He again
attacked from the south, besieged Beth-Zur, and
thus compelled Judas to raise the siege of Acre and
give battle. The Jewish army was defeated near
Beth-Zechariah, and Beth-Zur fell into the hands of
the victors. The Syrians had already laid siege to
Jerusalem, then held by the Jews, who would, in all
probability, have been utterly defeated had not Lys-
ias been compelled to make war upon his rival
Philip, who had been appointed guardian of Anti-
ochus V. (I Mace. vi. 28-48; II Mace. xiii. 1-17;
"Ant." xii. 9, §^ 3-5; idem, "B. J." i. 1, § 5). The
regent found it advisable, therefore, to make peace
with the Jews, whom he allowed to resume their
former prerogatives (I Mace. vi. 55-62; II Mace,
xiii. 23-26; "Ant." xii. 9, §§ 6-7).

Realizing that it was impossible to deprive the
Jews of tiieir religious freedom, Lysias proved him-
self a better politician than his king, Antiociius
Epiphanes. He would have conquered Philip had
not his own soldiers betrayed him and his ward, An-
tiochus v., to the pretender Demetrius I. (Soter),
who put them both to death (162; I Mace. vii. 1-4;
II Mace. xiv. 2; Appian, "Syrian War," 8 47;
"Ant." xii. 10, § 1).

Bibliography: Niese, In Hermes, xxxv. 468-476; Schurer,
Oesch. 1. 20.5, 213-216.
J. S. Kr.

LYSIMACHUS : An ti -Jewish Alexandrian wri-
ter; lived before Apion. Like the Stoic Ciisere-
mon, he went beyond even Manetho in his inimical
account of the exodus of the Jews from Egypt.
According to Lysimachus, the Jews, numbering
110,000, left Egypt in the reign of King Bokchoris,
journeyed through tlie desert on the advice of a cer-
tain Moyses, and after man)' hardships finally ar-
rived at Judea, where they founded the city of
Hierosyla (= "Temple robbery "), which they sub-
sequently called "Hierosolyma."

The fragments of Lysimachus found in Josephus

("Contra Ap." i. 34 et seq.), as well as in the works

Qjjliaim Unpafio^n and Nocrnx, w^hich are often (juoted

in ancient literature, have been collected by C. Miil-

ler in "Fragmenta Historicorum Gra;corum," iii.

334-342 (see, also, Reinach, "Textes d'Auteurs

Grecs," pp. 117 et fieq.).

Bibliography': Josephus, Contra Ap. i. 34 et seq.; ii. 2, 14;
Schiirer, Gesch. 111. 403 et seq.; Westermann, in Pauly-Wis-
sowa, Rcal-Encyc. Iv. 1311.
G. M. K.



233



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Lyre
Ma'arib



M



MAACAH : 1. Small Aramean kingdom east of
the Sea of Galilee (I Cliron. xix. 6). Its territory
was in the region assigned to the half-tribe of Ma-
nasseh east of the Jordan. Maacah, its king, became
a mercenary of the Ammonites in their war against
David (II Sam. x. 6). It is probable that the city
Abel of Beth-maachah in Naphtali {ib. xx. 15) derived
its name from its relation to this kingdom and people.

2. A wife of David, and daughter of Talmai,
King of Geshur {ib. iii. 3), a near neighbor of the
Maachathites.

3. King of Gath, to whose son, Achish, Shimei's
servants fled early in Solomon's reign (I Kings ii.
39). About a half-century earlier than this event,
David with 600 men had fled to Achish, son of
Maoch, King of Gath (I Sam. xxvii. 2); but the
identification of Maoch is doubtful, though kinship
is exceedingly probable.

4. Wife of Rehoboam, King of Judah, and mother
of Abijah ; in I Kings xv. 2 she is called the daugh-
ter of " Abishalom," but of "Absalom " in II Chron.
xi. 20, 21. She was removed from her position as
queen mother by lier grandson Asa (ib. xv. 16).

Other persons of this name are mentioned in Gen.
xxii. 24; I Chron. ii. 48, vii. 15, viii. 29, xi. 43,
xxvii. 16.

E. G. H. I. M. P.

MA'ALI IBN HIBAT ALLAH, ABU AL- :

Egyptian pliysician; lived at Fustat (Cairo) at the
end of the twelfth century. He was the physician
of Salah al-Din (Saladin) and, after the death of the
latter, of his brother Al-Malik al-'Adil. Ibn Abi
Usaibi'ah, in his biographies of the Arabic physi-
cians, speaks highly of Abu al-Ma'ali's learning,
generositJ^ and great influence at court. He relates
further that almost all his children embraced Islam.
Al-Ma'ali wrote many works and essays on medicine,
which are no longer in existence. Steinschneider is
inclined to identify Ma'ali with the brother-in-law of
Maimonides and the secretary of the mother of the
vizier Al-Fadal. Ma'ali wrote a work on medicine
entitled "Ta'alik wa-Maghrabat."
Bibliography : steinschneider. Die Arabinche, Literatur der
Juden, § 155.

G. I. Br.

MA'AMAD. See Mahamad.

MA'ARABI (AL-MAGHREBI), ISRAEL
BEN SAMUEL HA-DAYYAN : Karaite schol-
ar; lived at Cairo in the thirteenth and fourteenth
centuries; teacher of the Karaite physician and
writer Japhet il)n Zaghir of Cairo. Ma'arabi wrote,
in Arabic, a work on the precepts (probably " Kitab
al-Fara'id "), of which only the part dealing with
the luws concerning the slaughtering of animals and
the part treating upon the calendar (but in a Hebrew
tranclation) are extant in manuscript, the former in
Loudon (Brit. Mus., Or. No. 2528), St. Petersburg
(Firkovich collection. No. 640), and Strasburg (No.
50), the latter in Leyden (Nos. 25 and 60) and St.



Petersburg (No. 716, where the name of tlie author
is erroneously given as " Elijah ha-Dayyan "). A
Hebrew translation of the part on the laws of
slaughtering was published under the title " Hilkot
'Inyan Shehitah " at Vienna (1830) ; a Hebrew trans-
lation of the part treating upon the calendar was in-
corporated in the "Tikkun ha-Kara'im," reproduced
by "Wolf in his •'Bibliotheca Hebrnea " (iv. 1077 H
seg.). In addition to the work on the precepts,
Ma'arabi wrote : " Tartib al-' Aka'id al-Sittah, " on the
six articles of belief (the belief in God, in His mes-
senger [MosesJ, in the Prophets, in the Torah, in
Jerusalem, in the Last Judgment); "Sharh 'Aseret
ha-Debarim," a commentary on the Decalogue (St.
Petersburg, Firkovich collection, No. 638); "Ig-
geret," a decision in a contested case of marriage
(Fischl MSS., No. 59 E.); "Mukaddimah," a com-
mentary on Prov. iii. 13, or, according to Neubauer,
a prayer for the dead (" zidduk ha-din ").

Ma'arabi attacked, in his work on the precepts,
the theories of the "Ba'ale ha-Rikkub " with regard
to the laws of incest, and advocated the reform that
had been preconized by Joseph ha-Ro'eli.

Bibliography: Munk, in Jost's Annalen, iii. 93; idem, iVo-
tice sur Ahnulwalid Merwanibn Djannh, p. 8; Pinsker,
Likkute Kadmnniyunt, pp. 148, 176, 233; Steinschneider,
Cat. Bodl. col. 1168 ; idem, Hebr. Bibl. v. 51, xx. 91 ; idem.
Die Arnbische Literatur der Jnden, § 184; Furst, Gesch.
des KarUert. ii. 252; Gratz, Gesch. vii. 322; Gottlober,
Bikknret U-Tiilednt ha-Kara'im, p. 186; Neubauer, ^«s
der Petersburger Bibliothek, pp. 25, 27.
J. L Bb.

MA'ARABI, NAHUM: Moroccan Hebrew
poet and translator of the thirteenth century ("Ma-
'arabi," "Maghrabi " = "the western " or " the Mo-
roccan "). His poems are found only in Moroccan
collections. Two of them, of a liturgic character,
were published by L. Dukes in "Zur Kentniss der
Hebraisclien Poesie " (pp. 162-163), and they were
translated into German by M. Sachs in " Die Re-
ligiose Poesie" (p. 131). Ma'arabi translated from
Arabic into Hebrew: (1) Maimonides' "Iggeret
Teman," under the title "Petah Tikwah," to which
he added a preface in verse (Basel, 1631); (2) the
commentary to the " Sefer Yezirah " by Isaac Israeli
or Jacob b. Nissim, prefacing it with a poem (a frag-
ment of it was published by L. Dukes in "Kontres
ha-Massoret, " pp. 5-10); (3) Joseph ibn Zaddik's
"Microcosmos," under the title "Ha-'Olam lia-
Katon " (the translation is anonymous, but see
Steinschneider ["Hebr. Uebers." pp. 408-409]); (4)
Saadia's commentary on the thirteen hermeneutic
rules (" Shelosh 'Esreh Middot ") of R. Ishmael.

Bibliography: Steinschneider, Hetir. Vehcrs. pp. 395, 409,
9:30, 935; idem. Cat. BodJ. col. 2()21 ; idem, Hebr. Bibl. xv.
13; L. Dukes, Kontre.i ha-Ma.^si>rct, pp. 5-10; idem, Zur
Kentni.'is, pp. 16',' rf W./.; Ozar Toh. 1885. p. 11.



Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 58 of 169)