Isidore Singer.

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versity in that city.

Of Lesscr's works may be mentioned, besides his
" Lehrbuch der Haut- und Geschlechtskrankheiten "
(10th ed. 1890): "Ueber Syphilis Maligna"; "Bci-
triige zur Lehre vom Herpes Zoster " ; "Ueber Ne-
benwirkungen bei Injectionen Unloslicher Queck-
silberverbindungen " ; " Ueber Sj'philis Insontium " ;
" Ueber Ischias Gonorrhoica " ; " Die Aussatzhauser
des MittelaUers"; and "Zur Geschichte des Aus-

Bibliography : Pagel. Bi'ogr. Lex.


F. T. H.

LESSER, LOUIS: German soldier; born at
Neustadt about 1850 ; served in the Second Branden-
burg Dragoons in the Franco-Prussian war. On
Nov. 18, 1870, while on patrol work between Sens
and Villeneuve, his comrades being dispersed in va-
rious directions, he was surpri.sed by six of the
enemy. He stood his ground, and on the return of
his comrades advanced and captured the captain of
the francs-tireurs who had attacked him.

Bibliography: Deutsches Heldenbuch, p. 304; Juden aU

Soklaten, p. 105.
s. J.

LESSER, LUDWIG : German poet, editor, and
publicist; born at Rathenow, province of Branden-
burg, Prussia, Dec. 7, 1802; died at Berlin Dec. 2,
1867. When very young he went to Berlin, and

Letter- Writing:



became a regular contributor to most of the literary
periodicals of that city (often under the pseudonym
"Ludwig Liber"), the humorist Saphir was at-
tracted by Lessor's work ami personality, and se-
cured hini for his literary stalf. The two became
very firm friends, and in 1827 they founded the
Literarisclie Sonutags-Verein. Lesser wrote "Chro-
nik der Gesellschaft der Freunde in Berlin zur Feier
Ihres Flinfzigjahrigen Jubiliiums" (Berlin, 1842).

A selection of Lessor's poems was pul)lished under
the title "Ausgewilhlte Dichtungeu," Berlin, 187U;
and the gold medal for art and science was conferred
upon liim by King Frederick William III. A char-
acteristic epigram by him, of which the following
is a free translation, gives some measure of his

power :

One thing to Life you owe :

StrufTKle, or seek for rest.
If you're an anvil, bear the blow ;
If a hammer, strike your best.

Lesser was devoted to the interests of the Jews:

he was one of the founders of the Judischer Kultur-

verein, of a society for the aid of Jewish teachers,

and of the Berlin Reform congregation.

BiBi.ior.RAPiiY : R. Lesser, in preface to Ausdcwilhlte DLcht-

s. M. Co.

man poet and critic; born Jan. 22, 1729, at Kamenz,
Upper Lusatia; died Feb. 15, 1781, at Brunswick

Toleration and a striving after freedom of thought
led him to condemn all positive religions in so far
as they laid claim to absolute authority, and to rec-
ognize them merely as stages of historical develop-
ment. A natural consequence of this principle was
his sympathetic attitude toward the Jews; for he
deemed it inconsistent with the dictates of religious
liberty to e.xclude for religious reasons a whole race
from the blessings of European culture.

In his comedy "Die Juden," one of his earliest
dramatic works, he stigmatized the dislike of the
Gentiles for the followers of the Jewish religion as a
stupid prejudice. He went herein further than any
other apostle of toleration before or after him. The
full development and final expression of his views
on this problem, however, are found in his drama
and last masterpiece, "Nathan der Weise " (1779),
Lessing thus beginning and ending his dramatic
career as an advocate of the emancipation of the

The figure of Nnthnn, modeled in the main on
that of his friend Moses Mendelssohn, was bound to
convince the world that the tenets of toleration and
htimnnity could be enunciated even by a repre-
.scntative of the race so bitterly hated by the world.
The legend of the three rings, in which Christianity,
Islam, and Judaism are allogorically represented as
brothers, each d(;emiiig to possess the original magic
ring, but all of them having, in reality, been cheated
of it, clearly indicates that Lessing wished to repre-
sent the Jew as a man, and not Judaism as a dogmatic
system. The prize of supremacy is not awarded
to this or that confession, but to humanity and mo-
rality, which are not bound to any particular faith.

Les.sing*s " Nathan " had a liberating effect on the
Jews in more ways than one. In the first place, the

mere fact that he chose the Jew N<((h(tu as his mouth-
piece could not pass unnoticed, and was sure to act
as a hindrance to persecution; and, secondly, Jie
stimulated the etliical consciousness of the Jews
themselves, who could not fall below the standard
set up by a noble non-Jew.

While Le.ssing condemned the belief in po.sitive
revelation, he accepted its general concept, seeing
in the dogmatic teachings of both the Old and New
Testaments elHcient educational instruments for the
moral elevation of mankind.

In short, Lessing raised Judaism in tlie esteem of
the European nations not only by showing its close
connection with Christianity, but ahso by demon-
strating the importance of Mosaism in the general
religious evolution of hvimanity. It was really
Lessing who opened the doors of the ghetto and
gave the Jews access to European culture. In a
certain sense he awakened Moses Mendelssohn to the
consciousness of his mission ; and through jMendels-
sohn Lessing liberated Judaism from the most heavy
chains of its own forging.

As a Biblical critic Lessing is equaled by none
of his contemporaries, and by very few of his prede-

s. M. Frie.

LESSMANN, DANIEL : German historian and
poet; born at Soldin, Neumark, Jan. 18, 1784; com-
mitted suicide at a place between Kropstadtand Wit-
tenberg Sept. 2, 1831. He attended the Joachims-
thal'sche Gymnasium in Berlin, and had begun the
study of medicine when the war of the allied pow-
ers against Napoleon broke out in 1818. He fought
in the ranks, was wounded at the battle of Llitzcu
(May 2, 1813), and on recovering remained in the
field until the end of the war. When jDeace was re-
stored he resumed his medical studies. He Avent as
private teacher to Vienna, and removed later to Italy,
remaining some time in Verona.

In 1824 he settled in Berlin and devoted himself
to literary work, contributing to various periodicals
sketches of life in southern countries, historical
studies, short stories, and poems. A collection of
his poems was published under the title "Amathu-
sia," Berlin, 1824. In 1826 his " Zwiilf Wanderlieder
eines Schwermiithigen " appeared in Berlin, and four
years later another volume was issued under the title
"Gedichte," ?6. 1830. In his poetry there is easily
discernible the influence of Heine, with whom he
was on friendly terms, and in whose letters to Moser
there are freijuent references to Lessmann.

Lessmann's contributions to imaginative prose
literature include the novels "Louise von Hailing."
2 vols., ib. 1827, which attracted the attention of
Goethe, and "Die Ileidemuhlc," published in two
volumes seven years after his death. To Lessmann
belongs much of the credit for the introduction of
modern Italian literature into Germany through his
translation of Manzoni's " I Promessi Sposi," and of
" \a\ Monaca di Monza," by Giovanni Rf)ssini.

His important historical work was the "Mastino
delta Scala: Ein Beitrag zur Gesch. der Oberita-
lienisclieiiStaaten im Mittelalter," rt. 1828. In 1829
and 1830 appeared successively the two volumes of
" Biographische Gemillde," which included historical
studies of Philip the Beautiful, Alfonso Albuquer-




que, liiuoceut III., aud Priuce ]\Iicliacl Gliuski.
Mufli of tlie "Xadilass," 2 vols., ib. 1837-38, is de-
voted to valuable liistorical work. Lessniann left
ia manuscript a voluiniuous *' Weltgeschichtc des
Alterthuius," which has never beeu published.

His seven years of literary activity were years of
profound melancholy. Lessmann had high aspira-
tions and great ambition. He dreamed of securing
some position of eminence; aud it appears, from the
answer of Moser to one of Heine's letters, that in
1824 Lessniann adopted Christianity in order that he
might realize his liopes. Nothing came of all his
efforts in this direction ; and he fell into a state of
despondenc}', which is reflected in his poetry and
in his " Wauderbuch eines Schwermuthigen," 2 vols.,
ib. 1831-32. One day Lessmann left Berlin on the
pretext of taking a pedestrian tour to Leipsic and
Dresden, and was found hanged by his own act.

Bibliography : Godeke, Grundr. dcr Dcidschcn Literatur,
iii. T.Vi-'i'i'Z \ Giibitz, Eniiincruiiifi n, iii. 1-7, Berlin, 1809; L.
iieiger, Daniel Lesamainu in -!//(/. Deutsche Binn. xviii.
451-4*}; Strodtmann, Heine, i. 319; Briimmer, Dichterlexi-


s. M. Co.

ried letters to their coreligionists, apart from the
regular post. In those business centers where a
large Jewish population existed, such as Hamburg,
Prague, Gross Glogau, Polish Lissa, Breslau, and
Frankfort-on-the-]\Iain, Jews, and at times even
Jewesses, are found acting as letter-carriers under
state control. It was necessary to employ them
in the postal service, as it was almost impossi-
ble for Christian letter-carriers to deliver letters ad-
dressed in Hebrew. xVnother reason may have been
the fact that the Jews, in their relations with the
post, were subject to exceptional laws.

The only detailed notices of Jewish letter-carriers
are furnished by the archives of Breslau and Frank-
fort ; but the position of the letter-carriers in these
places was no doubt tj'pical of their status else-
where. The Jewish letter-carrier, or "Post-Jude,"
in Breslau, is first mentioned in a document dated
Dec. 13, 1722, which, however, allows the inference
that the office had existed for many years before
that date. It was maintained until the Silesian
wars, after which time Breslau was no longer in-
cluded in the imperial postal district of Habsburg.

The Jewish letter-carrier of Breslau, as he neither
took any oath of office nor received any salary,
was not really a government official. His whole in-
come consisted merely of the postage paid by the
recipients of the letters. As, however, there were no
fixed postal rates, the amount received was so small
that the letter-carrier had to pursue in addition
some other occupation. That tlie postal authorities
tolerated this state of affairs is shown by the fact
that when the letter-carrier was absent on other
business, his wife was allowed to take his place.

The first mention of a Jewish letter-carrier in
Frankfort-on-the-Main occurs in a decree dating from
the middle of the eighteenth century, and setting
forth the regulations which the Jews must observe
in their relations with the Thurn and Taxis post;
but in Frankfort, too, the office had existed before
that time. From 1748 until 1846 it was held by
members of the same family, and it was abolished

owing to altered conditions. The nephew and as-
sistant of the Jews' letter-carrier who was then in
office remained in the Thurn and Taxis service with
the same rights and duties, and in 18G7 was taken
over into the Prussian service.

In Frankfort, as in Breslau, the Jewish letter-car-
rier received no pay, but two kreutzeis were collected
from theadtlressee for every ordinary letter, and six
kreutzers for a registered letter. In proportion as
international commerce developed and the Jewish
interests therein increased, the income of the letter-
carrier became correspondingly larger. The last in-
cumbent of the office iiad a yearly income of 5,000
gulden, out of which, in very busy times, he had to
pay his assistants 150 florins each. Besides, when
other posts, such as that of Hesse-Cassel, became
united to that of Thurn and Taxis, he was required
to pay Count Thurn and Taxis 400 gulden yearly.
He ultimately retired on a pension of 1,6U0 florins.

Bibliography: Kracauer, Die Jmleiihrieftrilfier in Frank-
fiut-a.-M. in Frnnlifurtcr Zeitunu, 1H90, No. 109; Laiids-
berger, Ji((/c)( ini Diotftc dcr Kaistrlichen I'ust zn Bres-
lau, etc. in Braun's Volk^kalendrr, liiO], p. i-i; Kaiifinann.
Die Memoiren der Glilckel uuu Hamcln, p. ]0i>; Grunwald,
Portuijiesenyriiher aiif Deutscher Erde, p. 9^.

G. I. KrA.


"WRITERS : The art of conveying information
by letter (" miktab," "iggeret," "sefer") was un-
known to the Hebrews in the first stages of their
history. From the times of the Patriarchs to those
of King Saul the Bible mentions onlj' messengers
who transmitted orally the communications en-
trusted to them (comp. Num. xxiv. 12; Judges xi.
13; I Sam. xi. 9). The first letter recorded is that
written by David to Joab and sent by the hand of
Uriah (II Sam. xi. 23, 25). David and his succes-
sors had special secretaries (•'soferim") charged
with the Avriting of letters and circulars; and these
secretaries occupied an exalted position in the state.
The Kenites living at Jabez were noted for their
skill in writing (comp. I Chron. ii. 55). As among
the Greeks aud Romans, it seems to have been cus-
tomary among the ancient Hebrews to seal a letter
sent to a prominent person. To show his slight re-
spect for the prophet's personalit}', Sanballat sends
an open letter to Nehemiah (Neh. vi. 5).

With the expansion of commerce in Talmudic
times the use of letters became a necessity, and
nearl}' every town had its official letter-
In writer ("i^ja!? = ''Hbellarius "). The
Talmudic Rabbis forbade a scholar to reside in
Times. a city where there was no such func-
tionary (Sanh. 17a). The Talmud has
preserved the original text of two letters: one was
addressed by the community of Jeru.salem to that of
Alexandria and refers to the sojourn of Judah ben
Tabbai in the latter city; the other was sent by
Gamaliel I. to the Jews of Upper and Lower Galilee
and treated of the intercalation of an additional
month in the year (Yer. Hag. ii. ; Sanh. lib). Be-
sides letters of information or of friendship, there
are traces in the Talmud of consultatory letters
dealing with scientific subjects (comp. Hul. 9oa).
To this class belongs that important branch of rab-
binical literature which is known by the name
•'She'elot u-Teshubot " (Respoxs.\), and which de-




veloped after the geonic period (see Joel Miiller,
"Briefe und Responsen iu der Vorgaonischen Jii-
dischen Litteratur," in " Jahresbericbt der Lehrau-
stalt fiir Judische Wissenschaft," Berlin, 1886).

The epistolary style varied according to the coun-
try. In the East it was modeled after that of tiie
Arabs, who exercised care in the elab-
Style and oration of their letters. The first,
Composi- often the greater, part of tlie letter,
tion. usually written in rimed prose and

adorned with Biblical quotations,
formed a kind of introduction in which the writer
attributed to his correspondent all the virtues con-
ceivable to tlie imagination of an Oriental. In
western countries expression was more moderate;
the use of titles, however, was general, as it still is
among the conservative Jews in Russia, Poland, and
Gaiicia. The least important rabbi is addressed as
the "Great Gaon," "Great Light," "Wonder of the
Generation," "Pillar of Israel," or with similar ex-
travagant epithets. Like the Arabs, the Jews in the
Middle Ages neglected to place the date at the head
of their letters; in modern times the custom was
established of giving, after the formula n"3 ( = " With
the help of God "), with which the letter began, the
day of the week, the Sabbatical section (sometimes
also the day of the month), and the place. "Fri-
day " was usually followed by the abbreviation p"£J»y
(= "eve of the lioly Sabbath "). The secrecy of let-
ters w^as assured in tlie tenth century by R. Gershon
(Me'or ha-Golah), who declared under the ban any
one who should open without permission a letter not
addressed to him.

The most famous letters in Jewish literature — be-
cause of both their contents and the prominence of
their writers— are: that of Hasdai ibu Shaprut to
the king of the Chazars; "Iggeret R. Sherira Gaon,"
on the sequence of tradition and the redaction of
the Talmud; the various letters of Maimonides in-
serted in tiie "Peer ha-Dor"; the let-
Celebrated ters exchanged between the French
CoUec- rabbis and scholars and those of Spain
ticns. on the study of philosophy (" Minhat
Kena'ot"); "Iggeret al-Tehi ka-Abo-
teka," addressed by Protiat Duran to En Bonet; the
collection of letters on Sliabbetluy Zebi published
by Zebi Asiikenazi (Hakam Zebi), Moses Hagiz, and
Jacob Einden. As a curiosity, mention may be made
of the letter addressed by the rabbis of Jerusalem to
the alleged descendants of Moses ("Bene Mosheh,"
Amster(iam, 1731). The most noteworthy letters
of modern times are: those of Moses Mendelssolui
("Iggerot HaMaD," Vienna. 1792); of Naphtali
Her/. W'essejy inrluded in tlie " Megallch Tamirin "
(ih. 1.S19) : of J. Perl written in tlie style of " Epistola-
Obscurorum Virorum"; "Iggeret YaSHaR," by
Isaac Samuel R('ggio(rt. 1834); "Iggerot SiiaDaL,"
by Luzzatto (Przcinysl, 1883); \ind "Miktabe
YaGeL." by Judali Lob Gordon (Warsaw, 1894).

From the sixteenth century Jcwisli literature was
enriched witli a number of formularies of Hebrew
and Ju<liro-German letters. The first of this kind
was tlic "Iggeret Shelomim," publislied at Augs-
burg in 1534 and republished with a Latin tran.s-
lation by Buxtorf the Younger at Basel in 1603.
The characteristic features of this formulary, as

of all the others published until 1820, were the
stilted and bombastic style, the misuse of Biblical
and Talmudical quotations, and the ex-
Formula- travagance of the headings of the let-
ries for ters. In the " 'Ittur Soferim" (see the

Letters. list below), for instance, there is such
a heading; which, rendered into Eng-
lish, it reads thus: " His [the correspondent's] cheeks
are as a bed of spices [Cant. v. 13], a ladder on which
angels of God are ascending and descending [Gen.
xxviii. 12]. He is of a reliable character; keeps
secrets; shows power to Jew and Gentile; he is a
righteous man upon whom the world is based." As
a model of a business letter, in which the writer has
to inform his correspondent that some salt which had
been purchased is on the road, the "Zahut ha-
Melizah " (see below) gives the following: "And he
looked back from behind him and became a pillar of
salt on the road," etc. (comp. Gen. xix. 26). A new
era in letter-writing was inaugurated by Shalom ha-
Kohen. In his formula " Ketab Yosher " (see below)
he endeavored to do away with the obsolete forms
and to cause the young, for whom his formulas
are intended, to adopt a modern style of writing.
He was followed in this endeavor by many writers
of talent who produced formularies of real literary
value. The following is a list of formularies pub-
lished up to the last years of the nineteenth century :

OTi'^iT' P1JN, anonymous. Augsburg, 1&34; Basel, 1603.

"ij7SSyiD::'Si-i3, in JudEeo-Cierman, by Judah Lob Liondor.
Wilna, 1820, 1844. 1846.

•^jnnyS 1^3. in Judaeo-German, by Hirsch Liondor. Wilna.

'T'31. by Mordecal Aaron Giinzburg. Wilna, 1844; 2d ed..

^DD ijiai, by Abraham Israel Kukelstein. Wilna, 1895.

nnjN niD^'^n. by H. Baueli. Wilna, 1866.

ay^ -\\ by Tobias Shapiro. Wilna, 1891.

ntt'r 3^3, by Shalom ha-Kohen. Vienna. 1820; Wilna, 1858.

tt'tnn -is-r 3.13, anonymous. Warsaw. 1869. 1871.

Sn-iij''' 3.10. by Israel Segal. Sudilkov, 1796.

in3J 3.13, by Moses of Lemberg. Cracow. 16.59; Prague. 1705.

0''iicS ]yi'h, by Ellakim Mellamed. Amsterdam, 1686.

1DD nSj:;. by Eliezer Beer Silbermann. Johannisberg, 1854.

ny n-J3::. in Hebrew and Judaco-German, by Azriel Selig
Galin, Warsaw, 1889.

Ciiyj^ 'J^'? 3133. by BaerFrledmann. Berdychev, 1890.

cScs 3.13D, In Hebrew, Judaeo-German, and Russian, by
Feigensohn. Wilna, 1882.

tnnn rnjx fnc oy cSu'D ansc, by Abraham Jacob Pa-
pema. Warsaw, 1884.

mp 'J3 •'3n3J3. by M. Letteris. Vienna, 1867.

Dmyj 0,13c, by Israel Beer Riesberg. Warsaw, 1887.

nn3;' 0P3D, in Hebrew and Judaeo-German, by S. Neumann.
Vienna, 1815, 1834.

p^i3i' •'313^. in Hebrew and Judseo-German. anonymous.
Lemberg, 1860.

r''"i3> 'Sisc, by Israel Busch. Vienna. 1847.

r'"i3>.' '3131. by Israel KnOptlemacher. Vienna, 1855.

riip rD~' •'3.13':. by Emanuel Bondi. Prague. 18,57.

-\DD3 0OP3S, by Lazar Isaac Shapiro. Warsaw. 1871.

TcS'^ D''3n3C. by Naphtali Maskllelson. Warsaw, 1876.

oSe'T ''3n3C, by Abraham Markus Pjurko. Warsaw, 1872.

Q'SPSS P3"ip-. by Paradicsthal. Warsaw, 18.53.

-in P''3 nPD". by David Zsimosc. Breslau. 1823.

pnjN V'lD, In Hebrew and Russian, by A. J. Paperna. War-
saw. 1874. 1876.

1D1D 0;', by Moses Cohen. Fiirth. 1691.

■'DID a;, by Zeinah Landau. Wilna. ia30. 1833.

Cinn iDiD e», by Zeinah Landau. Wilna. 183.5. 1844. 1848.

''"»3y 0". by Tobias Shapiro. Warsaw, 1878.

S-iDiD ivji". by Moses Landsberg. Hamburg, 1721, and many
other editions.

nx'^-rn pinx. by Wolf Buchner. Prague. 1805.

a'3P33 PX'Sp. by Hayylm Wlttklnd. Warsaw, 1873.




Me'ir Halevl Letteris.

-\SiDn pop, by Jacob Lapin. Berlin, 18o7.
-1D1D .Tip, by Mordecai Aaron Giinzburg. Wilna, 1835, 1847,
1855 ; AVarsaw, 1837, 1883.
-lijiD !23i;', by Mendel Dolitzky. Vienna, 1883.
a^^< nn^i.i, anonymous. Frankfort-on-the-Main, 17;%.
G. 1. Bk.

trian scholar and poet; boru Sept. 13, 1800, at Zol-
kiev; died at Vienna ]\Iay 19, 1871. He was a mem-
ber of a family of printers that originally came from

Amsterdam. At the
age of twelve he sent a
Hebrew poem to Nach-
man Krochmal, who
was then living at Zol-
kiev. Subsequently he
made the acquaintance
of Krochmal, who en-
couraged him in his
study of German,
French, and Latin liter-
ature. In 1826 he en-
tered tlie University of
Lemberg, where for four
years he studied philos-
oph}' and Oriental lan-
guages. In 1831 he
went to Berlin as He-
brew corrector in a
printing establishment, and later in a similar capac-
ity to Presburg, where he edited a large number of
valuable manuscripts, and to Prague, where he re-
ceived tlie degree of Ph.D. (1844). In 1848 he set-
tled finally in Vienna.

Letteris' chief poetical work in German, " Sagen
aus dem Orient" (Carlsruhe, 1847), consisting of
poetic renderings of Talmudic and other legends,
secured for him, though for a short time, the post of
librarian in the Oriental department of the Vienna
Imperial Library. His reputation as the foremost
poet of the Galician school is based on his volume of
poems "Tofes Kinnor we-'Ugab" (Vienna, 1860),
and especially on his Hebrew version of "Faust,"
entitled "Ben Abuya" (ib. 1865). He has exerted a
considerable influence on modern Hebrew poetry.
One of his best poems is his Zionistic song " Yonah
Homiyyah," which has become very popular. His
numerous translations are of incontestable value, but
his original poems are as a rule too prolix. His He-
brew prose is correct, though heavy.

Besides the works already mentioned the following
deserve special notice: " Dibre Shir" (Zolkiev, 1823)
and " Ayyelet ha-Shahar " {ib. 1824), including trans-
lations from Schiller and Homer, and poems by Let-
teris' father ; " Ha-Zefirah " (Zolkiev and Leipsic,
1823), a selection of poems and essays; "Paige Ma-
yim " (Lemberg, 1827), poems ; " Gedichte " (Vienna,
1829), German translations from the Hebrew ; " Geza'
Yishai" (Vienna, 1835), Hebrew translation of Ra-
cine's "Athalie"; "Shelom Ester" (Prague, 1843),
Hebrew translation of Racine's "Esther"; "Spino-
za's Lehre und Leben " (Vienna, 1847); "Neginot
Ylsrael," Hebrew rendering of Frankers"Nach der
Zerstreuung" (tb. 1856); and "Bilder aus dem Bi-
blischen Morgenlande " (Leipsic, 1870).

He was the editor of "Wiener Vierteljahns-

schrift," with a Hebrew supplement, "AbneNezer"
{ib. 1853), and of "Wiener Monatsbliitter fur Kunst
und Litteratur " {ib. 1853).

Bibliography: FUrst, Orient. Lit. 1849, pp. 6*3 et srq.; idem,
J3i7);. Jnd.ii. 234; Zihkaron ha-Scftr, Vienna, 1H69 (auloblo-
praphical notes by Letteris): .4/;!/. Zeit. dex Jiid. 1871, p.
692; G. Bader, in Ahiasof. VMl); N. Slouscbz, La Renais-
sance de la Litterature Hibraique, pp. 51-53, Paris, 1902.

s. N. Sl.


author; boru at Minsk 1835; died at St. Petersburg
1888. Levanda graduated from the rabbinical school

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