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ried at Philadelpliia, in 1763, Jonas Phillips (see
Piiii.MPs); and Sarah, married Mr. Moses of
Charleston, S. C. Among the distinguished de-
scendants of David Mendez Machado may be men-
tioned Commodore Uriah P. Levy, Henry M.
Phillips, Jonas B. Phillips, Mordecai M. Noah, and
N. Taylor Phillips.

Following is a family tree of the Machado familj^
of New York :

David Mendez Machado = Zipporah Nunez
(d. i;53) (d. 1799)



Sarah = Mr. Moses Rebecca = (1762) Jonas Phillips

I (1746-1831) (1736-1803)

Israel Moses I

I 21 children

Raphael Moses
I
Raphael Moses, Jr.

Bibliography: N. Taylor Phillips, Familu Histoi-y of the
Rev. JDnvid Mendez Machado; Pnhlicatiotis Am. Jew.
Hist. Soc. ii. 4o et seq.; Iv. 3 ; vi. 47, 128.
A. L. Hu.

MACH^RUS : ^Mountain fortress in Pertea, on
the boundary between Palestine and Arabia. Alex-
ander Jann;ieus first built a fortification there (Jose-
phus, ''B. J." vii. 6, § 2). His wife Salome Alexan-
dra turned over to the Sadducean party all the cit-
adels with the exception of Hyrcania, Alexandrium,
and Machferus(Josephus, " Ant." xiii. 16, § 3), where
the Ilasmoneans had their treasures. Gabinius ad-
vanced npon Maclurrus; Alexander surrendered, and
the fortification was razed to the ground by the
former ("Ant." xiv. 5, §§ 2, 4). Shortly afterward
Aristobulus fortified himself there, and Gabinius
cai>tured the position again after a siege of two days
("B. J." i. 8, § 6). Herod restored it as a frontier
fort against tlie Arabs, founded a walled city there,
and built towers, turning the whole mountain-top
into a fortification. In the middle of tlie fortified
space he built a splendid palace ("B. J. " vii. 6, ^ 2).
According to Pliny ("Historia Naturalis," v. 16,
ti(72), it was, next to Jerusalem, the strongest fortress
in Palestine. In the war against the Romans it was
occupied by Jews after the Roman garrison had re-
tired from it ("B. J." I.e.).

Not till two years after the fall of Jerusalem did
Lucilius Bassus advance upon Machierus with a



Roman army. The fort was defended by a heroic
youth called Eleazar; he fell into the hands of the
Romans and was to have been crucified; but the
Jews, to save him, surrendered the city on condition
that they be allowed a safe retreat. The Romans,
however, broke their word; about 1,700 men were
killed, and the women and children were sold as
slaves; 3,000 Zealots who had joined the fugitives
from Macluerus were killed in a bloody battle near
the Jordan {ib. vii. 0, jig 1-6).

Several wonderful features of Josephus' narrative
can be explained through Talmudic accounts. Ac-
cording to Josephus, in the Ilerodian palace was a
rue which grew as high as a fig-tree ("B. J." vii. 6,
J^ 2); with this statement should be compared Ycr.
Peah vii. 4 and Ket. 111b (see Winer, " B. R." s.v.
"Senf"). Josephus says that from two hills in tiie
vicinity flowed two springs, one warm and tiie other
cold, and that together they afforded an agreeable
and healthful bath ; allu.siou is made to these hills in
the Talmud also when it declares that the goats in
the mountains of ]\Iacha'rus grew fat upon the odors
from the Temple (Tainid 30; Yoma 89b), meaning
probably odors from the mountain of Machaerus
itself, which was used as a signal-fire station for the
announcement of New Moon (R. H. 23b; Tosef. ,
R. H. ii. 2).

The spelling of the name Mach.Trus varies in the
rabbiiucal writings between "illDO and "133D, also
"I11X30 ; it was pronounced " ]\Iekhawar " (comp.
MnxdiSspug, " Machaveros " in wi'itings of the ]\Iiddle
Ages). Accordingly, ^laxa/povg in Josephus is prob-
ably only a Greek form of the Semitic name, and is
not connected with juaxnlpa (=r "knife"). Strabo
(xvi. 2, § 40) and Stephen of Byzantium also mention
the place. Jolin the Baptist is said to have been killed
at Macha^rus ("Ant." xviii. 5, § 2). It is identified
with the present Mukaur, east of the Dead Sea (Rau-
mer, "Palastina," p. 264; Brann, in "Monatsschrift,"
1873, p. 345).

Bibliography: Bottper, Lexicon zu Fl. Joaephini. p. 16.5;
Griitz, Getfch. ith ed., iii. 548; Neiibauer, G. T. pp. 40, 42;
Schiirer, Octich. 3d ed., i. 638; Ha-Lcbnnon, v. 359.
G. S. Kr.

MACHIM, MASAHOD COHEN : Moorish

envoy to England, in 1813, from Mulai Sulaiman,

Emperor of Morocco (1794-1822), in whose reign

Christian slavery was abolished in Morocco. His

son Meir Cohen Machim visited England in the

same capacity in 1827.

Bibliography : Picciotto, Sketches of Analo-JewWi Hi.Mory,
p. 174; M. Margoliouth, History of the Jews in Great Brit-
ain, ii. 197. ., „
J. I- Co.

MACHIR : 1 . The first-born son of Manasseh
(Josh. xvii. 1 ; I Chron. vii. 14); founder of the most
important or dominant branch of the tribe of Manas-
seh. His iini>ortance is shown by the collocation of
Ephraim and Machir (instead of Manasseh) in Deb-
orah's Song (Judges v. 14), which seems to imply
that the whole tribe was once known by his name.
This is confirmed by the statement that Machir was
the only son of Manasseh (Num. xxvi. 29). In Gen.
1. 23 the children of Machir are said to have been
"born upon Joseph's knees" (R. V.), that is, they
were adopted by Joseph (Gunkel, "Genesis," p. 442;
Stade's " Zeitschnft," 1886, pp. 145 et seq.).



Machir
Machpelah



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



246



Machir removed to the east of the Jordan, con-
quered Gilead (Num. xxxii. 39, 40; Deut. iii. 15),
and added Bashan to his territory. Hence IVIachir
is spolien of as tlie fatiier of Gilead (I Cliron. ii. 21,
23; vii. 14; Num. xxvi. 29), and Gilead is called the
son of Machir (Num. xxvii. 3G; Josli. xvii. 3; 1
Chron. vii. 17). Tlie conquest of Gilead is geiierally
regarded as made not during the first invasion of tlie
lands east of the Jordan, but subsequently by a re-
flex movement from western Palestine.

The Midrash (Num. R. xiv. 19) mentions three
sons of ilachir, for wliom the three whole olTerings
referred to in Num. vii. 57 were brought by the
chief of the tribe of Mana.sseh. These sons inher-
ited the possessions of their brother Jair, who died
childless.

2. Son of Ammiel, who had an estate at Lo-debar,
east of the Jordan, not far from [Mahanaim (II Sam.
ix. 4et seq., xvii. 27). He remained faithful to the
Louse of Saul, giving refuge to the son of Jonathan,
Merib-baal, or ]\Iephiboslieth. Later, however, he
showed his loyalty to David by supplying his
army at Mahanaira during the rebellion of Absalom
(Smith, "Samuel," pp. 310, 356, New York, 1900).

J. E. I. N.

MACHIR : A Babylonian scholar who settled in
Narbonne, France, at the end of the eighth century
and whose descendants were for many generations
the leaders of that important community. Accord-
ing to a tradition preserved by Abraham ibn Daud
in his"Sefer ha-Kabbalah," Machir was a descend-
ant of the house of David. He was sent to Narbonne
by the calif llarun al-Rashid at the request of Char-
lemagne, who, it is said, received the Babylonian
scholar with great honor, ccmferred upon Inm and
liis descendants the title of " king of the Jews," and
gave liim a section of the city of Narbonne. Al-
though this relation between Machir and Charle-
magne is probably legendary, it is a fact that the
Machir family enjoyed for centuries many privileges
and tiiat il s members bore the title of " nasi " (prince).
Benjamin of Tudela, who visited Narbomie in 1165,
speaks of the exalted position occupied by the de-
scendants of Machir, and the "Royal Letters" of
1364 (Doat Collection, pp. 53 etsecj., 339-353) also
record the existence of a Jewish "king" at Nar-
bonne. The i)lace of residence of the Machir family
at Narbonne was designated in official documents
as "Cortada Regis Judtcorum" (Saige, "Hist, des
Juifs du Languedoc," p. 44). Machir is said to have
founded a Talmudieal school there which vied in
greatness with those of Bai)ylonia and which at-
tracted pupils from many distant points.

Buii.KKiKAi'iiv: Zaciito, YnhaMiu. e<\. Lonilon, p. S4 ; (iross. In
Miiudlsxrhrift, 1H7H. p. :.'."«(l: 1881. p. 451; idfiii. (inUin Jv-
(laica, p. 4(14: Ncuhaiicr. in R. K. ./. x. 100-103; Renan-Neii-
bauer, Lrx linhlnuH Fnnii;ni». pp. itCA, 74:3.
E. C. I Bh.

MACHIR BEN ABBA MARI : Author of a
work entitled "' Vaikut iia .Makiii," but about whom
not even the country or the period in which he lived
is known. Steinschneider ("Jewish Literature," p.
143) supi)()ses that Machir lived in Provence; but
the question of his date remains a subject of dis-
cussion among modern pcholars. The work itself is
similar in its contents to the "Yalkut ShimOni,"



with the dilTerence that while the latter covers the
whole Bible, Machir extended his compilation of
Talmudic and midrashic sentences only to the books
of Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, the twelve Minor
Prophets, Psalms, Proverbs, and Job. In the intro-
ductions, apparently very similar, to these books,
Machir gives the reason which induced him to un-
dertake such a work: he desired to gather the scat-
tered haggadic sentences into one group. He seems
to have thought it unnecessary to do the same tiling
for the Pentateuch and the Five Scrolls, as it had
been done already, to a certain extent, in the Mid-
rash Rabbah; but it may be concluded that Machir
intended to make such a compilation on the earlier
prophetical books also. From his introduction to
the part on Isaiah it would seem that he began with
Psalms and flnished with Isaiah, though in his in-
troduction to the part on the Psalms he mentions
the other parts.

Machir used the following sources in his compila-
tion: the two Talmuds, the Tosefta, the minor trea-
tises, the Sifra, the Sifre, the Pesikta, Midrash Rab-
bah on the Pentateuch, ]\Iidrash Kohelet, Midrash
Tehillim, Midrash Mishle, ]Midrash lyyob, JSIidrash
Tanhuma, a Midrash quoted as y 'UncrT. Pii'ke Rabbi
Eli'ezer, Seder 'Olam, and Haggadat Shir ha-Shirim,
frequently quoting the last-named Midrash in the
part on Isaiah. Machir had another version of
Deuteronomy Rabbah, of which only the part on the
section " Debarim " exists now (comp. S. Buber,
"Likkutim mi-Midrash Eleh ha-Debarim Zuta,"
Introduction). It is diflicult to ascertain whether
]\Iachir knew of the Midrash Yelammedenu; he
quotes only Midrash Tanhuma, but the passages
which he cites are not found in the present text of
that work, so that it is possible that he took these
passages from the Yelammedenu.

Only the following parts of the "Yalkut lia-
Makiri" are extant: Isaiah, published by I. Spira
(Berlin, 1894; comp. Israel Levi in "R. E. J."
xxviii. 300) from a Leyden manuscript; Psalms,
l)ublislied by S. Buber (Berdychev, 1899) from two
manuscripts (one, previously in the possession of
Jo.seph b. Solomon of Vyazhin, was used by David
Luria, and its introduction was published by M.
Straschun in Fuenu's "Kiryah Ne'emanah," p. 304;
the other is MS. No. 167 in the Bodleian Library);
the twelve Minor Proiihets (Brit. Mus., Harleian
MSS., No. 5704); Proverbs, extant in a MS. which
is in the possession of Griuihut ("Zeit. flir Hebr.
Bibl." 1900, p. 41), and which was seen by Azu-
lai ("Shem ha-Gedolim," ii., s.v. "Yalkut ha-
Makiri").

Gastei-("R. E. J." xxv. 43c^«^r/.) attached great
importance to Machir's work, thinking that it
was older than the " Yalkut Shim'oni," the second
part of which at least Gaster concluded was a bad
adaptation from the "Yalkut ha-Makiri." Gaster's
conclusions, however, were contested by A. Epstein
C'R. E. J." xxvi. 75 et seq.). who declares that Ma-
chir's "Yalkut" is both inferior and later than the
"Yalkut Shim'oni." Buber conclusively proved,
in tile introduction to his edition of the "Yalkut ha-
^lakiri," that the two works are independent of each
other, that Machir lived later than the author of
the " Yalkut Shim'oni," and that he had not seen the



247



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



IDXachir
Sdachpelah



latter work. Pozuanski tliiuks that Machir lived iu

the fourteenth century.

Bibi.io(;raphy : Poznanski, in R. E. J. xl. 283 et seq., and the
sources mentioned above.

E. c. M. Sel.

MACHIR BEN JUDAH : Frencii scholar of
the tenth and eleventh centuries; born at Metz ;
brother of Gershoni Me'or ha-Golah. He is known
by his dictionary entitled "Alfa Beta de-R. Makir,''
not extant, but quoted often by Rashi, RaSHBa^I,
Eliezer b. Nathan, Jacob Tarn, and other tosafists.
As the title indicates, the dictionary was arranged
in alphabetical order, and from the many quotations
by Rashi in his commentary on the Talmud (Hul.
201); Pes. 50a et passion) it seems that it dealt chiefly
with the dithcult words and passages of the Talmud ;
but (by Rashi) he is quoted also for the interpreta-
tion of the word "botnim," in Gen. xliii. 11. Machir
adopted for the most part the interpretations of his
brother, who was Nathan ben Jehiel's teacher. Still
he sometimes differed from his brother in the inter-
pretation of words, and in such cases Nathan often
adopted the opinion of Machir (coinp. Jacob Tam,
"Sefer ha-Yashar," p. 58b), though he never quotes
Jiim in his"'Aruk." The quotations from Machir
by Rashi and the other rabbis mentioned above
were collected by Solomon L. Rapoport in his bi-
ography of Nathan b. Jehiel ("Bikkure ha-'Ittim,"
X. 8, xi. 82).

Bibliocraphy: Fiirst, Bihl. Jud. ii. 285; Michael, Or ha-
Haijiiim, No. UW.
T. ' M. Sel.

MACHLUP, ADOLF : Hungaiian merchant
and philanthropist; born at Eiseustadt in 1833;
died at Budapest Jan. 1, 1895. He studied at Buda-
pest, and at the Polytechnic School in Vienna, and
took part in the revolutionary movement of 1848.
In 1867 he and his brother Eduard built at Buda-
pest tlie first leatlier- factory iu Hungary, and in 1868
the first factory for stearin caudles and soap. Both
these enterprises did much to advance Hungarian
industry and trade. Machlup left large sums to
many Jewish as well as non-Jewish societies, in-
cluding a bequest of 200,000 gulden to found a non-
sectarian Home for Convalescents in the city of
Budapest.

BIBLIOGRAPHY': Pallas Nagy Lexicon.
s. L. V.

MACHORRO CniJXD; spelled also Machorre,
Maczoro, Magoro) : Name of a family of Sephar-
dim that fiourished in Brazil, Germany, Holland,
Hungary, and Italy. Thirteen persons bearing the
name are buried in Altona, the earliest epitaph being
dated 1620 and the latest 1782. A Jac[ob] de Dan-
[iel] Machorre was one of the contributors to an
album which contained the autographs and verses
of thousands of persons who had inspected Prof.
D. Mill'smodelof the Templeof Solomonat Utrecht
(c. 1748-57). Mention is made of a Maczoro, in
Temcsvar, Hungary, in 1772 Abraham, Moses,
and Solomon Machorro fiourished at Amsterdam
about the middle of the seventeenth century. The
first two were members of the society" Temiine
Derek. Abraham is highly praised by De Barrios
as one skilled equally in tlie use of the fiute and of
the pen. Elijah. Machorro, a kinsman of Abraham



Machorro, lived in Brazil about the same time.
Moses ben Daniel Machorro was rabbi in Venice
about 1693. One of his tlccisions with reference to
the cutting of the hair on the "middle days" of the
festivals ("hoi lia-mo'ed ") is published in Moses
Hagiz' " Lcket ha-Kemah," on Yoreh De'ah (pp.
;>l-32, Amsteixlam, 1706; see Be.vkd). A Portu-
guese version of this responsum, not known to bibli-
ographers, seems to have been circulated in Amster-
dam about 1704 (comp. "Catalogue Cardozo," p. 75,
Amsterdam, 1870). It is well worth mention that
one of the numerous Maranos figuring in the trial of
Gabriel de Granada in Mexico (1642-45) was named
Juan Pacheco de Leon, alias Solomon ]\Iachorro
("Publications Am. Jew. Hist. Soc." No. 7, p. 3).

Bibliography : De Barrios, liilaciDii dc los Paetat^ y Escri-
tnres Espntloles, p. 58; Wolf, Bihl. Hchr. hi. \(U ; Rios,
EMudio^, !>. 5(i8 ; Nepi-(;hirondi, Totcdnt Gcdolc Yisracl. p.
251, Triest, 18-53; KayserlinR, Svphnrdim, pp. 29t), ;W0, 361 ;
idem, in R. B. J.xviii. 287 (1889) ; idem, in Bil)!. Esp.-Piirt.-
Jud. pp. 23, 65, Strasburer, 1890 ; Mortara, Indice, p. 3ti, Padua,
188(5 ; M. Grunwald, Pii7tv(iiese7)tjrdherauf Dentsclier Erde,
p. II."), Hamburg, 1902; the sources cited by G. A. Kohut in
Pul)licatio)is Am. Jew. Hist. Soc. No. 3, pp. 108-109.
A. G. A. K.

MACHPEL AH.— Biblical and Post-Biblical

Data: Name of a field and cave bought by Abraham
asa burying-place. Themeaningof the name, which
always occurs with the definite article, is not clear;
according to the Targumim and the Septuagint it
means "tlie double," while Gesenins ("Th."), with
more reason, connects it with the Ethiopic for "the
portion." It appears to have been situated near
Mamre, or Hebron, and to have belonged to Ephron
the Ilittite. Abraham needed a burying-place for
Sarah, and bought the field of the Maclipelah, at the
end of which was a cave, paying four hundred silver
shekels. The cave became the family burying-place,
Sarah being the first to be buried there; later, Abra-
ham, Isaac, Rebekah, Leah, and Jacob were placed
there (Gen. xxiii. 9, 16-20; xxv. 9; xlix. 30-31; 1.
13). It is designated twice onl}^ as the "cave" of
the Machpelah (Gen. xxiii. 9, xxv. 9); in the other
instances it is called " the cave of the field of the
Machpelah" or "the cave in the field of the Macli-
pelah." No further reference is made to it or to the
burying-place of the Patriarchs, though some schol-
ars find an allusion to it in II Sam. xv. 7, 9.

Josephus speaks of the purchase of Ephron's field
at Hebron by Abraham as a place of burial and
of the tombs (Mur/ne'ta) built there by Abraham and
his descendants, without, however, mentioning the
name "Machpelah" ("Ant." i. 14, 22). In tho
twelfth century the cave of the INIachpelah began to
attract visitors and pilgrims, and this aroused the
curiosity and wonder of the natives. Benjamin of
Tiidela relates : " At Hebron there is a large place
of worship called 'St. Abraham,' which was pre-
viously a Jewish synagogue. The natives erected
there six sepulchers, which they tell foreigners are
those of the Patriarchs and their wives, demanding
money as a condition of seeing them. If a Jew
gives an additional fee to the keeper of the cave, an
iron door which dates from the time of our fore-
fathers opens, and the visitor descends with a
lighted candle. He crosses two empty caves, and
in the third sees six tombs, on which the names of
tiie three Patriarchs and their wives are inscribed in



Machpelah
Mag-dala



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



248



Hebrew characters. The cave is tilled with barrels
containing bones of people, which are taken there
as to a sacred place. At the end of the field of the
Maciipelah stands Abraham's hou.se with a spring
in front of it" ("Itinerary," ed. Asher, pp. 40-42,
Hebr. ). Samuel b. Samson visited the cave in 1210;
he says that the visitor must descend by twenty-
four steps in a passageway so narrow that the rock
touches him on either hand ("'Pal. Explor. Fund,"
Quarterly Statement, 1882, p. 212). Now the cave is
concealed by a mosque; this was formerly a church,
built by the Crusaders between 1167 and 1187 and
restored by the Arabs (comp. Stanley, "Sinai and
Palestine," p. 149). See Hebkon.

E. G. ir. M. Sel.

In Rabbinical Literature : The name of

" Machpelah "( = " the doubled one") belongs, accord-
ing to the Rabbis, to the cave alone, their reasons for
the name being various: it was a double cave, with
two stories (Rab) ; it contained pairs of tombs (Sam-
uel); it had a double value in the eyes of people
who saw it ; any one buried there could expect a
double reward in the future world ; when God buried
Adam there He had to fold him together (Abahu ;
'Er. 5;}a; Gen. R. Iviii. 10). Adam and Eve were

the first pair buried there, and there-
Tomb of fore Hebron, where the cave was situ-
Adam and ated, bore the additional name of " Kir-
Eve, jath-arba "(= "the city of four "; i.e.,

of the tombs of Adam and Eve, Abra-
ham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebekah, Jacob and Leah
('Er. 53a; Sotah 13a; comp. Gen. R. Iviii. 4).

According to Pirke R. El. xxxvi., the cave of
Machpelah was at Jebus, and the reason that in-
duced Abraham to buy it was the following: When
Abraham went to fetch the calf for his guests (comp.
Gen. xviii. 7) it escaped to the cave of Machpelali.
Abraham ran after it, and when he entered the cave
he saw Adam and Eve lying in their beds as though
they were sleeping, while lighted candles were
around them, exhaling a fragrant odor. Abraham,
filled with a desire to possess the cave, determined
to buy it at any price. The Jebusites, however, re-
fused to sell it to him until he had sworn that when
his descendants conquered the land of Canaan they
would spare the city of Jebus (Jerusalem). Abra-
ham accordingly took the oath, and the Jebusites
inscribed it on brazen idols which they placed in the
markets of the city. Tliis was the rea.son why the
children of Benjamin did not drive out the iniiabit-
ants of Jebus (Judges i. 21). Abraham secured his
purchase of the cave of IMachpelah by a formal deed
signed by four witnesses: Aniigal, son of Abisiuia
the Hittite; Elihoreph, son of Ashunah the Ilivite;
'Iddon, son of Ahira the Gardite; Akdul, son of
'Abudish the Zidonite ("Scfcr iia-Yushar," section
"Hayye Sarah," p. 37a. Leghorn. 1870).

After Isaac's deatli, Jacob, desirous of becoming
soleownerof thocaveof Machpelali, acrpiired Esau's
part of it in exciiangc for all the riches left him by

his father. This sale was also ratified
Title- by a ddcumenf, wliich Jacob put in
Deeds. an earthen vessel to preserve it from

decay (ib. section "Wayesheb," p.
77b). Nevertheless, at the liurial of .Taroh the
cave was the subject of a violent dispute between



Jacob's children and Esau. The latter opposed
the burial of Jacob in the cave on the ground that
there was room only for four pairs, and that Jacob,
by burying Leah, had filled up his pait. Naphtali
returned to Egypt for the title-deed, but meanwhile
Ilushim, the son of Dan, struck Esau on the head
with a stick so that the hitter's eyes fell on Jacob's
knees (Sotah l.c.\ comp. " Sefer ha-Yashar," I.e.
pp. 97a-98a, where it is said that Hushim cut off
Esau's head, which was buried on the spot). There
is another tradition, to the effect that Esau was slain
by Judah in the cave of Machpelah at Isaac's burial
(Midr. Teh. xviii.; Yalk., Gen. 1G2).

s. B. M. Sel.

MACROCOSM. See Microcosm and Macro-
cos>r.

MADAI. See Media.

MADRID : Capital of Spain. Jews lived there
as early as tiie twelftli century. By the old munic-
ipal law ("Fuero de Madrid ") they were given the
same privileges as the other inhabitants, with the one
exception that Christian butchers were forbidden to
sell "carne trefa" (meat which the ritual laws for-
bid Jews to eat), or any other flesh of animals slaugh-
tered by Jews, under penalty of a fine of 10 mara-
vedis or of imprisonment. A certain Yugaf de Don
Salomon Aben (^'ahal (Sahal) in Madrid, in the year
1336, sold a vineyard belonging to him situated in
Ensiniella, near Madrid, to Garcia de Canillas; the
deed, bearing the date of March 21, 1336, signed by
Leon Qag(Isaac)(^arago(;i as witness, is printed in the
" Boletin de la Real Academia de la Historia " (x.
160). In the years 1343 and 1369 Jews were living
in villages in the neighborhood of Madrid — Parla,
Torrejon de Vedasco, Polvoranca, Alcavendas, Bara-
jas, and Coveiia. Undoubtedly they were numeric-
ally iusignihcant, for in the year 1474 the taxes of
the Jews in Madrid, Ciempozuelos, Pinto, Barajas,
and Torrejon de Vedasco amounted to only 1,200
maravedis. In the year 1384 the monastery of S.
Domingo in Madrid received from King John I. an
annuity of 3,000 maravedis, payable from the taxes
of the Jews.

As was the case with the Jews in the remainder
of Castile in 1391, of those in Madrid some were
plundered and murdered and others were forcibly
baptized. The city council, as in Valencia, demanded
the punishment of the rioters and their leaders; some
were captured, and others, among them Ruy Sanchez
de Urosco, Lope Fernandez and Diego de Vargas, and
Ruy Garcia de la Torre, took to flight ; tlie government
empowered the council to confiscate the property of
those found guilty. The destruction of the Jewry
in Madrid inflicted great loss upon the monastery of
S. Domingo. The Jewry was situated in the Calle
de la Fe, in the immediate vicinity of Las Dainas
street and next to the S. Laurencia Church ; this
street contained the synagogue, and until 1492 was
known as "Synagogue street." After 1301 the
Jewry was rebuilt. By an order of Ferdinand and
Lsabella of May 28, 1480, it was surrounded by a



Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 62 of 169)