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wall, the gates of wiiich were locked at dusk.

Several Jewish pliysicians lived in Madrid. One
of them, Rabbi Jacob, was privileged (Nov. 9, 1481)
to live outside the Jewry, so that he might visit ids
patients at niglit unhindered. As physicians or sur-



249



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Machpelah
Magrdala



geoDS there were appointed by the council, in 1481
and 1489, Don Juda and his son Maestre Zulema
(Saloinou)aud Rabbi Jacob (probably the one already
mentioned) and his son Rabbi Joseph. The Jews
were compelled to take part in the public church
festivals. At one of these festivals, held on June
22, 1480, both the Jews and the Moors in Madrid
were compelled to give an exhibition of the dancing
peculiar to their respective races.

Since 18G9 Jews have again begun to live in
Madrid, going there from Tunis, Mogador, Lis-
bon, Alexandria, and from various cities in France
and elsewliere — about twenty families in all.
They have not formed a congregation nor conse-
crated a cemetery ; but they hold services on New-
Year and on the Day of Atonement in a private
house.

Biblioorapht: Rios, Hist. i. 195, iii. 568. 591; Fidel Flda,
Estudios Historicos, v. 77 et seq.; K. E. J. xiii. 245 et seq.

G. M. K.

MAFTIR : 1. The reader of the concluding por-
tion of the Peutateuchal section on Sabbaths and
holy days in the synagogue. On regular Sabbaths
that portion forms a part of the section read by the
seventh reader, and is repeated bj' the one appointed
to read the Haftarah. For special Sabbaths and
holy da^'s the maftir reads a separate Peutateuchal
portion bearing on the occasion. Such was the cus-
tom established by Rashi and his teachers. But the
general custom of the congregations in France was
that the maftir on such occasions recited the last
portion of the regular les.son besides reading the
special one (Meg. 28a). All congregations have
since accepted the decision of Rashi. The maftir is
not counted in the quorum of readers, which must
not be less than seven on Sabbaths or than five on
holy days. Since the maftir repeats but a few sen-
tences and is not counted in the necessary quorum,
it was held that he received somewhat less honor than
the other readers, and therefore he was compensated
in Talmudic times by being granted the privilege of
reading the "Shema'" and the " 'Amidah " on the
same da}^ (Meg. iv. 6, 24a).

2. The reader of the Haftarah. He should not
begin to read the Haftarah unless he has previously
read a portion of the Torah (Meg. 23a) ; nor should
he read the Haftarah until the scroll is rolled up
(Sotali 39b). The text of the Haftarah must not be
less than twenty-one verses in the books of the
Prophets, three verses being thus allowed for each of
the seven readers of the Torah (Meg. 23a). The bene-
dictions recited by the maftir (other than the two for
the reading of the Peutateuchal portion) are five —
one before and four after the Haftarah; they are
mentioned in Soferim xiii. 9. The first benediction
begins with "Praised be the Lord, . . . who chose
goodly prophets and approved their words spoken
in truth"; the end of the second benediction reads,
" who is faithful in all His words " ; the third ends
with " who is building Jerusalem " ; the fourth with
"the shield of David"; the fifth with "who sancti-
fied the Sabbath" (or "the holy days"). Maimonidcs
copied the older version reading " building Jerusa-
lem " ; but R. Abraham ben David amends this to
"who maketh Zion joyful through her children,"
which version has since been retained.



Tlie reading of the Haftarah is generally reserved
for a bar mizwah, or for a bridegroom on the Sab-
batii before liis marriage. On Shebu'ot, after the
lirst benediction and before the Haftarah, the maf-
tir recites a poem beginning " Yezib pitgam."

3. Sometimes, the usher or sexton whose duty it

was to watch at the conclusion of the prayer-service

at the synagogue .and to gather and usher in the

students in the bet ha-midrash. 'Awira Shamniai

was a maftir for the yeshibah of the " great teacher"

(perhaps Judah ha-Nasi I.; Hul. 51a). See Bar

.AIizwAii; H.\FT.\K.\Ti; L.wv, Reading from the.

Bibliography : Dembitz, JewUih Seiuices i)i Syjirtf/oyuf and
Home, pp. 'Mi, 276.
A. J. D. E.

MAGAZIN FUR DIE WISSENSCHAFT
DES JUDENTHUMS : Journal founded by Dr.
Abraham Berliner Jan. 1, 1874. It appeared first
as a bimonthly, in quarto form, under the title
" Magazin flir Judische Geschichte und Literatur,"
and contained a series of articles by Bei liner on He-
brew manuscripts in the Italian libraries, besides
studies in the history of Jewish culture, criticisms
of new publications, extracts from midrashim, etc.
jMany of the most prominent Jewish scholars were
contributors, and the success of the magazine justi-
fied Berliner in enlarging its scope. "With its third
volume (1876) it was changed to an octavo quarterly
in order that lengthier and more strictly .scientific
articles (exegetical, philological, historical) might
be admitted, its title became " Magazin flir die Wis-
senschaft des Judenthums," a special Hebrew sup-
plement ("'Ozar Tob") was added to contain prin-
cipally material from unpublished Hebrew manu-
scripts, and Dr. David Hoffmann became associated
in the editorship. The excellence of the contribu-
tions, including many by the editors and by such
scholars as Steinschneider, D. Kaufmann, D. Oppen-
heim, M. Wolfl:, Harkavj', A. Epstein, and Bacher,
was maintained for twenty years, when pressure of
other duties compelled the editors to suspend pub-
lication (1893).

J. W. P.

MAGDALA: Town in Palestine in the province
of Galilee; probably the birthplace of ]\Iary Magda-
lene. There is a Talmudic sentence which declares
that Magdala was destroyed (by the Romans) on ac-
count of its immorality (Lam. R. ii. 2). Jesus once
went to Magdala by ship on the Sea of Gennesaret
(Matt. XV. 39; even if the reading MajaJdv [= Moja-
6dX] be accepted in place of Maj()a?id, it must be in-
ferred that Magdala is meant). Because he made
the journey by boat some have held that the town
was on the eastern shore of the sea; such a conclu-
sion is not necessary, however, and Magdala was
more probably on the western shore, perhaps the
present Al-majdal, a small village an hour and a
quarter north of Tiberias.

Rabbinical accounts are clear only in indicating
Magdala as situated near Tiberias. In Tosef., 'Er.
vi. 13 (ed. Zuckermandel, p. 145; comp. Yer. 'Er.
V. 22d, where the description is more detailed and
accurate), it is true, Tiberias is placed near Gadara
also, which latter place is known to liave been situ-
ated east of the Jordan. But the proximity to Ti-
berias is noted also in Yer. Ma'as iii. 50c; and



Magdeburg-
Mag-en Da-wid.



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



250



Simeon ben Lakish, who had a quarrel with the
patriarch, fled to Magdahi from the neighboring
Tiberias (Yer. Sanh. ii. 19d : Hor. iii. 47a). There
-were iu Magdahi a .sciniuary or a synagogue, and a
school tor children (Eccl. R. x. 8). In several pas-
sages in the Talmud and Midrash "Magdala" occurs
as a variant of ":Migdal Zal)ba'aya" (tower of the
dyers). Neubauer is conse(iuently of the opinion
tiiat tlie latter as well as other names compounded
Willi "Migdal" refers to a quarter in the town of
]\Iagdala; but this is not the case. Only so much is
certain, that a few teachers of the Law were born in
JIagdala— ^-.i^., H. Isaac (B. j\I. 2oa) and Yudan (Yer.
Ber. ix. 14a; Ta'an. i. 64b). In the Talmud besides
the usual Aramaic name "Magdala" the Hebrew
form "3Iigdol " occasionally occurs (e.g., Tosef. 'Er.
vi. 13). 'I'liis is without significance, however, as
is shown by the fact that the Biblical "Migdol" is
n-gularly rendered by the Septuagint as 'bA.ayduXoq
{e.;/., in Num. xxxiii. 7).

Bibi.io(;r.\piiv : Winer, B. R.; Neubauer, G. T. p. 217; Uplit-
foot. Hone Hcbjaica\ p. I'M.

G. S. Ku.

MAGDEBURG : Capital of the Prussian prov-
ince of Saxotiy ; situated on the Elbe. It has a pop-
ulation of 229, ()3o, of Avhom about 2,000 are Jews.
There were Jews at Magdeburg as early as the tenth
century. The district occupied by them lay with-
out tlie city and was called " Judendorf zu Magde-
burg " (Hagedoru, in "Geschichtsblatter fur Stadt
und Laud :Magdeburg," xx. 93). Politically as well

as geographically they belonged to

Under the the archbishopric of Magdeburg rather

Arch- than to the town; probably they never

bishop. lived within the city itself. The first

inflow of Jews to Magdeburg is sup-
posed to have been from the Rhine district, but the
date when this took jdace is unknown. The earliest
mention of them there occurs in a document of Otto
the Great, dated July 9, 965, in which the "Jews
and other traders" living in the city are placed under
the exclusive control and jurisdiction of the Arch-
bisliop of Magdeburg (Aronius, "Regesten zur
Gesch. der Judenin Deutscldand," p. 55). The way
in which Jews are described iu this and in a similar
document of Otto II. dated June 4, 973 (Aronius,
I.e. p. 56), justifies the inference that even at tliat
period they formed a community of fair size and
•were of sucli importance commercially tiiat they
contributed materially to the prosperity of Magde-
burg. If Westberg's view is correct that the word
"Maznbrgli," found iu an Arabic source, is a cor-
ruplion of "Magdeburg," it was there tiiat the
Jud.eo- Arabic traveler Ii5R.\in.M inx Y.x'ki'b "the
Israelite" appeared in 965 at the court of Otto tlie
Great, perhaps as a member of an embassy from
Cordova, and obtained from the emiieror valuable
information concerning the Slavs, which lie used in
the account of his travels, written in Araliic.

The liistory of the Jews in Magdeburg in the suc-
ceeiling centuries resembles in all respects the rec-
ord of other Jewish communities in Germany during
the Middle Ages. It may be infcned that they
were prosperous from the fact tliat many Jews of
Magdeburg acconipaiiii-d tlie funeral procession of
Archbishop Walthard iu 1013 and manifested their



grief in lamentations (see Aronius, I.e. p. 61). On
the other hand, the First Crusade (1096) is said to
have caused the expulsion of the Jews
Early Mid- from the Judendorf (xVronius, I.e. p.
die Ages. 93; comp. p. 111). In a communi-
cation from Pope Innocent III. to the
clergy of the archbishopric of Magdeburg, dated
Dec. 31, 1199, in which they are \irged to come to the
assistance of the Cliristians in tlie Orient, tiiere is
the provision that the secular arm shall compel the
Jews to release their Christian debtors from paying
interest and tliat, until they shall have done so, they
shall not be permitted to have any intercourse with
Christians (Aronius, I.e. p. 155). How far this reg-
ulation was observed is unknown. Archbishop
Albrecht of Magdeburg, although friendly to the
Jews, could not prevent the destruction of the Ju-
dendorf in 1213 by the troops of Otto IV. (A. Levy
"Gesch. der Juden in Sachsen," p. 8, Berlin, 1900).
In 1261, on the Feast of Tabernacles of that year,
when Jews from other cities were in
Judendorf the Judendorf, Archbishop Robert,
Destroyed finding it necessary to refill his empty
1213. coffers, seized their money and valu-
ables, and held the richest of tliem
for high ransoms. He seems to have done the same
at Halle; no less than 100,000 silver marks are said
to have been extorted from tlie Jews of the two
cities (Aronius, I.e. p. 281; M. Spanier, "Zur Gesch.
der Juden in Magdeburg," in "Zeitschrift fiir die
Gesch. der Juden in Deutschland," v. 273). His
successor as archbishop, Conrad of Sternberg, was
unfriendly to tho Jews on religious grounds.

The religious fanaticism awakened by the Cru-
sades and the desire of the cities for independence
found vent at this time in wliolesale persecutions
of the Jews. When in 1301 a Christian girl from
the Judendorf circulated the rumor that the Jews
had nailed an image of Jesus to a cross, recrucify-
ing him in effigy, the citizens fell upon the ghetto,
plundered it, and killed some Jews and drove
others away. A document of 1312 has
Persecu- been jn-eserved, according to which the
tions, 1301 Jews bought four fields for the exten-
and 1348. sion of their cemetery. At the time
of the Black Death (1348) the citizens
and jieasants of the vicinity again fell upon the
Judendorf, pillaged it, and burned many Jews in
their houses. This time, however. Archbishop Otto
and the magistrate Von Vorn took the Jews under
their protection, so that the uprising gained little
headway, although during it the rabbi of the commu-
nity, Rabbi Shalom, died the death of a martyr (see
Saltcld, "3lartyrologium," p. 247; comp. p. 284).
A tombstone in the old Jewish cemetery also names
a martyr, Samuel, of the year 1356. Between 1361
and 13G7 Archbishop Dietrich employed a Jewisli
court banker, Sclimoll or Shemuel. In 1385, ac-
cording to a document, the cemetery was again en-
larged. Tills fact, together with the names men-
tioned in this record, justifies the conclusion that Ihe
community was growing considerably at that time
through additions from other cities.

In 1410 Archbishop Gi'inther issued a patent to the
Jews of Magdeburg, assuring tliemof his protection
for six years, in return for which they were to pay



251



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Magdeburg
Magen Dawid



a tax of 40 silver marks in half-yearly payments.
This patent, liowever, which contains benevolent
provisions regarding the legal status of the Jewish
community, was not meant seriously, for in the fol-
lowing year Gunther would have extorted money
from the Judendorf had not the citizens of ]\[agde-
burg frustrated his design lest they should lose the
securities they had deposited with the Jews. When
Ernst von Sachsen entered the city as archbishoji in
the year 1476, the Jews also did homage to liim;
but in 1492 the archbishop, yielding to the inflamed
passions of the citizens antl the clergy, decreed tiie
banishment of tlie Jews from Magdc-
Banished burg on account of an unimportant
1492. altercation between two Jews and two
monks. The edict was enforced nine
months later after the councilor Von Sudenburg had
paid the Jews the equivalent of their houses and
goods. iVIore than 1,400 emigrated. The syna-
gogue of the Judendorf was turned into a chapel in
honor of the Virgin Mary and named "^Marienka-
pelle," and the name "Judendorf" was changed to
"Mariendorf " (see II. A. Erhard, "Das Judendorf
bei 3[agdeburg und der Erzbiscliof Ernst zu ilagde-
burg, Judenverfolgung im Jahre 1493," in Lede-
bur's " Archiv flir die Geschichtskunde des Preussi-
schen Staates," ISiiO, i. 318).

Of the internal life of the community up to the
time of its banishment very little is known. It
submitted religious questions to Meir Kothenburg
(d. 1393; Responsa, No. 32, ed. Cremona, 1557) and
to various French scholars. At the time of Isaac
ben Moses of Vienna (1200-70) there lived in Mag-
deburg a Rabbi Hezekiah ben Jacob, with whom
the former was in correspondence (Steinschneider,
"Hebr. Bibl." viii. 2). In the fifteenth century Ja-
cob Molln mentions a scholar. Rabbi Isaac, of Magde-
burg ("Minhagim," Hilkot Hanidvkah). At that
time tlie community seems to have been active and
flourishing and to have had a yeshibah which was
attended also by students from other places, who
were assured of safe-conduct by a patent of protec-
tion issued in 1410.

After the banishment (1493) no Jew was allowed
the right to settle in Magdeburg, whose magistrate,
in a letter to the king dated Sept. 14,
Permission 1711, speaks of that right as "a high
to Return, royal favor." It was not until 1720
that a Jew, Gumpert by name, ob-
tained permission to reside in the Altstadt of Magde-
burg, and up to 1806 only one prt)tected Jew at a
time enjoyed this privilege. If Jews attempted to
remain in the Neustadt, the council of the city was
soon forced to e.xpel them, as is seen from the case
of Lewin Bauer (see M. Spanier, I.e. pp. 392 e( mj.).
The present community did not come into exist-
ence until the third decade of the nineteenth century.
Its first preacher, who was also the principal of the
newly founded religious school of the connnuuity
(the first of its kind in North Germany), was
Ludwig PiiiLiPPSON, who was rab])i from 1833
to ]862 (Kay.serling, "Ludwig Philippson." pp. 47
et seq., Leipsic, 1898). Philippson, in his reminis-
cences, speaks of an old rabbi named Salnie, towhom
he was for a time assistant. Philippson was suc-
ceeded as rabbi by M. Gudemann (1862-66) and



]M. Rahmeu (1869-1904). During Rainncrs illness
Grzymisch was his substitute. A new synagogue
was built in 1850-51. The community lias a bur-
ial association, institutions for the support of inva-
lids, widows, and orphans, various other benevolent
foundations, a Jewish women's society, and a soci-
ety for Jewish history and literature.

BnH.iofiR.\Piiv : Gudemann, Zur Gesch. (Jcr Juden in Ma(i-
ilehiiiy, Breslau, iStJti (= Mniiatsschrift. xiv. 241 et seii.);
StntMix()tes Jahrhuch des Dcutsch-ImacUtiscJien Gemcin-
(lt^u(i(/ci<, 1903, p. 46.

MAGDEBURG LAW (MAGDEBURG
RIGHTS): General name for a system of privi-
leges "securing the administrative independence of
municipalities," which was adoiitetl in many parts
of Germany, Poland, and Bohemia ("Encyc. Brit.").
Usually it was introduced into the Slavic countries at
the instance and for the benefit of the German mer-
chants and artisans, who formed the most important
part of the population of many cities. Jews and
Germans were always competitors in those cities,
and as the Jews lived under special privileges and
were not considered a part of the native popidation,
not only were they excluded from participating in the
benefits of the Magdeburg law, but their condition
usually v.-as rendered worse wherever it was in-
troduced. In Wilna, wiiere the IVIagdeburg law was
granted to the municipality as early as the four-
teenth century, the Jews were expressly excluded
from its benefits, but in the near-by city of Troki the
Jewish communit}' secured from Grand Duke Casi-
mir Jagellon the Magdeburg rights for itself, and in-
dependently of the Christian conununity, which had
received the same rights earlier. This grant, dated
March 27, 1444, gave the Jews of Troki ecpial rights
Avith their Christian neighbors (see Litiuama).

One of the most interesting provisions of the Mag-
deburg law relating to Jews was that a Jew could
not be made "Gewaersmann," that is, he could not
be compelled to tell from whom he acquired any
object which had been sold or pledged to him and
which was found in his possession. Tiiis actually
amounted to permission to buy stolen property.

Bibliography: Bersliadski, Litm-akie Ferrfi. pp. 2:21.234, 241
et xen.: Fuenn, Kirmli yConanah, p. 0, Wilna. ISiid.

11. K. P. ^VI.

MAGEN DAWID ("David's shield"): The
hexagram formed by the combination of two equi-
lateral triangles; used as the symbol of Juda-
ism, It is placed upon synagogues, sacreil vessels,
and the like, and was adopted as a device by the
American Jewish Publication Society in 1873 (see
illustration, Jew. Encvc. i. 520), the Zionist Con-
gress of Basel {ib. ii. 570)— hence by "Die Welt"
(^Vienna), the official organ of Zionism— and by other
bodies. The liebra kiiddisha of the Jewish com-
munity of Johannesburg, South Africa, calls itself
"Hebra Kaddisha zum i^)then Magen David," fol-
lowing the designation of the "red cross" societies.

The Jewish view of God, which permitted no
images of Him, was and still is opposed to the ac-
ceptance of any sym1)ols, and neither the Bible nor
the Talmud recognizes their existence. It is note-
worthy, moreover, that the shield of David is not
mentioned in rabbinical literature. The "Magen
Dawid," therefore, probably did not originate within



Magren
Magrg'id



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



252



Rabbinism, the official and dominant Judaism for
more than 2,000 years. Nevertheless, a David's
shield has recently been noted on a Jewish tomb-
stone at Tarcntum, in souihern Italy, which may
date as early as the third century of the common




A " Magen Dawid" from a " Mizrah."

era (see Herbert M. Adler in "J. Q. R." xiv. 111).
The carlie-st Jewish literary source which mentions
it, the "Eshkol ha-Kofer" of the Karaite Judah
Hadassi (middle of the 12th cent.), says, in ch. 242:
"Seven names of angels precede the mezuzah:
^Michael, Gabriel, etc. . . . Tetragrummaton protect
thee! And likewise the sign called ' David's shield '
is placed beside the name of each angel." It was,
therefore, at this time a sign on amulets.

In the magic pai)yri of auticjuity, pentagrams,

together with stars and other signs, are frequently

found on amulets bearing tiie Jewish

Mag-ic names of God— " Sabaotli," " Adouai,"

Papyri. " Eloai " — and used to guard against
fever and other diseases (Wessely,
"Neue Zauberpapyri," pp. 68, 70, and note). Curi-
ously enough, only the pentaclc appears, not the hex-
agram. In the great magic pajiyrus at Paris and
London there are twenty-two signs side by side, and
a circle with twelve signs, but neither a pentacle nor a
hexagram (Wessely, I.e. pj). 31, 112), although there
is a triangle, perhaps in place of the latter. In the
many illustrations of amulets given by Budge in his
"Egyptian Magic" (London, 1899) not a single pen-
tacle or he.xagram appears. The syncretism of
Hellenistic. Jewish, and Coptic influences did not,
therefore, originate the symbol. It is probable that
it was tiie Cabala tiiat derived the symbol from the
Templars (see Vajda in "Magyar Zsido Szemle,"
xvii. 314 (t Kcq.; German re|irint in (irunwald's
"Mitteilungen der Gesellscjiaft fi'ir Jiidische Volks-
kunde," X. 138 e< se^.). Tlie Cabala, in fact, makes
use of this sign, arranging the Ten Setirot, or
spheres, in it, and placing it on amulets (see illus-
trations, Jew. Encyc. i. 181, 550: iii. 475).

The jientagram. called Solomon's seal, is also
used us a talLsman, and Henry thinks that the Hin-



dus derived it from the Semites ("Magiedaus I'lnde
Antique," p. 93, Paris, 1904), although the name by

no means proves the Jewish or Semitic
Solomon's origin of the sign. The Hindus like-
Seal, wise employed the hexagram as a

means of protection, and as such it
is mentioned in the earliest source, quoted above.
In the synagogues, perhaps, it took the place of the
mezuzah, and the name "shield of David" may
have been given it in virtue of its protective pow-
ers. The hexagram may have been employed origi-
nally also as an architectural ornament on syn-
agogues, as it is, for example, on the cathedrals of
Brandenburg and Stendal, and on the Marktkirche at
Hanover. A pentacle in this form, *, is found on the
ancient synagogue at Tell Hum. CUiarles IV. pre-
scribed for the Jews of Prague, in 1354, a red flag
with both David's shield and Solomon's seal,
while the red flag with which the Jews met King
]\Iatthiasof Hungary in the fifteenth century showed
two pentacles Avith two golden stars (Schwandtner,
"Scriptores Rerum Hungaricarum," ii. 148). The
pentacle, therefore, may also have been used among-
the Jews. It occurs in a manuscript as early as the
year 1073 (facsimile in ^I. Friedmann, "Seder Eliyahu
Rabbah we-Seder Eliyahu Zuta," Vienna, 1901).

BiBLifinRAPiiY: M. (irunwalii, Jnlirh. fVir JUdischc Gesch.
nnd Litcraiur, vol. iv., Berlin, 1901; MittrihnKjrn der
GeseJh<chaft flir JU((i.sc/ic Valkskinide, x. 137-140, Hamburg,
1903; B. Vajda, Zitr Ge.tch. cle^^ DaiiidsschildeK in Mnoiiar
Znxdit Szemle. 1900, xvii. 310-32:i ; Zunz. RiUis, p. 149 I'tlie
()7th Psalm on David's shield in the form of the menorah); D.
Mayer, Der Aberglaube des Mittelalters, p. 237, Basel, 1884.
J. L. B.

MAGGID. See Cabala.

MAGGID : Itinei'ant preacher, skilled as a nar-
rator of stories. A preacher of the more scholarly
sort was called "darshan" and usually occupied the
official position of rabbi. The title of "maggid
mesharim " (="a preacher of uprightness"; ab-
breviated D ?D) probably dates from the sixteenth
century. There always have been two distinct
classes of leaders in Israel — the scholar and rabbi,
and the preacher or maggid. That the popular
prophet was sometimes called "maggid" is main-
tained by those who translate " maggid mishneh"
Zech. ix. 12, by "the maggid repeats" (Lowy,
" Bekoret ha-Talnuid," p. 50). Like the Greek s(»ph-
ists, the early maggidim based their preaching on
questions addressed to them by the multitude. Thus
the Pesikta, the first eollectinn of set speeches, usually
begins Avith "yelammedenu rabbenu " (= "let our
master teach us"). An excellent example is the



Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 63 of 169)