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and Babylonia gave it its divination, while Hellenism
served as the connecting-link.

In view of the authority which the Talmud pos-
sessed for posterity the magic in it could not but in-
fluence later generations. There is no doubt that
the majority of the theurgic and magic elements in
the post-Talmudic literature which Jellinek collected
in his "Bet ha-Midrash," date from Talmudic, and
in part even from pre-Talmudic, times (see Gnosti-
cism). This may be assumed also for the magical
portions of the geonic literature in general, espe-
cially as the Geonim lived and worked in Babylonia.
This ancient magic, blended with Hellenistic and
medieval European elements, was incorporated in
the "practical Cabala." At the close of the Mid-
dle Ages the Cabala influenced the Jewish and
the Christian world alike. The " Nishmat Hayyim "
of Manasseh ben Israel, chief rabbi in Amsterdam in
the seventeenth century, is filled with superstition
and magic, and many Christian scholars were de-
luded. The evil deeply and widely infected the
people, and is still a(;tive, especially among the
Hasidim. See Ai5RAC.\r>ABUA ; Abuaxas; As.mo-
DEUs; Astrology; Asusa; Augury; Balaam; Bib-
i.iomancy; Blessing and Cursing; Cursing;
Death; Folk-Medicine ; Hermes, Books of;
Liver ; Necromancy ; etc.

Bibi.ioorapiiy: Zimmern. nntrUoe zitr KcmUni.'xIer nahy.
loHi.schcn UdUlioii. I.eipsir. IWIO; Blau, Dan AUjadische
Zauhericexen, Stra.slHir>f. 1W)H; Brecher, Do-s T>an)<ce7iden-
tale, Magie, xiud Ma{ii.'<rhe HcilarUnim Talmud, Vienna,
ItaO; Davies. Magic, Divination, and Demonohtfty Among
the. Hfitireivs and Their Nrigtihimrs, London, 1898 (with ex-
tptisivo hihlioerraphv): Ga.ster, Ttie Sword of iLms. ib. 1896;
(JiiilcMiann. (iexch.; .lai-nb, Tm Xamcn Gottes, Berlin. 19();i;
Keitzcnstfin-Poiinandn-s, Studicn zur (Iriechis^ch-Aeqiip-
fiVr/ic/i nnd FrIUirhristlichen Literatur, Leipsic. 1904;
Schiirer. Gc.sr/i. iii. 2^»7-;i()4 (extensive bibliography); Scholz,
Giitzrndienxt nnd /Mnlienin'sen l>fi den Alien Hehrdern
rind den Benachharien Volhern. Ratisbon. 18T7; Moise
Schwab, Un IVi.w Judi-o-Clialdien, in H. K. ./. iv. Itw ; Smith,
Wilvliernft and the Old Testament, in liiliiiotlieea Sacra,
V.Xtl, pp. 26 a5; Zaitlicrei, In Winer, 1{. R.: Mauicr, Mayie,



257



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Mag-ic
Mag-nus



in Herzog-Hauck, Real-Encyc. xii. 55-70; Hastings, Diet.
BihleiJUdischc Magie, in Beiiaqe zur Mllnchener AV(ie-
meinen Zeitung, 1898, No. 38.

J. L. B.

MAGINO, MEIR DI GABRIELE : French
silk-manufacturer; lived at Venice. In 1587 he
went to Rome to promote the manufacture of silk,
which had been begun in that city; and on
June 4 of the same year the monopoly of silk-
manufacture by his improved process was secured
to liim for sixty years, only the sister of the
pope taking a share of the profits. He was also
permitted to live outside the ghetto for lifteen
years. In 1588 Magino printed his Italian lectures
on the uses of silk and on its manufacture, dedi-
cating the book to Pope Sixtus V. In the same
year he received a privilege and patent for polishing
mirrors and cut glass with a vegetable oil which he
had discovered.

Bibliography: Ranke, ROmische Pilpnte, i. 455; Natale Et-
tore, II Ghetto di Riyrna, p. 218; Vogelstein and Rieger.
Gesch. der Juden in Rnm, ii. 180 ct seq. ; Berliner, Gexeh.
der Juden in Rnm, ii. 23.
n. I. E.

MAGISTER JUDiEORUM. See Bishop of
THE Jews; HocHMEieTEU.

MAGISTRATE. See Judge.

MAGISTRATUS, ELIJAH. See Elijah ben
Samuel ben Parnes of Stephanow; Genaz-
ZANO, Elijah Hayyim ben Benjamin of.

MAGNESIA. See Manissa.

MAGNET. See Periodicals.

MAGNUS, EDUARD : German painter ; born
at Berlin Jan. 7, 1799; died there Aug. 8, 1872.
After studying successively medicine, architectuie,
and philosophy, he finally adopted the profession of
painting, attending the Berlin Academy of Fine Arts.
From 1826 to 1829 he traveled in France and Italy,
revisiting the latter country in 1831. In 1850-53 he
again toured through France and also visited Spain.
In 1837 he became a member of the Berlin Academy,
and in 1841 received the title of professor. His gen-
eral culture secured for him considerable influence
in artistic circles. He is best known by his portraits,
of which "Thorwaldsen," "Prince Radziwill as a
Child," "Count Wrangel," " Mendelssohn-Barthol-
dy," "Gustav Magnus," "Countess Arnim," "Ma-
dame Egells," "Henrietta Sontag," "Jenny Lind "
(National Gallery, Berlin), and "E. Mandel " are the
most important. His genre pictures include: "The
Fisher Boy of Nice," "The Returning Greek," "Ital-
ian Women," "Children Playing with Flowers," and
" Italian Landscape " (a very poetic production). In
recognition of his ability he was decorated with
the ribbon of the Order of Michael, the Order of the'
Red Eagle of the fourth class, and several gold
medals.

Bibliography: Seybert, KUnstler-Lexikon ; Meyers Kon-
versations-Liexikon.
s. J. So.

MAGNUS, HEINRICH GUSTAV: German

chemist and physicist; born in Berlin May 2, 1802;
died there April 4, 1870. He was graduated from
the University of Berlin in 1827, afterward studying
a year at Stockholm under Berzelius, and later
spending some time in Paris under Gay-Lussac and
Thenard. In 1831 Magnus began teaching as privat-
VIIL— 17



docent in Berlin; in 1834 he became assistant pro-
fessor of physics and technology in the university
there, and in 1845 was appointed professor. The
physical cabinet of the university was formed by
him. He ceased teaching in Feb., 1869.

The first work published by Magnus was " Ueber
die Selbstentzlindlichkeitdes Fcinzerteilten Eisens "
(1825). While at Stockholm in 1828 he discovered
the compound known as " the green salt of Magnus."
He discovered also sulfovinic, ethionic, and isethi-
onic acids, and (with Ammermiiller) periodic acid;
investigated the diminution in density produced in
garnet and vesuvianite by melting; and studied the
property inherent in the blood of absorbing carbonic
acid and oxygen (founding thereon the theory of the
absorption of the blood). On Dec. 13, 1841, he pub-
lished the results of his experiments upon the co-
efficient of the dilatation of gases (Regnault hav-
ing published his results in the same field on Nov.
25 of the same year) ; in 1860 and 1861 he announced
the results of his experiments on the transmission of
heat through gases by conductibility and radiation,
which led to a long controversy with Tyndall.

He made researches also in magnetic and in ther-
mal electricity, hydraulics, the deflection of project-
iles from firearms, the diathermal power of gases,
the polarization of radiant heat, etc. The results of
his experiments and researches may be found in
Poggendorff's " Annalcn " or in the publications of
the Berlin Academy of Sciences.

Bibliography: Helmholtz, Rede zum Geddchtnis an G.
Magnus, Berlin, 1871 ; Hofmann, Ztir Erinnerung an G.
Magnus, ib. 1871 ; Aus Jac. Berzelius'' und G. Magnus'
Briefwechsel ; A llg. Deutsche Biographic ; Poggendorff,
Biographisch-Literarvtches HandivOrterh. ; Brockhaus
Knnversations-Leriknn; Meyers Kojiversatinns-Lexikon ;
Larousse, Diet.; La Grande Encyclnpedie : Encyc. Brit.;
Appleton's CycJo. of Am. Bing.; Johnson's Encyc.

s. N. D.

MAGNUS, LADY KATIE : English author-
ess and communal worker; born at Portsmouth
May 2, 1844; daughter of E. Emanuel; wife of Sir
Philip Magnus. She has been connected with various
committees of the Berkeley Street Synagogue, has
taken a great interest in the Jews' Deaf and Dumb
Home, and is treasurer of the Jewish Girls' Club.
Lady Magnus has written much on Jewish topics,
beginning with "Little Miriam's Bible Stories" and
"Holiday Stories," as well as two sketches of Jew-
ish history — "About the Jews Since Bible Times"
(London, 1881) and "Outlines of Jewish History " ;
the latter has run into three editions, and has been
republished (with adilitional chapters on America)
by the Jewish Publication Society of America
(Philadelphia, 1900). She has contributed much to
the periodicals, and a collection of her various
papers was published under the title "Salvage"
(1899). Those relating to Jewish topics are included
in her "Jewish Portraits," which has run into a sec-
ond edition (London, 1901). She is also the author
of " First Makers of England," London, 1901.

Bibliography: Jewish Year Book, .5664 (1903-4).

J.

MAGNUS, LAURIE: English author and
publisher; son of Sir Philip Magnus; born in Lon-
don in 1872; educated at Magdalen College, Oxford.
He was the Berlin correspondent of the London
"Morning Post" (1897-98) and leader-writer for the



Magnus
Mahamad



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



258



same paper. He is uow (1904) joint managing di-
rector of George Koutledge <k, Sons, Ltd. Magnus
lias edited a scries of "Secondary Education Tcxt-
liooks " for the publisliing-liousc of John 3Iurray,
has published "A Primer of Wordsworth," trans-
lated the first volume of "Greek Thinkers " (from
the German of Prof. T. Gomperz), and has edited
"Prayers from the Poets" and "Flowers of the
Cave" (in conjunction with Cecil Ileadlam). He
has written " Aspects of the Jewish Question "
(1902), reprinted and enlarged from the "Jewish
Quarterly Review."

Bibliography: Jcu'is/i I'car Coij/,, 1901-2.
J. M. W. L.

MAGNUS, LUDWIG IMMANUEL : Ger-
man mathematician; born in Berlin March 15, 1790;
died there Sept. 25, 1861 ; cousin of Heinrich Gustav
Magnus. His father died when he was young ; and
his mother induced him to enter his uncle's bank ;
after business hours he studied Euclid. In the
Napoleonic wars he was a volunteer in the artil-
lery, being soon promoted to the rank of gunner and
serving from 1813 to 1815. On the conclusion of
peace he again took up the business of banking in
Berlin ; in his leisure hours studying higher mathe-
matics, and teaching that subject in the academy
founded in 1816 by a brother of the sculptor Cauer.
On the removal of the academy to Charlottenburg
(1826) Magnus continued to be one of its regular staff
of teachers; and he held that position until 1834.
when Cauer died. Magnus then abandoned teaching,
and spent the next nine years as head revenue offi-
cer in the recently founded Berliner Kasseuverein,
retiring in 1843 on a competency. Hard work had,
however, broken his health, and he did nothing more
for mathematics. During the latter part of his life he
was an invalid, suffering from a disease of the eyes.

By 1834 Magnus' reputation as a mathematician

had become established, and the University of Bonn

conferred upon him the honorary degree of doctor.

Magnus' mathematical writings appeared in Ger-

gonne's "Annales des Mathematiques," vols. xi.

and xvi. (1820-25); in Crelle's "Journal," vols, v.,

vii., viii., and ix. (1830-32); in the third part (1833)

of Meier Hirsch's "Sammlung Geometrischer Auf-

gaben " ; and in " Sammlung von Aufgaben und Lehr-

sStzen aus der Analytischen Geometric des Raumes"

(published in 1837, but written long before).

BIBLIOGRAPHY : Allg. BeMUche Biographic, xx. 91-92, Lelp-

sic, 1884 ; Poggendorft, Bing.-Literarisch Handw6rterh.
Lelpslc, 1863, .s.v.
s. ' N. D.

MAGNUS, MARKUS: Elder of the Jewish
congregation of Berlin in the first quarter of the
eighteenth century ; court Jew to the crown prince,
afterward King Frederick William I. Tlie Jewish
(.ommunity of Berlin was divided into two hostile
camps by Magnus' quarrels with his rival, Jost
Liebmann. Frederick I. favored the latter, while
the crown prince supported ^Magnus. After the
death of Liebmann his widow and sons continued
these quarrels, which ended in the victory of Mag-
nus. He induced the members of the congregation
to substitute a public synagogue for the two private
synagogues hitlierto maintained by Liebmann, Veit,
and Riess (see Jkw. Excyc. iii'. 70-71, iv. 317).



When the government (March 16, 1722) issued a
new regulation for the administration of the Berlin
Jewish congregation, Magnus and Moses Levi Gum-
pertz were appointed permanent chief elders with a
salary of 300 thalers each.

Bibliography: Geiger, Gexch. dcr Juden in Berlin, i. 19-21,

38, Berlin, 1871 ; (.ratz, OcscIl. x. a)9-310, 350, Leipsic, lsti8.

D. S. Man.

MAGNUS, PAUL WILHELM : German bot-
anist; born at Berlin Feb. 29, 1844; educated at the
Werdergymnasium and the university of his native
city and at the University of Freiburg-im-Breisgau
(Ph.D. Berlin, 1870). He became in 1875 privat-
doceut at his alma mater, where since 1880 he has
occupied the position of assistant professor of bot-
any. He was a member for botany of the Prussian
commission for the exploration of the seas, and as
such took part in the expeditions of 1871 in the
Baltic Sea, of 1872 in the North Sea, and of 1874 on
The Sley. He made reports of these expeditions,
which were published by the government. Magnus
contributed articles on botany to various scientific
journals, and is the author of : " Beitrage zur Kennt-
niss der Gattung Najas," 1870; " JNIorphologie der
Sphacelaricen," 1873; "Pilze des Kantons Grau-
biindten," 1890.

s. F. T. H.

MAGNUS, SIR PHILIP : English education-
ist; born in London Oct. 7, 1842; educated at Uni-
versity College in that city, and at the University of
London (B.A. 1863; B.Sc. 1864). Destined for the
Jewish ministry, he pursued his studies in Berlin
(1865-66). On his return to England he became one
of the ministers of the Berkeley Street Synagogue,
London. At the same time he did much private
teaching, and was professor of mechanics at the
Catholic University. His "Lessons in Elementary
Mechanics" (London, 1874) was for a long time the
standard text-book on the subject. In 1880 he was
appointed secretary of the City and Guilds of Lon-
don Institute for the Advancement of Technical
Education, and in that capacity became the leading
authority on technical education in the United King-
dom. He was a member of a royal commission for
this subject (1881-84), visiting in connection there-
with the chief educational centers of western Eu-
rope. In 1886 he was knighted in recognition of
his services to education. In 1888 he published a
work on "Industrial Education," as one of a series
of text-books on education edited by him. He was
principal of the Finsbury Technical College from
1883 to 1885, and a member of the London School
Board in 1890 and 1891. In 1900 he became fellow
of the senate of London University, and at the pres-
ent time (1904) is connected in an honorary capacity
with many important educational institutions.

Magnus' work at the Guilds Institute caused
him to resign his position in the Jewish ministry ;
but he has retained his interest in many communal
institutions, being vice-president of the Anglo-Jew-
ish Association, president of the Deaf and Dumb
Home, and a representative on the board of deputies
of the Berkeley Street Synagogue, of which he has
been also a warden.
Bibliography; Men and Women o/ the Time. 1894 ; Who's

Who, 1904. J.



259



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Magrnus
Mahamad



MAGOG. Sec Goo and MAcot;.

MAGREPHAH. See :MrsTC.

MAGYAR IZRAELITA. See PEiaoniCAi.s.

MAGYAR ZSID(5 SZEMLE : Hungarian
Jewisli mnullily review ; established iu 1884 by Josef
Siniou, secretary of tlie Jewisii eiiaueery, VVillielni
Baclier, aud Josef Baiioczi, the two latter being pro-
fessors in the " Laudesrabbiuerschule" of Budapest.
Its purpose is to promote tlie scieiititic knowledge
of Judaism, and ut the same time to disseminate in-
formation concerning the social and legal conditions
of the Jews. The editorship was assumed by Ba-
nck'/.i anil Baclier, who retired in 1890 in favor of
L. Blau aud F. Mezey. The latter resigned at the
end of 1895 after the Ungarisch-Israelitischer Littera-
turverein had been founded through the efforts of
the "Magyar Zsido Szemle," which thereafter be-
came a quarterly under the sole editorship of Blau.
Its list of contributors includes Americans as well
as Europeans. It is the tirst and at present (1904)
the only Jewish scientific periodical published in
Hungarian, and has attracted a large number of con-
tributors from among the younger generation.

H. H. L. B.

MAGYAR ZSINAGOGA. See Peuiouicals.

MAH NISHTANNAH (lit. "wherein is dis-
tinguished"): The opening words of the child's
rjuestions to the father in the Passover Haggadah ;
the whole of the domestic service of the Passover is
sometimes, familiarly, so named. The questions are
often chanted in the students' cantillation of the
Talmudical schools; the text thus intoned may be
found in Jew. Encyc. iii. 550.

A. F. L. C.

MAHAMAD (more correctly MA'AMAD
["lOyQ]) ■• The board of directors of a Spanish-Por-
tuguese congregation. The word is of Neo-Hebrew
origin, and iu the Talmud is applied to the repre-
sentatives of the people present at the Temple
service (Ta'an. 15b). The board consisted of four
wardens and a treasurer, and its members were
elected, or, more exactly, cooptated, from the "ye-
hidim "—those who had full rights of membership
in the synagogue. "Whenever a vacancy occurred
between elections, which happened chiefly through
death, the remaining members, with eight ex-mem-
bers, formed an electoral connnittee, and conferred
upon one of their number, by lot, the right to nom-
inate a new colleague from the congregation. If the
assembly approved of the choice, it held good. This
system naturally resulted in a monop-
Rules of oly of the administration of the con-
Election, gregation by a limited number of fam-
ilies. That this oligarchic circle might
not become too narrow, it was decided that no one
could be a member of the mahamad at the same time
as his son, grandson, son-in-law, stepson, brother,
brother-in-law, nephew, or cousin; and, further-
more, in order to insure just decisions, no one under
twenty-five could be elected treasurer of the ma-
hamad, and no one under forty could be warden,
unless he had already served as treasurer. This was
the rule iu the Bevis Marks Synagogue of Lon-



don, and the regulations were practically the same
iu the other Portuguese conununities.

The laws of the mahamad, according to which the
allairs of the synagogue' were administered, were
called Ascamot. Basing its authority (m them, the
mahamad exercised over the niembersof the congre-
gation a despotic control which degenerated into a
sort of police supervision. No member covdd marry
or be divorced without the consent of this board,
nor could one bring a lawsuit against
Despotic a fellow member without first consult-
Rule. ing the mahamad on the subject, ex-
cept in cases where such a delay iu
bringing complaint would cause him injury. Ncr
book, and no treatise of a religious or political na-
ture, in any language whatsoever, could be i)rinted
without the permission of the mahamad. Thus Ha-
ham David Nieto published his " Matteh Dan " "con
licencia de los Senores del Mahamad " (London,
1714), and Isaac Nieto dedicates his sermon on Yom
Kippur "a los muy Ilustres SSrs. del Mahamad, y
por su Orden Impresso " (ih. 1756). In London, for
the greater political security of the congregation,
every one was forbidden by the mahamad to join
parties "which any of the people may form against
the government, the ministry, or the judicial admin-
istration of the kingdom."

In the synagogue, or in the law-court of the ma-
hamad, no one might oppose an order of the ma-
hamad or of the presiding officer who represented
it, or criticize such an order, or write or circulate
writings containing adverse criticisms of actions
taken by it. The haham of the congregation en-
joyed the same protection. No non-Portuguese
Jew might pray in the Portuguese synagogue with-
out the permission of the mahamad, nor might any
one refuse an office or function in the services, or in
the administration of synagogal allairs, which the
mahamad or its president might assign him. Ac-
cording to the ascamot of the Bevis Marks Syna-
gogue of London, any one who did not accept elec-
tion as a member of the mahamad, or who had not
shown his willingness to accept it before the expira-
tion of eight days, was fined £40; if he had been
elected treasurer, he was fined £30. The strict ap-
plication of this rule, in 1813, led Isaac D'Israeli to
sever his connection with the Bevis Marks Syna-
gogue, since he would neither accept the office of
warden nor pay the fine of £40. The board was es-
pecially strict in the observance of the first ascama.
that no one might hold services outside the syna-
gogue, except in a house of mourning during the
first seven days thereof.

The mahamad was very prompt in imposing pen-
alties where its regulations were ignored or vio-
lated, though excommunication, exclusion from the
synagogue for a certain length of time, fines for the
benefit of the poor fund, witiidrawal
Disci- of all "mizwot," forfeiture of the right
plinary to vote, and similar disciplinary meas-
Measures. ures began naturally in the course of
time to lose their desired effect. Oc-
casionally, moreover, the mahamad appealed to tin-
secular authorities to execute its decrees, as in Lon-
don in 1783, when it desired to remove those who.
during the service on Purim, according to ancient



Hahanaixn
Md.hrisb-Ostrau



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



260



custom, beat on the synagogue kettle-druius when-
ever tlie name of Haman was read from the Megil-
lah. At Amsterdam, in the year 1670, the ntaliamad
applied to the magistracy for contirnmtion and sup-
port in tlie execution of its decree that no one might
sever liis connection with the congregation even
when under the strictest excommunication. A con-
fession of repentance made by the delinquent before
God and tlie congregation was sufficient to bring
about a mitigation of the punishment or to secure a
total revocation of the decree of excommunication.

The members of the mahamad were at the same
time members of the tax-commission, and in tliis
capacity were comprised among the '' fintadores "
(see Jew. Encyc. v. 388b, s.v. Finta).

In the Portuguese conmiunities the affairs of the
congregation and of tlie synagogue are still admin-
istered by a mahamad, although the disciplinary
powers granted by the old ascamot have been very
materially curtailed. The regime of the old mahamad
of London is humorously described by Israel Zang-
will in "The King of Schnorrers " (pp. 105 et secj.).

Bibliography: Jew. Chrnn. June 11. 1897, p. 11; M. Gaster,
Historu nf the Ancient Synagogue, passim, London, 1901 ;
J. Picciotto, Sketches of Anglo-Jewish History, Index, ih.
1875.
D. M. Sc.

MAHANAIM : City on the east of the Jordan,
near the River Jabbok; first mentioned as the place
where Jacob, returning from Aram to southern
Canaan, had a vision of angels (Gen. xxxii. 1-2).
This implies that Mahanaim was a sanctuary at a
very early period. In the records in the Book of
Josiiua of the allotments to the tribes Mahanaim is
accounted a part of the inheritance of the tribe of
Grad (.\xi. 38). Apparently it was on the border be-
tween Gad and Manasseh, and it was assigned as a
Levitical city (Josh. xiii. 26, 30; x.vi. 38; comp. I
Chron. vi. 80).

Mahanaim gained a temporary prominence in the
days of the beginnings of the kingdom. It was then
a stronghold, adapted to serve as a refuge for fugi-
tives of importance (II Sam. xviii.24). ToitAbner,
Saul's general, brought Ish-bosheth, Saul's son and
successor (II Sam. ii. 8); during his brief and ill-
starred reign Mahanaim was his capital. To Maha-
naim David fled at the time of Absalom's rebellion
(II Sam. xvii. 24. 27; I Kings ii. 8), and made it his
residence imtil his recall to Jerusalem. Later on it
was the headquarters of one of Solomon's commis-
sjiry officers (I Kings iv. 14). According toMaspero
("The Struggle of the Nations." p. 773), Mahanaim
was among the cities plunder(;d by Shishak during
his invasion (I Kings xiv. 25) of Israeiitish territory.
There is no sub.secjuent ref(;reiice to the city in the
annals. It is not improbable that a vigorous resist-
ance to Shishak or to some other invader brought
al)out its utter demolition. The form of the name
appears to be dual, hence the common rendering
"two companies" or "camps." The narrator of
Jacob's plan (Gen. xx.\ii. 7) for avoiding the lo.ss of
all his property so understood the name. Many
scholars at the present day |)refcr to regard tli<'
termination in tliis cascas theexpansion ofashorter
ending rather tlian as a sign of the dual.

The exact location of M ilianaim is very uncertain,
the Biblical data Iteiug inconclusive. The city was



certainly in northern Gilead and in a situation which



Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 65 of 169)