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commanded an extensive view (II Sam. xviii. 24);
it was approached from the south by way of the
Jordan valley and probably through a wadi that
debouched into it (II Sam. ii. 29). 2Jost explorers
agree in placing it at or near the wadi 'Ajlun.

Bibliography : Conder, Heth and Moab; Merrill, East <>/ the
Jordan ; Van Kasteren, in Z. D. P. V. xiii. 30.5 et seq.: Buhl,
Geographie lies Alten PalUatiua, p. 357 ; G. A. Smith, Hist.
Geog. pp. .T86-.588.
s. F. K. S.

MAHER-SHALAL-HASH-BAZ (^^tj> ino
T3 CJTI = " speeding for booty," "hastening to the
spoil ") : Symbolic name of the son of Isaiah indica-
ting the sudden attack on Damascus and Syria by
the King of Assyria (Isa. viii. 3-4). Isaiah had first
been commanded by God to write it on a large roll
(lb. viii. 1).

E. o. II. M. Sel.

MAHLEB, ARTHUR : Austrian archeologist ;
born in Prague Aug. 1, 1871. After completing
his studies at the gymnasium in Prague, he studied
the history of art and archeology at the universities
of Prague and Vienna (Ph.D.), and in 1902 became
privat-docent in archeology at the German university
at Prague. He has contributed a number of articles to
the " Jahreshef te des Oesterreichischen Archaologi-
schen Institutes " (of which institute he is a corre-
sponding member), the "Revue Archeologique," and
the "Journal d'Archeologie Numlsmatique." He
is the author of "Polykletund Seine Schule: ein
Beitrag zur Gesch. der Griechischen Plastik " (Leip-
sic, 1902). He also delivered a series of lectures at
the American School for Archeology at Rome.

S.

MAHLER, EDUARD : Austrian astronomer ;
born in Cziffer, Hungary, 1857. He was graduated
from the Vienna public school in 1876, and then
studied mathematics and physics at the university
in that city, taking his degree in 1880. From Nov.
1, 1882, till the death of T. Oppolzer (Dec, 1886)
Maiiler shared in the latter's scientific labors. On
June 1, 1885, he was appointed assistant in the royal
Austrian commission on measurement of degrees.

Mahler has devoted himself chiefly to chronology.
In early life he paid considerable attention to an-
cient Oriental history, As.syiiology, and Egypt-
ology, in which subjects he is at present privat-
docent at the University of Budapest. On Sept. 6,
1889, he received the royal gold medal " litteris et
artibus" of Sweden and Norway; and since 1898
he has been an official of the Hungarian National
Museum.

Mahler has imblished: " Ftiiidamentalsittze der
Allgemeinen Flilchentheorie," Vienna, 1881; "As-
tronomische Untersuchung fiber die in der Bibel
Erwiilinte Aegyptische Finsterniss," ih. 1885; "Die
Centralen Sonnentinsternisse," /ft. 1885; "Untersuch-
ung einer iiu Buche Nahum auf den Untergang
Ninive'sBczogenen Finsterniss," ift. 1886; " Hiblische
Chronologic und Zeitrcchnung der HebrSlcr," ib.
1HR7; " Fortsctzting der Wi'istenfeld'schen Ver-
gleichungs-Tabellen der Mohammedanischen und
Christlichen Zeitrcchnung," Leipsic. 1887; "Chro-
noiogische Vcrglcichungs-Tabellen," Vienna, 1889;
"Maimonides' Kiddusch Hachodesch," ib. 1890



261



THE .IE WISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Uahanalm
lllahrish-Ostrau



(translati'd aiul explained); besides many papers
in Hungarian as well as contributions to various
German scientific journals, as "Zeitschrift der Deut-
sclien Morgenlandisclien Gesellschaft," "Sitzungs-
berichte der Kaiserliclieu Akademie der Wissen-
schaften," "Journal Asiatique," "Zeitschrift fi'ir
Assyriologie," "Zeitschrift fi'ir Mathematik und
Physik, " and " Zeitschrift f lir Aegyptische Sprache. "

Bibliography: Eisenberp, Das Geistige Wieii, ii. 321-322.

R. N. D.

MAHLER, GUSTAV: Austrian composer;
born at Kaliscbt, Bohemia, July 7, 1860; studied at
tlie gymnasiums at Iglau and Prague, and entered
the University of Vienna in 1877. He attended also
the conservatoriumin that city, studying pianoforte
with Epstein, and composition and counterpoint
with Bruckner. After conducting theater orchestras
at Hall (Upper Austria), Laibach, and Cassel (where
he directed the grand musical festival as a leave-
taking), he was in 1885 appointed the successor of
Anton Seidl at Prague, where, among other works,
lie conducted Wagner's "Ring der Nibelungen,"
"Meistersiuger," and "Tristan und Isolde," the sym-
phony of Bruckner, and the Ninth Symphony of
Beethoven. From 1886 to 1888 he was kapell-
meister at the Stadttheater in Leipsic, where, in
the absence of Nikisch, he conducted the opera for
six months. During the following years he contrib-
uted, by his splendid ability and skilful management,
to bring about a thorough reorganization of the
Royal Opera at Budapest, to which place he had
been called in 1888. In 1891 he was appointed con-
ductor at the Stadttheater in Hamburg, and held
this position until 1897, when he accepted the posi-
tion of kapellmeister of the Royal Opera, Vienna,
succeeding Wilhelni Jahn as director in October of
the same j'ear. Soon thereafter he was converted to
Christianity.

While generally recognized as one of the greatest
musical leaders of the day, Mahler has, within the
past few years, aroused considerable interest also by
his compositions, among which the following are the
most noteworthy: "Die Drei Pintos," an opera
(Leipsic, 1888); symphony in D major (performed
at Budapest in 1891, and also at the Weimar Music
Festival); two symphonies, C minor (189.5) and F
major (1896); "Humoreske." for orchestra; "Das
Klageixle Lied," for soli, choir, and orchestra; three
books of songs.

BiBLiofiRAPHY : Rieraann, Miisik-Lexikon ; Baljer, Binaraph-
icnl Dirtitniary of Musiciaiiit.
s. J. So.

MAHOMET. See Moham.med.

MAHOZA (snno, i.e., "The City"): Babylonian
city on the Tigris, three parasangs south of Ctesiphon.
Near it was the citadel of Koke ('313T J<"1pX, '^<^X^),
which was regarded as a part of Mahoza. Owing
to its proximity to the royal canal, Nehar Malka, it
was called also " Mahoza Malka " (Maoga-Malcha).
Mahoza existed in the third century (see below) and
seems to have been inhabited solely by Jews, for
one of the amoraim expressed his astonishment at
not seeing a "mezuzah" on the gates of Mahoza
(Yoma 11a). Most of the Jews there were descend-



ants of i)roselyt«s (Kid. 73a, b) and they arc repre-
sented as given over to luxury, on account of which
they were denounced as " children of Hell " (DJn^J 'J3 :
R. H. 17a), as " eireminate " (Shab. 109a), and as
"drunkards" (Ta'an. 26a). The women of Mahoza
had a i)assioii for jewelry, and when Levi b. Sisi
promulgated a halakah permitting women to wear
their jeweled head-dressou Sabbath, eighteen women
of one street alone took advantage of that decision,
while only twenty-four women in the whole city
of Nehardea followed their example (Shab. 33a).
On the other hand, the people of Mahoza were in-
telligent (owing to their drinking the water of the
Tigris; Ber. .591)) and charitable (B. K. 119a).

Mahoza had an academy, seemingly founded about
the middle of the third century by Joseph b. Hama,
Raba's father, who was succeeded by Rabbah
(Sherira, in Neubauer, "M. J. C."i.29). "Theacad-
emj' was most prosperous under Raba, who attracted
thither many students and thereby caused the de-
cline of Abaye's academy at Pumbedita. Thus
Mahoza, after Pumbedita, may with justice be called
the home of the Talmud ; but after Raba's death,
owing to the lack of able successors, the academy of
Mahoza gave way to that of Pumbedita. Mahoza
was destroyed in 363 by the Romans imder Julian
the Apostate, during the war against the Persians.
It was rebuilt, however, and became later the capi-
tal of a small Jewish state governed by the Prince
of the Ca|itivity (the " Resh Gahita "). This Jewish
indejiendencedid not last long, for the Jewish army,
under Mar Zutra, the exilarch, was defeated by
Kobad, King of Persia, and Mar Zutra, with his
grandfather Mar Hanina, was executed on the
bridge of Mahoza (c. 520); the Jews there were
taken captive by Kobad, and the family of the exil-
arch escaped to Judea.

About the middle of the sixth century Chosroes

Nushirvan built in the vicinity of Mahoza a town

on the plan of Antioch; he called it "Autiocheia-

Rumia," but the Arabs called it "Al-Mahoza"

(Gregory Bar Hebrajus, "Ta'rikh al-Duwal," ed.

Pokocke, Arabic text, p. 150). This town also had

a large Jewish population, the greater part of which

was put to death by the Persian general Mebodes

when he captured the town in the beginning of the

seventh century.

Bibi.iography: Fiii-st, Ktdtur- und LitteratMivexcli. dcrjii-
den in AxidU P- 107, I.eipslc, 1849; Griitz. (iescli. -'d ed., iv.
274-275, a51, 37.5; Neubauer, G. T. pp. a56-;«7.

E. c. M. Sei,.

MAHRISH-OSTRAU : Town in Moravia, Aus-
tria. The congregation of Mahrish-Ostrau is one of
the youngest in Moravia, for Jews were not allowed
to settle there until 1792, and it was not until 1848,
when general freedom of residence was granted, that
the congregation began to grow rapidly. It is now
the second largest Jewish congregation in Moravia,
and embraces a number of .smaller neighboring com-
munities, including Oderberg ; it numbers 6,.50O
souls. It became a chartered congregation in 1875
and dedicated its synagogue in 1879 (on which
occasion Chief Rabbi Jellinek officiated). The
first rabbi of the congregation was Dr. B. Zimmcls,
who died in 1893. He was followed, in 1894, by the
present (1904) incumbent, Dr. Jacob Spira. The



Mab2or



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



262



community, since 1871, has supported a parochial
school, which has now 200 pupils.

Among its institutions are the Jewish Women's
Society, the Bikkur Holim (with a membership of
220), and a bet lia-midrash. The community sup-
ports also a number of poor students.
^ D. J- Sr.

MAHZOR (i)lural, Mahzorim) : Term applied
to the compilation of prayers and piyyutim; origi-
nally it designated the astronomical or yearly cycle.
By the Sephardim it was used for a collection
which contains the prayers for the whole year, while
the Ashkenazim employed it exclusively for the
prayer-book containing the festival ritual. The
Mahzor varies with the custom (jnjO) of the coun-
tries or cities in w hich it is used. Among the differ-
ent Euroix-an Mahzorim the oldest is the "Mahzor
Romanrya," known also as "Hazzaniyya shel Ro-
maniya," or " Grigos." It originated in the Byzantine
empire (whence the name " Romaniya "), and differs
from the Ashkenazic in that it contains fewer poet-
ical compositions of Kalir. It was edited by Elijah
ben Benjamin ha-Levi (who enriched it with poet-
ical compositions of his own), and according to Zed-
nerwas published first at Venice, in the printing-office
of Daniel Bomberg, and then at Constantinople (1573-
157G). It i.s divided into two large volumes and con-
tains, besides the prayers for the year and the piyyu-
tim, the Five Scrolls, the Book of Job, the Haggadah
of Passover, the beginnings and endings of the Sab-
batical sections of the Pentateuch, and calendric rules.
From the Byzantine empire the use of piyyutim
was introduced into southern Italy, and thence into
Rome. The Romans adopted some parts of the Mah -
zor Romaniya, discarded others, and added much
that was new, thus forming a new rite known by
the name "Minhag Bene Roma," or
Boman "Minhag Lo'azim," or "Minhag Ital-
Bite. yani." The Roman ritual was widely
disseminated from Rome, and after
1520 the Greek ritual was based upon the Roman
Mahzor, wliich served also as a basis for the rituals
of Corfu and Kaffa. The Roman Mahzor was pub-
lished first at Soncino in 1485. Johanan Treves
wrote a commentary on it under the title " Kimha
de-Alrishona," which was published, together with
the text, at Bologna in 1540. An Italian translation
of the Mahzor was published at Bologna in 1538, at
Vienna in 1823, and at Leghorn in 1837.

The use of piyyutim was introduced into northern
Europe probably from Italy. There, again, the Mah-
zor underwent many changes, and a German (" Ash-
kenazi ") ritual was established which is contained
in the " Mahzor Ashkenaz," the " Mahzor Pehm f Bo-
hemia] wePolin | i'oland]," and the "Minhag Zar-
fat" ( = " French ritual"). Of these the first two only
are now in use. The French ritual was never pub-
lished; it is extant partly in manuscript and partly
in the ritual of the three Italian communities of
Asti, Fassano, and Monealvo, where many French
Jews settled after tli(Mr expulsion from Franci; in
1306 and 1394. The several Mahzorim included in
the Ashkenazic ritual vary in some details, but agree
in essentials. They are distinguished from those of
other rituals in containing numerous piyyutim based
upon the Halakah and I laggadah. The German ritual



Ashke-
nazic Rite.

lish Mahzor,
gether with



Transla-
tions into
German.



is used by the Jews in Germany. Bohemia, Moiaviu,
or Silesia, Prussian Poland .Russia. Auptria. Hungary ,
France, and England. The Ashke-
nazic Mahzor was first published about
1521, the Polish in 1522. Among the
commentaries on the German and Po-
which have often been published to-
the text, are those of: Benjamin ben
Meir ha-Levi of Nuremberg (Tanhausen, 1540), Isaac
ben Jacob Jozebel (entitled "Iladrat Kodesli," Ven-
ice, 1554), an anonymous writer (entitled " Maagle
Zedek," Venice, 15G8), Zebi Hirsch Zundels (Lublin,
1579), Nathan Shapira (Cracow, 1004), Joseph Beza-
leel Kaz Mehokek (Prague, 161G), a second anony-
mous writer (with additions entitled "Sefer ha-Mas-
bir," by Joseph a^^]}, and with glosses and notes
entitled " Masbir he-Hadash," by Moses Kosmann,
Amsterdam, 1667), HirzShatz (Wilhelmsdorf, 1673),
Benjamin Wolf Heidenheim (Rodelheim, 1800),
Uri Feibus ben Aryeh Lob (entitled "Keri'e Mo'ed,"
Breslau, 1805), Moses Israel Biidinger (Metz, 1817),
and Jehiel Michael ha-Levi (entitled " Matteh Lewi,"
Slobuta, 1827).

Translations of parts of the German Mahzor into
the vernacular of the countries in which they wer«
used began to be made as early as the fourteenth
century. In 1571 Abigdor ben Moses published a
Judaeo-German translation of the Mahzor for New-
Year and the Day of Atonement. In
1600 the Judfco-German translation of
the whole Mahzor was published by
Meir Anshel ben Joseph Mordecai of
Posen. A German translation of the
whole Mahzor was first published by Benjamin
Wolf Heidenheim, 1800. He was followed by Prosper
of Alsace (Metz, 1817), Moses ben Israel Landau
(Prague, 1834), Moritz Frenkel (Berlin, 1838-40),
I. N. Mannheimer (Vienna, 1840), Moses Pappen-
heimer and Jeremiah Pleinemann (Berlin, 1840-41),
Raphael Jacob Furstenthal (Krotoschin, 1845), Meir
ha-Levi Letteris (Prague, 1845), and Michael Sachs
(Berlin, 1855). A French translation of the whole
Mahzor was published by Elhanan Durlacher (Paris.
1852).

The first attempt to render the Mahzor into Eng-
lish was made by A. Alexander, who in 1787 pub-
lished the piyyutim for the eve of the Day of Atone-
ment, and in 1789 the whole service for New -Year.
In 1794 David Levi published an Englisli version
of the services for New- Year, the Day of Atonement,
and the feasts of Tabernacles and Pentecost, and thir-
teen years later gave a new version of the whole
Mahzor. In 1860 a new English version was pub-
lished by David Aaron de Sola. A Dutch transla-
tion of the entire Mahzor was published by Gabriel
Isaac Pollack in 1841. The services for New-Year
and the Day of Atonement were rendered into Rus-
.sian by Rabbi Hurwitz after 1880.

Spain, in the Middle Ages the home of Jewish

poetry, could hardly be satisfied with the piyyutim

of Kalir, which had been introduced

In Spain, cither from Babylonia with the "Sid-

dur" of R. Amram Gaon, or from

Italy. These, therefore, were replaced by new jiiy-

yutira composed by Spanish poets, as Joseph ben

Abitur, Solomon Gabirol, Isaac Ghayyat, Judah ha-



•L-^ii-rSiiBlr V. . i^'^



I.



■ ' Q^ j^-'s^^sj^ a^?•i?^ • n^3?^33r*^->l^? ^"^'^"^ ' ^'T''^- ^'^ r'^P'"'




r.^ •*>'£=■-



!



PAGE FROM A FOLIO MANaSCRU'T MAHZOK OK THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY.
(From the Sulzberger collectioa in the Jewish Theological Seminary of America. New York.)



■■r-i



Mai
Maimon



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



264



Levi, and Abiahaiu and Moses ibn Ezra. Indeed, the
number of piyyutim composed by Spanish poets
was so great tiiat almost every Spanish city had its
own ritual. After the Spanish exile the same ritual
was adopted by all the Sephardim with the exception
of the Catalonian and Aragonian congregations of
Salonica, which still use their old Mahzor lor New-
Year and the Day of Atonement.

The Mahzor of the Sephardic ritual was lirst pub-
lished at Venice in 1614. As representing distinct
branches of the Sephardic ritual may be regarded : the
Tripoli Mahzor for New -Y'ear and the Day of Atone-
ment (published tirst at Venice in 1648,under tlie title
"Sifte Renanot"); the Mahzor of Tunis (published
at Pisa) ; the Mahzor of Algiers (" Minhag Algaza'ir, "
published first at Amsterdam in 1685); and themah-
zorim of Provence and Languedoc, four of which
are still extant — those of Avignon, Carpentras,
Cavailion, and Montpellier. Many piyyutim of the
Sephardim Avere incorporated into the Mahzor of
northern France, and some of them entered the Ger-
man Mahzor. Parts of the Spanish Mahzor, like
the " 'Abodah " of Joseph ben Abitur, the '" Azharot "
of Solomon ibn Gabirol, and various poems by Isaac
ibn Ghayyat, were annotated by Jacob Anatoli,
Moses ibn Tibbon, Isaac ben Todros, Simon Duran,
and by others. Jacob Tam compiled a mahzor
modeled upon the Spanish .Mahzor, and many litur-
gical poems of Spain are found in the Mahzor Vitry,
compiled by Simhah ben Samuel of Vitry, pupil of
Kashi.

The Spanisli ^Mahzor exerted an intiuence upon
the Karaite ritual. Several rabbinical poems of
Spanish origin were introduced into the Karaite
service before it was arranged by Aaron ben Joseph.
See Liturgy; Poethy; Siduuh.

BiBiJOGRAPHY : Luzzatto, Meho; idem, in Kerem Heineit, iv.
•£\a. : Zunz, Ritus, Berlin, 18.')9; i((t');i, in AUg. Zeit. desJiul.
ia38, pp. 580 et xeq.: Steinschneider, Jewish Literature, pp.
164 ct acq.; Benjacoti, Ozar ha-Sefaritn, s.v. mtno.
.1. I. Bh.

MAI, JOHANN HEINRICH (the elder):
German Protestant tiieologian ; Ijorn in Pforzheim
Feb., 1653; (lied in Giessen Sept., 1719. In 1689 he
became professor in the University of Giessen. Be-
sides various Biblical exegetical works he wrote:
"Synopsis Theologiie Judaictc " (Giessen, 1698);
"Exercitatio . . . de Jure Anni Septimi " (ed. by
his son, ib. 1707, and later printed along with Mai-
monides' tract on the subject); " Granunalica Kab-
binica"(/6. 1710). His son J. H. Mai (the younger ;
b. Marcli, 1688; d. June, 1732) was made professor
of Greek and Oriental languages in the University
of Giessen in 1709; lie i)ublisiied, among other
things: *' Dissertalio . . . de Origine, Vita At(pic
Scriptis D. Isaac Abarbanielis" (Altdorf, 1708);
" D. Isaaci Abarbanielis Preco Salutis in Ling.
Latin. Translatus" (Frankfort-on-tlie-Main, 1712).

Ilullt- and I-eipsic, I7:«);



Bini.io(iRAPiiY : U)iircrsal-L(\rUiiii
J(k-her's Gelehrleii-Le.riri>ti.



T.



MAI, JOSEPH BEN MICHAEL : German
printer; born at Dyhernfurth Dec. 29, 1764; died
at Breslau Dec. 1. 1810. Ilis father had a printing
establishment at Dyhernfurth, to wliich Joseph and
his brother succeeded. Mai was a Talnuulic scholar
and wrote jirefaces to the works of his fatlier-in-



law, Isaiah Berlin, rabbi of Breslau. He wrote also,
in collaboration with his brother, notes to the four
Turim (Dyhernfurth, 1790).

BiBLiociUAPHY : Berliner, L'nfihi Jcsaja Berli)i, p. Ki; Fuenn.
Kcnetfct Yisract, p. i8~ ; Lowenstauim, Mif:j)ad Mar, Bres-
lau, lKi3.

J. B. Fu.

MAIER, JOSEPH VON: German rabbi ; born
in 1797; died at Stuttgart Aug. 19, 1873. He was
president of the first rabbinical conference held at
Brunswick in 1844, and he was also a member of the
Jewish Consistory of AVlirttemberg. In recognition
of his many philanthropic activities and of his par-
ticipation in all the spiritual movements of the day
he was ennobled by the King of Wlirttemberg. This
gave him the distinction of being the first German
rabbi belonging to the nobility ("Allg. Zeit. des
Jud." 1873, p. 585).

s. I. Wak.

MAIMING. See Mayhem.

MAIMON (MAIMUN) BEN JOSEPH:

Spanish exegele and moralist; born about 1110;
father of Moses Maimonides. He studied under
Joseph ibn Migash at Lucena, and became a day-
yan. He was the author of a commentary, in Ara-
bic, on the Pentateuch, fragments of which arc
(juoted by his grandson Abraham. Maimon wrote
in Arabic ai.'^o on the "dinim" concerning the rit-
ual and the festivals. It is, possibly, from this
source that Maimonides quotes in his commentary
on the Mishnah (Bek. viii. 7; "Eduy. i. 3, iv. 7; and
Sheb. vi. 7) and in his " Y'ad " (Shehitah, xi. 10).
His only extant work, however, is a letter of conso-
lation which has been identified with the " Iggeret
ha-Shemad " attributed to Ids son; the Arabic text
was edited and translated by L. j\I. Simmons ("J.
Q. R." ii. 66-101). It was written in the year 1160,
while Maimon and his son Moses were at Fez.
They left Fez in 1165 and arrived at Jerusalem on
Oct. 13 in that year (see Moses ben Maimon).

Bibliography: L. M. Simmons, in J. Q. R. ii. f>2-fi4; Stein-
sflmeider, Helir. Bilil. \\i\. 114; idem. Die Ar(it>isclie Li-
ti rdtur iter Jiidrii.

J.

MAIMON, MOISEI LEIBOVICH : Russian
painter; born at Wilkowiszk, government of Su-
walki, Russian Poland, Feb. 4, 1860. After attend-
ing the schools of ])ainting in Warsaw and Wilnahe
entered, in 1880, the Academy of Fine Arts at St.
Petersburg; in 1881 he was awarded a silver medal
for a painting fiom life, and in 1883 was graduated.
At the exhibitions of the academy in 1884 and 1885
he was again awarded silver medals. In 1885 and
1886 ]\Iaimon executed portraits of the daughter of
General Minkevitz and of the son of Baron Uugern
von Sternberg. In October of the latter jear he
was awarded a gold medal by the academy for his
"St. Irene Cures St. Sebastian," and for his "Ivan
the Terrible Taking Orders Before His Death from
the Metropolitan" the title of "Artist of the First
Degree " was conferred upon liim. He painted many
portraits, among them those of the czar, czaiina,
the three i)rinces, and Prof. Daniel Chwolson (1900;
St. Petersburg Artists' Exhibition). His paintings
include: "The House-Cleaner," "The Wagons at
the Market -Place." "An Applicant," and "The Poll-




._.



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dHti XT^xp t<in rtrNi oVipn ^niaj nHu -^j; fi<n n;:}N ^ w f i^n^N f >nr^ '
a':; iix U7|3 7:);^ •niprj ^;7 "]pu r-w u'lp s^ri dVij?S 6<Tt nm nn oSj73 nth nnt<

i'i5Dni^];3 prjj; r(tVDmnt ir3K ntt;pn npi^ np^* W3^mrnifc< cr3i'Vj;3 -^'t
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'^:iv-3 '^'Txrt tjy hi? n^rtf^hi uvh n^m]mpp3nt<^ ■'lap^ rpi 05;^n «<^5s .vtt



Page from the First Edition of the Mahzor, Soncino, 1485.

(From the Sulzberger collection in the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, Ne«r York.)



Maimou



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



266



ticians" (exhibited 1889 and 1891; these lepveseut
cliiefly peasant types); "He Lost His Way," "Au
Old Man," "A Girl's Head," and "The Fishers"
("Blanc et Noir" exhibition of 1891); "A Corner in
the Theater," " In the Kitchen," " Buying Groceries,"
and "Kepairiug His Property " (academy exhibition
of 1892); "A Cheap Restaurant" (St. Petersburg
Art Exhibition of 1892); "The ]\Iaraiios" (1893;
Academy of Fine Arts); "The INIushroom-Seller,"
"A Girl Student," and "The Peasant Elder" (St.
"Petersburg Artists' Exliibition of 1894); "The Invi-
tation," "The Broken Heart" (1895); "A Prayer in
the Woods," "The Bouquet Fading Away," "The
Southern Girl," "The Servant-Girl," "An Old Man "
(1896); "A Woman's Head " (St. Petersburg Exhi-
bition, 1899, held in the palace of Baron Shtiglitz).

Maimon attained also considerable success in car-
icature. In 1900 he pnbli.shed two albums, one con-
taining ten portraits of women, and the other ten
portraits of men, all of persons mentioned in the
Bible ; some of these were copies from works of the
great masters.

"The Maranos" represents a Passover night in a
ricii Marano home. The family is seated at the
table, at the head of which an old man, clothed in



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