Isidore Singer.

The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) online

. (page 69 of 169)
Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 69 of 169)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

sion "ki yuttan." Ch. vi. 4-8 enumerates the mash-
kin which render loose fruit liable to Levitical un-
cleanness through contact with defiling objects. Ac-
cording to the Rabbis, the term " mashkin " covers
seven kinds of liquid: dew, water, wine, oil, blood,
milk, and honey (see Tosef., Shab. viii. [ix.] 24-
28, where Scriptural phraseology is adduced to
prove the connotation of "mashkeh"). "Water"
includes discharges of the eye. ear, and other organs.
There is no Gemara, Yerushalmi or Babli, to this
s. s. S. M.

MALABAR. See CocniN.

MALACH, HATYIM. See H.vyyim Mal'ak,




MALACHI, BOOK OF.— Biblical Data : The

Book of Malachi is the last iu the cauon of the Old
Testament Prophets. It has three chapters in the
Masoretic text, while in the Scptuagiut, tiie Vul-
gate, and the Peshitta it has four. The King James
Version also, following the latter versions, has four
chapters. As in the books of Isaiah, Lamentations,
and Ecclesiastes, the last verse iu the Masoretic text
is a repetition of the last verse but one. The style
of the book is more prosaic than that of any of the
other prophetical books; the parallelism met witli in
the others is here less pronounced, and the imagery
often lacks force and beauty. The metliod of treat-
ment is rather novel; it approaches the teaching
method of the schools; Cornill speaks of it as "casu-
istic-dialectic." Thus the prophet lirst states his
proposition; then he follows with remonstrances
that might be raised by those he addresses ; finally
he reasserts his original thesis (comp. i. 2 et seq., 6 et
seq. ; ii. 13 etseq., 17; iii. 8, 13 et seq.). This form
adds vividness to the argument. The book may be
divided into three sections — (1) i. 1-ii. 9; (2) ii. 10-
17; (3) iii. (A. V. iii. and iv.), the divisions given
being of the Masoretic text.

Ch. i. 2-ii. 9 represent Yiiwn as Ruler and loving
Fatlier. It opens with a tender allusion to the love
shown by Yhwh to Judah iu the past; yet Judah
acted faithlessly, deserting its benefactor. Malachi
then addresses himself to the priests,
Contents, those who are to lead the people in the
way of Yiiwii. He castigates them
for being derelict in their duty by offering on
Yinvii's altars polluted bread and animals that have
blemishes. By doing so they show that they de-
spise YiiwFi (i. 6-10). But YiiwH can do without
their worship, for the time will come when the
whole heathen world will worship Him (i. 11-14).
If the priests will not heed the admonition, dire
punishment will be visited upon them (ii. 1-8).

Ch. ii. 10-17 speaks of Yhwii as the supreme God
and Father of all, and inveighs against those who
had left their Jewish wives and married heathen

Ch. iii. (A. V. iii. and iv.) speaks of Yhwh as the
righteous and final Judge. It begins with the an-
nouncement that the messenger of Yhwh will come
to prepare the way for Him by purifying the social
and religious life (1-4). Yhwh will call to judg-
ment all those who have tninsgressed the moral law
and have been lax in the observance of the ritual ;
He invites all who have gone astray to return to
Him and receive His blessings (5-15). The faithful
will be blessed, while those who persist in disobey-
ing the law of God will be pimished (lG-21). The
book with a final exhortation to the godly.

Malachi, as opposed to the other prophetical

books, lays much stress ui)on ceremonial observance

(i. 6 et seq., 13 et seq. ; iii. 7 et seq., 22): the priest is

Yhwh's messenger (ii. 7, iii. 3 et seq.), and the law

of Mo-ses, with its statutes and observances, must be

strictly observed (iii. 22). Yet he is

Prophetic not a formalist; the book breathes the

Tone. genuine prophetic spirit. Thus, from

the idea of the brotherhood of all

Israelites he deduces the social duties which lliey

owe to one another (ii. 10). Ceremonial observance

is of value in liis eyes onlj' so long as it leads to
spiritual service. In scathing language he lays
bare the moral degeneracy of his time, a time given
over to adultery, false swearing, oppression of the
hireling and the widow and the fatherless (iii. 5
etseq.). Especially severe is he toward those wlio
had entered into wedlock with heathen women (ii.

The conditions that existed under his predecessors
Haggai and Zechariah seem to have existed at the
time of Malachi. The Exile is a matter of the past;
the Temple is built, and sacrifices are being offered
(i. 10, iii. 1-10). Malachi describes most faithfully
the temper of his generation. The people had
strayed away from Yhwh, and sought, by an as-
sumption of indifference and by mockery, to hide
their restlessness. The exiles had been disillusioned
when thej"^ found the land of their fathers a wilder-
ness. Drought, locusts, failure of harvests (iii. 10
et seq.) had deepened their discontent. Yhwh's
sanctuary had been rebuilt, but still their condition
did not improve; the/ were growing impatient and
were asking for proofs of Yhwh's love (iii. 13 et
seq.). Under the pressure of these unfavorable cir-
cumstances, priests and people neglected to show
Yhwh the honor due to Him (i. 2 et seq.). Malachi
lays stress upon the inevitableness of the Day of
Judgment, the coming of which would prove to the
skeptical that devotion and fear of God are not in
vain, but will be rewarded. The messenger of
Yhwh and the Last Judgment form the closing
theme of Malachi 's prophecy. The messenger will
come in the person of Elijah, who will regenerate
the people and restore them to union with Yhwh.
In Rabbinical Literature : Malachi is iden-
tified with Mordecai by Ii. Nahman and with Ezra
by Joshua b. Karha (Meg. 15a). Jerome, in his
preface to the commentary on Malachi, mentions
that in his day the belief was current that Malachi
was identical with Ezra ("Malachi Hebran Esdram
Existimant "). The Targum of Jonathan ben Uzziel
to the words "By the liand of Malachi" (i. 1) gives
the gloss " Whose name is called Ezra the scribe."
According to Sotah 48b, when Malachi died the
Holy Spirit departed from Israel. According to R.
H. 19b, he was one of the I luce prophets concerning
whom there are certain traditions with regard to the
fixing of the Jewish almanac. A tradition preserved
in pseudo-Epiplianius ("De Vitis Proph.") relates
that Malachi was of the tribe of Zebukin, and was
born after the Captivity. According to the same
apocryphal story he died young, and was buried in
his own country with his fathers.

Critical View : The name ""SN^D is not a

" nomen propriuin " ; it is generally assumed to be an
abbreviation of ri'3Ni?f:J (= "messenger of Yhwh ''),
which conforms to the Ma'/.a xt"( of the Septuagint
and the "Malachias" of the Vulgate. The Septua-
gint superscription is t:v x>^'pi a.y-/ilov nirov, for T^
'DxijO- Wellhausen, Kuenen, and Nowack consider
ch. i. 1 a late addition, pointing to Zcch. ix. 1,
xii. 1. Cornill states that Zech. ix.-xiv. and Malachi
are anonymous, and were, therefore, placed at the
end of the prophetical books. i\Ial. iii. 1 shows al-
most coiiclusivelv that the term '3X^O ^vas misun-
derstood, and that the proper name originated in a




misconception of the word. The consensus of opin-
ion seems to point to 432-424 B.C. as the time of
the composition of the book. This was the time
between the tirst and second visits of Nehemiah to
Jerusalem. Some assert that the book was written
before 458 B.C., that is, before the arrival of Ezra in

Bibliography : Boehme, in Stade's Zeitschrift, vti. 210 et seq.;
Driver, Introduction: T>. Kuobel, Prophetismus dcr He-
t)raei\ L 38G, Breslaii, 18:57 ; Bleek, Introduction to the Old
Testament, »'d ed., i. 357; CovnilU Einleitimg in da^s Alte
Testament, pp. 2U'> et .^cq.. Freiburg, 1896; Cornill, The
PropheUi of Israel, p. 158, Ctiicago, 1895.

s. A. G.



inent Talmudistaud methodologistof the eighteenth
century; tlie last of the great rabbinical authorities
of Italy ; died before 1790. He was dayyan at Leg-
horn, and apparently lived to an old age. A deci-
sion by him, dated Nisan, 1732, and referring to a
civil case at Rome, is included in the responsa of
Rabbi Isaiah Bassani of Reggio ("Todat Shelamim,"
No. 11, Venice, 1741). In the controversy between
Eybescliutz and Emden he sided with the former
(letter of the rabbinate of Leghorn in "Luhot 'Edut,"
p. 22). He is especially famous for his " Yad Mal-
'aki" (Leghorn, 1767; Berlin, 185G; Przemysl, 1877),
a methodological work in three parts: part one con-
tains an alphabetical list of all the rules and tech-
nical terms found in tlieTulmud, with explanations;
part two deals with rules regarding the codifiers;
part three treats of the rules relating to legal deci-
sions, explaining certain general principles of legal
responsa. Malachi wrote also a liturgical work,
"Shibhe Todah" (Leghorn, 1744), containing prayers
for the 22(1 of Shebat, a fast-day instituted by the
coininunity of Leghorn.

BiBi.iodUAPiiv: Azulai, .'^/icoi lia-Ordoliiii. i. ti:?; Steinschnei-
der. Cat. liodl. col. 1044.
s, s. J. Z. L.

MALAGA (uphrD, nrhii"^, T^pubuD) : Spanish
Meilitcrrancan seaport; caintal of the i)rovince of
Malaga ; said to have been founded by the Phenicians.
Malaga was an important ]ilace of commerce in the
time of the Romans and had Jewish inhabitants at a
very early date. During the Mooiish supremacy the
Jews there enjoyed complete equality and, espe-
cially in the time of Samuel ibn Nagdelah, w( le
even held in high esteem, although under the Al-
mohades they shared tiie sufferings of their brethren
in the rest of Spain. The sources of information
are very scanty concerning tiu; Jewish commu-
nity of Malaga, which, although not so large as
tiiose of Seville, Cordova, and (Jranada, was still of
some importance. \Vlicn the city was taken by the
Siianish, Aug. 18, 14K7, the Jews fiom Seville and
Cordova, who liad been baptized by force and had
sought protection in .Malaga from the persecutions
of the Luiuisition, were cruelly tortured and killed.
All the .Malaga Jews, 4(t() to 450 in luimber, mostly
women wlio spoke Arabic and dressed like Moorish
women, were taken captive and condemned to sla-
very with the remainder of the iidiabitants. The
3'oung Solomon ibn Verga was sent tn the Spanish
<-oinmunities to colled money for their ransom, and

succeeded in raising 20,000 gold doubloons. With
this sum, added to the money and jewels the cap-
tives theuLselves possessed, they were redeemed and
sent to Africa in two sailing vessels by the chief
tax-collector Don Abraham Senior, who had be-
come a Christian and who, probably because of his
change of faith, is not mentioned by the contempo-
rary Jewish chroniclers. After the year 1492 Jews
were no longer allowed to live in Malaga, though
Maranos were still found there in the eighteenth
century. Malaga is the birthplace of Solomon ibn
Gabirol, and there lived Isaac ha-Levi ibn Hakam
ha-Sofer (a contemporary of Isaac b. Sheshet),
Judah and Moses Alashkar, and others.

Bibliography: Bernaldez, Cronica de log Renes Catolicns,
eh. Ixxxvi. et seq.; Gratz, Gescli. viii. 348 ; Zaeuto, Sefer Yu-
hasin, p. 327a; Rios, Hist. iii. 299; Sliehet Yeliudah, p. 1U8.
G. ■ M. K.

MICHAEL : Russian rabbi, preacher, and Hebra-
ist; born at Yolochisk, Volhynia, in 1809; died at
Kiev Sept. 18, 1879. The name "Malbim" is de-
rived from the initials of his name (C^PO), and be-
came his family name by frequent usage. Malbim
was educated in Hebrew and Talmud by his father
and by his stepfather (R. Lob of Yolochisk). He
showed unusual talent from his early childhood, and
his works indicate that
he had a considerable
knowledge of secuhir
sciences. From 1838
to 1845 he was rabbi of
Wreschen, district of
Posen, and in the lat-
ter year was called to
the rabbinate of Kem-
pen, where he remained
until 1860 ; he was
thereafter known as
"der Kempener." In
1860 Malbim became
chief rabbi of Bucha-
rest, Rumania. But he
could not agree with
the rich German Jews
there ; they wished to
introduce the Re-
formed rite, and did

not shrink even from violence m the pursuit of their
aims. By intrigues they succeeded in tlirt)wing him
into prison, and though he was liberated through
the interv<!ntion of Sir JMoses ^Montefiore, it was
upon the condition that he leave Rumania.

^Iali)im went to Constantino]ile and cuniplained
to the Turkish government, but dlilaiiied no satis-
faction. After staying si.\ months in Paris, he went
to Leiicziza, government of Kalisz. Russian Poland,
as successor to his deceased tutiier-in-hiw, Ilayyim
.Vuerbach (1H6fl). Shortly after he was rabbi at
Kherson, and thence was calletl to the rabbinate
of .Aloghilcf, on the Dnieper (1870). There, too, his
lack of sul)servience provoked the resentment of the
richer Jews ; these denounced him as a political crimi-
nal, anil the governor of IMoghilef ordered him to
leave the town. Malbim then went to Kiuiigsberg as
chief rabbi of the Polish commuiiitv. but there he

Meir L(>h Malbim.




fared no belter thau in Bueliarest and ^logliilef ;
be was continually liarassed by the German Jews.
When Malbini passed through Wilna in 1879 the
community there would have appointed him rabbi
in place of Isaac Elijah Landau, but the governor
of Wilna opposed the election on the ground tiiat
he could not sanction the appointment of a rabbi who
had been expelled from Moghilef as a political crimi-
nal. In September of the same year Malbim was on
his way to Krementchug, to the rabbinate of which
town he had been appointed, when he fell sick and
died at Kiev.

Malbim was the author of: " Arzot ha-Hayyim."
commentary and novell* on tiie Shulhan 'Aridc,
Urah Hayyim (Bresiau, 1837); "Arzot haShalom,"
collection of sermons (Krotoschin, 1839); " Ha-
Torah weha -Mizwah," commentary on the Penta-
teuch and Sifra (Warsaw, 1874-80); "Mikra'e Ko-
desh," commentary on the Prophets and Hagiographa
{ib. 1874; this commentary is double — on the words
and on the sense; Malbim always endeavored to ex-
plain the different meanings of synonyms); "^Mashal
u-;Melizah," dramatic philippic, in verse, against
hypocrisy (Paris, 1867).

Bibliography: Brr Israelif, 1879, p. 1079; S. Sachs, in Ha-
Lchaiion, ii. 92 ct wq., 106 ct scq.
n. K. M. bEi,.

MALCHA : Russian town, in the government of
G rod no. A Jewish community existed in jMalcha
in 1583, when, in consequence of rumors current as
to the killing of a Christian laborer by the Jews, the
kahal of Malcha invited the constable of the district
of Brest, Alexander Shavlovski, to visit Malcha
and investigate the matter. No evidence being
found to justify the rumor, the Jews made a formal
protest against the spreading of the accusation. It
has a total population (1903) of about 3,000, half of
whom are Jews. Of the latter, 291 are artisans.
In the hadarim 90 Jewish children are instructed,
and in the two Talmud Torahs, 40. The charitable
organizations consist of a bikkur holim, a gemilut
hasadim, etc.
Bibliography : Rcgcgtij i Xadpi^i. p. :58:i, St. Petersburg, 1899.

H. K. S. J.

MALCHIN. See Meckleniu'rg.

ET) : Hellenistic wiiter of the second century u.c.
His Semitic name, "Malchus," a very common one
in Phenicia and Syria but not met with among the
Jews, combined with the pagan traditions abounding
in his work, has given rise to discussions concerning
liis origin. Ewald supposes him to have been a
Phenician; Ilerzfeld, a Syrian; Freudentlial en-
deavors to prove tliat he was a Samaritan ; and
Schiirer holds tiiat he must have been either a Jew
or a Samaritan.

Cleodemus was the autlior of a history of the
Jews In Greek, in which Jewish traditions are
blended with Greek mythology. A short notice of
this history, which is no longer in existence, is
quoted by Josephus C' Ant." i. 15) from Alexander
PolyhistoV. Cleodemus relates that among the sons
of Abraham and Keturah were three, Apher, Surim,
and Japhran ('A<ifp«i', 'Affofpf///, 'Jacipav), from
whom the town of Aphra, the land of Assyria, and

Africa derived their names. He relates further that

these three sons helped Hercules in iiis tight against

Libya and Antteus, and that Hercules married tha

(laughter of Aphra, by whom he had a son, Didorus,

from whose son Sophon the Sophacians derived their


Bibliography: Ewald, Gt>c7i. vii. 91: HerzfeUi, Gesc?i. des
Volkcn Isiacl. ill. 49t<, 575; Freiiilentlial. Al>\ran<ler PtiU.i-
}iixt(»\ p. 130 ct pcDisiin ; Scliiirer, Gvscli. iii. :i57 (Eng. traiisl
ii. iii. 209).
T. I. Br.

DE : " Almoxarif mayor " ; chief fai'mer of taxes ol
King Ferdinand III. (the Holy) of Castile, whose
favor he gained through his honesty and zeal in the
interest of the state. Don .Mcir, who was versed ia
the Talmud and was held in high esteem by his co-
religionists, is called by ]\Ioses ben Nahman "the
great prince, the learned Don aSIei'r Almoxarif." Fer-
dinand's son and successor, Alfonso X. (the Wise),
whose linances, in conseijuence of the troubled con-
dition of the state, were in great confusion, em-
ployed, after the death of Don ^Meir, his sons Don
Zag (Isaac) and Don Juzef, who inherited the influ-
ence and position of their father, to remove the
financial difficulties. AVhen Alfonso desired to sub-
due his vassal Aben Nathfot de Niebla, Don Zag
undertook the provisioning and administration of
the entire army, being given as security the lease
of all the customs duties and taxes.

Don Zag remained the only lessee of taxes until
1276, when he met competitors in the persons of his
brother-in-law Don Aljiaham ibn Xuxen (Shushan)
and one Boy Fernandez of Sahagum, and was com-
pelled to enter into partnersiiip with them. For
two years these three paid the king an annual rent
of 80,000 gold maravedis. Don Zag, who possessed
the complete contidence of the king, took, with his
brother Don Juzef, in addition to the lease of the
taxes, that of the flnes, most of which were concerned
with conunerce and customs, and the officials of the
king were placed at their disposal to recover such
lines. They certainly rendered in this capacity great
services to the state, but they nevertheless incurred
in no small measure the anger of the population.

Don Zag, who was exceedingly wealthy, fell sud-
denly, through the following incident, from the
height upon which he stood: Wlien King Alfonso
undertook the siege of the city of Algeziras, he or-
dered the almoxarif to employ in victualing the army
the large sum which lie had collected as tax-lessee.
Just then Don Zag was accidentally met by the in-
fante, Don Sancho, wlio was in contlict with iiis royal
father, and the infante succeeded in taking the
money from Don Zag under the jiretext that he
wished to send it to liis mother. Donna Violante,
living in separation from the king. The king, ex-
ceedingly enraged, ordered Don Zag and tiie other
Jewish tiix-lessees to be thrown into dark dungeons.
When the infante returned to Seville from his victo-
rious campaign against the .Aloors, in the autumn of
1280, the king had the unfortunate Don Zag dragged
through the city and executed in the presence of the
infante. The infante had endeavored to relieve the
almoxarif, who was suffering on his account and
who had rendered such valuable services to the state,
but all his endeavors proved futile. One 9-abbath




shortly after, when all the Jews of Castile and Leou

were in their synagogues, they were seized by order

<if Alfonso, who demanded 13,000 gold maravedis,

and imposed a fine of another 13,000 for every day

t)f delay. The deposition of Alfonso, which took

place several years later, stands in no relation to the

execution of Don Zag.

Bibliography : Zuniga, AnaTes de Sevilla, 1. 297, 318 ; Mar-
ques deMondej a r, 3fe mo rias Hintoricas del Rey Sahio, pp.
297, 367 ; Moses b. Nahman, Respoma, Nos. 284. 323 ; Uios,
Hist. i. 488 et xeq.; Grktz, Ge^ch. vi. ItK ; Kayserling, Gcsch.
<ier Jiidcn in Spaniev, i. 118, 218.
o. M. K.

soldier ; born at Bombay about 1830. He enlisted in
the 13th Regiment Native Infantry April 13, 1851;
was made subahdar Jan. 1, 1865; subahdar-major
Feb. 15, 1878. He received the second class Order
of British India in 1879, and later that of the first
class, with the title of "Sirdar Bahadur." He was
present at the siege and capture of Kotah and at the
action of Bunnas (awarded medal and clasp). On
his retirement he was made justice of the peace.

J. J. Hy.

MAIiICE. See Intention.



MAIiKA BEN AHA : Gaon of Pumbedita from
77 L to 773. The only fact known concerning him is
that, with HaninaiKahana BEN HuNA (765-775), he
opposed Natronai ben Habibai, who, for unknown
reasons, endeavored to supplant the exilarch Zakkai
ben Ahunai; the two geonim succeeded in compel-
lin"- Natronai to leave Babvlonia. Natronai prob-
ably settled in Kuirwan.

Bibliography: Letter of Sherira Gaon, in M.J. C. i. 36,
188- HaU'vy, ])()7-(it lui^Rishonini, iii. ll">a et >>eq.; Gratz,
Ge.sch. V. 174. 2(1 ed., v. 420; Weiss, Dor, iv. 27, 29.
8. S. M. Sc.

Rhodes in the seventeenth century ; brother-in-law
of Hezekiah de Si'.va, the author of "Peri Hadash."
Malki was the author of "Malki ba-Kodesh " (Salo-
nica, 1749). This work contains novelht on the laws
of Passover given in the Shulhan 'Aruk (Orah Hay-
yiin) and in the "Bet Yosef "; commentaries on the
Pesuh Ilaggadah and on the parts of the Yad ha-Ha-
zakah which c(<ntain the laws concerning the Pass-
over lamb, Rosh ha-Shanah, Yom Kippur, and lu-
lab; novella? on the " Sefer Mizwot ha-Gadol " ; and
collectanea. lie wrote also: "Shemen la-Ma'or"
(Constantinople, 1760), novella; on the first chapter
of Baba Mezi'a, in which he defends Zerahiah lia-
Levi against the attacks of Nahmanidcs ; " 'En
pat" {ib. 1770), responsa; " 'EnotMayiin " (Salonica,
1811). sermons.

Bibliography : Azulal, Shem ha-Gedolim, 11., s.v. z'-rp^ "is*^?: ;
Furst, BihL Jiul. 11. 320; Zed n e r, Ca(. Hcbr. Books Brit.
MllK. p. .tOH. , , „

p. M. Sel.

ical selioiar and physician of Palestine; lived at
Safed about 1627. He was versed in astronomy and
philosophy, and was the author of a commentary
on the Pentateuch entitled " Perush 'al ha-Torah."
BiBLlOGRAPiiv : \, Ha-Ma'alnt /i-S/ic(onio?i, p. 89.

S. M. Fr.


MALTER, HENRY : American rabbi and
scholar; born at Zabno, Galicia, March 23, 1867;
educated at the Zabno elementary school, and at
the universities of Berlin (1889-93) and Heidelberg
(Ph.D. 1894). He pursued his Jewish studies at the
Veitel Heine-Ephraimsche Lehranstalt, Berlin (un-
der Steinschneider) from 1890 to 1898, and at the
Berlin Hochschule from 1894 to 1898, receiving his
rabbinical diploma from the latter institution. He
acted as librarian of the scientific library of the
Jewish community at Berlin in 1899, and in 1900
was appointed professor of medieval philosophy and
Arabic at the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati;
since 1902 he has also filled the ofiice of rabbi of the
Sheerith Israel Congregation of Cincinnati. His
publications include: "Sifrut Yisrael," a Hebrew
edition of Steinschneider's "Jewish Literature,"
with additional bibliographical notes; "Die Be-
schneidung in der Neueren Zeit " (in Glasberg's
"Die Beschneidung," Berlin, 1896); "Die Abliand-
lung des Abu Hamid al-Gazzali " (Frankfort-ou-the-
Main, 1896); " Katalog der von Fischel Hirsch
Nachgelassenen Bucher " (Berlin, 1899). He has also
contributed to "Ha-Maggid," " Ha-Shiloah," "Mi-
Mizrah umi-Ma'arab," "Judischer Volkskalender,"
"Deborah," "American Journal of Semitic Lan-
guages," and the "Hebrew Union College Journal"
and "Annual." A.

MALVANO, GIACOMO: Italian diplomat;
born at Turin Dec. 14, 1841. In 1863 he entered the
diplomatic service, and by 1887 had become envoy
extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary; two
years later he was appointed councilor of state, and
shortly afterward became general secretary in the
ministry of foreign affairs. In 1875-76 he formed
one of a committee appointed to draft certain com-
mercial treaties; in 1879 he attended the monetary

Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 69 of 169)