Isidore Singer.

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in Wilna in 1854; was appointed instructor in the
government school of his native town; and held the
position of adviser on Jewish affairs (" learned Jew ")
to the governor-general of Wilna. He began his
literary career early in life. In the fifties he was a
contributor to the"Minskiya Gubernskiya Vyedo-
mosti"; in 1860 he published in "Razsvyet," edited
by Osip Rabinovitch, his " Depo Bakaleinyikh Tova-
rov"; in 1861 he began to publish in "Sion" his
"Drug Bernar." He contributed to manj^ period-
icals, among them " Vilenskiya Gubernskiya Vyedo-
niosti,"of which he was the editor; "St. Peterburg-
skiya Vj'edomosti " ; and "Vilenski Vyestnik." In
the last-named appeared his story "Samuel Gim-
pels." In 1876 he published a collection of sketches
under the title "Ocherki Proshlavo," followed later
by a number of stories, such as " Chetyre Guvernera,"
" Lyubitelski Spektakl," " Iz Dobravo Staravo Vrye-
meni," etc., in "Russki Yevrei," " Yevreiskoe Oboz-
renie,"and"Voskhod." In 1876, also, he took active
part in the publication of Landau's " Yevreiskaya
Biblioteka." To this period belong his "Goryacheye
Vryemya," " Gnyev i Milost Magnata," and " Avraam
Yosefovich." In the eighties Levanda continued
his literary activities with great zeal, publishing
many letters and articles bearing on the Jewish
question, besides two novels, " Ispovyed Dyeltza "
and "Bolshoi Bemiz," and other stories in "Ned-
yelya" and elsewhere.

Most of Levanda's writings deal with Jewish life
and Jewish problems. He took a deep interest
in everything that concerned his coreligionists, and
rendered many a service to the Jews of Lithuania.
He exposed (1863) the false witnesses in a trial of
several Jews of the government of Kovno on the
charge of ritual murder. He Avas at first a warm
advocate of assimilation, and upbraided the Jews
for their apathy and ignorance, stating his views in
a series of novels and belletristic sketches. Later,
his views underwent a change, and Levanda began
to see that the salvation of the Russian Jew was not
in assimilation. Levanda was a keen observer, a
skilful but dry narrator, and possessed an intimate
knowledge of Jewish li fe. His best novels are those
which have no object, as "Ocherki Proshlavo"
(1875), "Tipy i Siluety " (" Voskhod," 1881), "Avra-
am Yosefovich " (" Voskhod," 1885, 1887), etc. In his
novel "Goryacheye Vryemya" (Yevreiskaya Bi-
blioteka, 1871-73), which treats of the Polish insur-
rection, the author combats the idea of assimilation,
which had for a while carried away the Jews of
Poland. After tho riots of 1881 Levanda became an
advocate of the Palestinian movement. His works




are enumerated in the "Sislenuiticlieski Ukazutel,"

etc., St. Petersburg, 1892.

BIBMUCRAPIIY : KidzildDiJidklicski Slovm: xvii. 428; N. S.

Rashkovski, Socrciticnnijic liussho-Ycvre ixkii/c Dcuatdi,

p. 46, (Jdessa, 18t©.

II. K. J- G. L.

LEVEN, MANUEL : Prench pliysician ; born
in 1831. He studied in Paris at tlie Lycee Henri IV.,
and in 1851 entered the Institut Agrouoiniquc at
Versailles. In the following year this institution
was suppressed on suspicion of republicanism, and
Lcven, while lecturing on science at the Lycee
Bonaparte, began his medical studies (M.D. 1860;
his thesis, " liipports de I'ldiotie et du Creti-
nisme," gained a gold medal from the Societe Medi-
copsychologique of Paris). In 1863 he was ap-
pointed physician to the Compagnie du Chemin de
Per du Nord, and in 1870-71 was ambulance-sur-
geon of the ninth arrondissement of Paris and of
the Bataillon du Chemin de Per du Nord, receiving
the military ribbon of the Legion of Honor in 1871.
From 1871 to 1878 he was a member of the Board of
Health of Paris, and from 1873 to 1889 head physi-
cian of the Hopital Rothschild. Leven is especially
noteworthy for his work in gastric pathology. He
is the author of " Traite des Maladies de I'Estomac,"
1879; -'L' Hygiene des Israelites," 1883; "Estomac
et Cerveau," 1884; "La Nevrose," 1887; "Systeme
Nerveux et ^Vlaladies," 1893; and "La Vie, I'Ame,
etlaMaladie," 1902.

Leven is known also as a philanthropist. To-
gether with Eugene Manuel he founded, in 1848,
the first night-school for Jewish apprentices, which
developed into a manual-training school ; and he has
been the president of its administrative council
since 1879. He is also one of the founders of the
Alliance Israelite Universelle, vice-president of the
Comite des Ecoles Israelites, member of the Comite
de Refuge du Plessis-Piquet (an agricultural
school), and chevalier of the Order of Isabella the

s. J. K.\.

LEVEN, NARCISSE: French lawyer and
communal worker; born at Urdingen, on the
Rhine, Oct. 15, 1833; educated at the Lycee Henri
IV. and at the Faculty of Law in Paris. For five
years lie was the secretary of Adolphe Cremieux,
and he was an active member of the group which
opposed Napoleon III. and which included Jules
Ferry, Spuller, and Herold. During the Franco-
German war he was general secretary of the Ministry
of Justice, but he resigned on the retirement of its
minister, .Vdolphe Cremieux. and has since refu.sed
all government jjositions. From 1880 to 1887 he
was a member of the Municipal Council of Paris, of
which he l)ecame vice-president.

Leven took an active part in the founding of the
Alliance Israelite Universelle, becoming successively
its secretary, vice presiflent (1883-98). and, after S.
Goldschmidt's deatli, president. He is, in a certain
sense, the historian of the Alliance, both through
his clear and exhaustive reports and thro\igh the
orations he has delivered at the funerals of his col-
leagues. For thirty-six years he has been a member
.'f the .Jewish Consistory of Paris, becoming its vice-
president on the death of Michel Erlanger. He is

a member also of the committees of the Rabbinical
Seminary and the Ecole de Travail, and is president
of the Jewish Colonization Association.

s. J. Ka.


Russian lawyer ; born at Kameuetz, Podoiia, 1837;
died at St. Petersburg Jan. 16, 1894. In 1863 he
went to St. Petersburg, where he devoted himself
chiefly to law. In 1871 he graduated at the uni-
versity there, and in 1877 became an advocate in the
circuit court of justice.

Levenson contributed articles on Jewish subjects
to the " Voskliod " and to other journals, was one of
the editors of the " Suebiiy Vyestuik,"and was editor
of the department of criminology of the "Journal
Grazhdanskavo i Ugolovnavo Prava." He was also
the author of the biographies of Boccaria and Ben-
tliau in "Pavlenkovs Biogratii Zamyechatelnykh
Lyudei." His brother was Osip Levenson, advo-
cate in the circuit court of Moscow (d. 1895). Osip
was the musical critic of the Moscow daily " Russki-
ya Vyedomosti " ; his articles were afterward pub-
lished in Moscow under the titles " V Kontzert
Zalye" (1880-81) and "Iz Oblasti Muzyki " (1885).

BiBLiOfiRAPHY : Brockhaus and Efron, EntzihlopetUcheski
Slorar, xviii. 433, St. Petersburg, 1895.

H. K. A. S. W.

LEVENTRITT, DAVID: American lawyer
and judge; born at Wiuusboro, South Carolina, Jan.
31, 1845; A.B. 1864, Free Academy (now College of
the City of New York), and LL.B. 1871, University
of the City of New York. He practised law in New-
York, acting as special counsel for the city in im-
portant condemnation proceedings; and .since Jan. 1,
1899, he has been a justice of the Supreme Court of
the state of New York.

Leventritt was for a number of years vice-presi-
dent of the Aguilar Free Library, and is associated
with many of the Jewish charitable institutions in
New York city.

Bibliography: The Bench and Bar; ir/io's ir/io in Amer-
ica, 1903- .■).


and critic; born at Gryt, East Gotland, July 17,
1862; educated at the University of Upsala (Ph.D.
1882), where, in 1889, he was appointed docent;
four years later he became professor of literature
at the University of Stockholm. His early work,
"From the Riviera: Sketches from the Coast of the
Mediterranean," and the collections of stories, " SmS-
mynt" and "Konflikter, Nya Noveller" (1S85),
though realistic in tendency, are distinguished for
exuberance of imagination. "Lifvets Fiender"
(1891) marks a change in manner, and in "Legcnder
och Visor," a volume of poems, he appears as a
pronounced romanticist. These poems attracted
much attention by their sentiment and finished form,
and the succeeding volume, "Nya Dikter," placed
Levertin in the front rank of Swedish romantic
poets. His novel " Magistrarne Osteras " appeared
also in Germany. He is also a critic and essayist,
liis principal productions in this field being: "Teatcr
och Drama Under Gustaf III."; "Gusfaf IIL. som
Dramatisk Forfattare"; "Johan Welauder"; "Fran




Gustaf III. Dagar"; "Svenska Gestaltor"; " Dik-
tare och Drominarc " ; etc.
s. J. YVo.

writer; bora at Porlsea ISl'J; died at JJiiiningliam
1873 ; daugliter of Josepli and Amelia Moss of Port-
sea. At the age of eighteen Celia, in conjunction
with her sister Marion, publislied a volume of
poems bearing the title ''Early Efforts. By the
Misses Moss of the Hebrew Nation" (1888; 2d ed.
1839). Tile work was dedicated to ISir George [Staun-
ton. The ne.xt joint work in which the sifters en-
gaged was the " Homance of Jewish History " (184U).
This was published by subscription, among the sub-
scribers being Sir Edward Bulwer Lyttou, to whom
the work was dedicated, and Lord Palmerston. The
" Romance " was followed by " Tales of Jewish His-
tory " (1843).

The above-mentioned works were written in Lou-
don, where the two sisters had settled in order to
take up the profession of teacliiug. Besides pub-
lishing various poems and short stories, the two
sisters founded "The Sabbath Journal" (1855),
which, however, had onl}' a brief existence. Sub-
sequently Celia Moss married Lewis Levetus of
Birmingham, to which city she removed, and for a
time her literary efforts ceased. Her last work,
"The King's Physician" (London, 1873), was writ-
ten during the kmg and painful illness which ended
in her deatJi.

J. I. H.

LEVI ("1^).— Biblical Data : Third son of Ja-
cob by Leah and one of the twelve Patriarchs of the
tribes of Israel; born at Padan-aram (Gen. xxix.
34, XXXV. 23; I Chrou. ii. 1). The name is derived
from mp (= "to be joined"; "Now this time will
my husband be joined imto me," Gen. xxix. 34).
Levi joined Simeon in the destruction of the She-
chemites to avenge the honor of their sister Dinah,
for which ])oth were severely censured by their
father (Gen. xxxiv. 25-30). When Jacob called his
sons together to bless them, Levi and Simeon, not-
withstanding their plea that they had acted in de-
fense of their sister, were again condemned (Gen.
xxxiv. 31, xlix. 5-7). Levi had one daughter, Joeh-
ebed, the mother of Moses, and three sons; he enu-
grated with them to Egypt witli his father and
brothers, and died there at the age of 137 j'ears
(Geu. xlvi. 8, II ct serj. ; Ex. i. 1-2; ii. 1 : vi. 16, 20).

J. M. Sel.

In Apocryphal and Rabbinical Litera-
ture : Levi, as ancestor of the priestly tribe chosen
to guard the Sanctuary and the Law, appears promi-
nently in botli ajiocryphal and rabbinical literature.
At variance with Gen. xxix. 34 and Num. xviii. 2, 4,
the name "Levi" is interpreted as "the one who
joins the sons to their Father in heaven" (Gen. P.
Ixxi. 5; see another interpretation in Ex. R. i. 4).
He was "separated " by liis father, Jacob, in accord-
ance witli tlie latter's vow (Gen. xxviii. 22), as the
tenth son, either by counting from the youngest up-
ward or by some more comiilicated process, and so
consecrated totlie priestliood (Book of Jubilees, xxii.
3-10: Targ. Yer. to Gen. xxxii. 25; Gen. R. Ixx. 7;

comp. Epstein, " Mi-Kadnioniyyot ha-Yehudim,"
p. 97; comp. Pirke R. El. xxxvii., according to which
he was consecrated by the archangel Michael). In
the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (Levi, 1-9)
are described two visions Levi had — before and
after he had avenged the crimes perpetrated by
llamor, the son of Shechem. In the tirst vision he
saw the seven heavens with all their mysterious
contents, and after the secrets of the Messianic time
and the Judgment Day had been dis-
Visions. closed to him he received a sword and
a shield with which to make war
against the Amorites. In the vision following the
extermination of the Sliechemitcs he beheld seven
angels bringing him the seven insignia of the priest-
hood, of propliecy, ami of the judgment, and after
they had anointed liim and initiated him into the
priesthood they disclo.sed to him the threefold glory
of his house: the prophecj' of Moses, the faithful
servant of the Lord ; the priesthood of Aaron, the
high priest, and his descendants ; and the possession
of the royal .scepter and the priestliood together (in
the Maeeabean dynasty) after the pattern of Mel-
chizedek: high priests, judges, and scribes. His
grandfather Isaac instructed him in the law of God
and in the statutes of priesthood. In Jubilees, xxxi.
12-17, also, Levi is told by Isaac, with reference to
John Hyrcanus, of the future greatness and three-
fold glory of his house (see Charles, "Book of Jubi-
lees," p. 187; comp. Targ. Yer. to Deut. xxxiii. 11).
The twofold role in which Levi is represented in
Deut. xxxiii. 8-11 (verse 11 originally followed verse
7, Judah's blessing) appealed with special force to
the age of John Hyrcanus, who was both high priest
and warrior-king, victorious over the Gentiles. Ac-
cordingly, in the war of the sons of Jacob against
the Amorites, which forms a parallel to the war of
the ^Slaccabees again,st the surrounding tribes. Levi
also took part (see JMidr. Wayissa'u in Jellinek,
"B. H." iii. 1-0 ; "Chronicles of Jerahmeel." p. 83,
Gaster's transl. 1899; Jubilees, xxxiv. 1-9; Test.
Patr., Judali, 3-5). In the Prayer of Asenatii
Levi is desei-ibed as a prophet and saint who fore-
casts the future while reading the heavenly writings
and who admonishes the people to be God-fearing
and forgiving. He was entrusted with the secret
writings of the ancients by iiis father, Jacob, in order
to keep them in his family for all generations to
come (Jubilees, xlv. 16).

The epithet " thy pious [A. V. " holy "] one " given
to Levi, and the whole passage of Deut. xxxiii. 8-
10, furnish the haggadic support for the characteri-
zation of Levi, as well as of the tribe
The Tribe, of Levi, as superior to the rest in
piety. Accordingly it is .said (Sifre,
Deut. 349-351: Sifre, Num. 67;"Tan., Beha'aloteka,
ed. Buber, p. 13; Midr. Teh. to Ps. i. 14; Ex. R. xv.
1; Num. R. iii., vii. 2. xv. 9) that in Egypt and
in the wilderness the Levites observed the Abia-
hamitic rite and the whole Law; in the Holy Land
they even abstained from work in order to devote
themselves to contemplation (Heupin) and to jjrayer
(Tan., Wayera, ed. Buber, p. 4; Num. R. v. 1).
In other words, they were tlie ancient Hasidim, the
elect ones (Num. R. iii. 2. 4, 8, 11; xv. 9). Levi,
the father of the tribe, accordingly displayed this

Levi, Tribe of
Levi II.



spirit of piety in his own household; he married
Milkah, of the daughters of x\ram, of the (holy) seed
of the Terahites (Jubilees, xxxiv. 20: Test. Patr.,
Levi, 11). The names he gave to his sons— Gershon,
Kehat, and ^[erari— are interpreted in the sight of
their future destiny {ib. Levi, 11; Num. R. iii. 13).
When his daughter Jochebed (" God giveth glory ")
was born to him he was already "the glorified of
God" among his brethren (Test. Patr., Levi, 11).
J. K-

LEVI C^^), TRIBE OF.— Biblical Data:
The tribe of Levi was descended from the patriarch
Levi, the third son of Jacob and Leah (Gen. xxi.x.
34). Levi shared in Simeon's treachery toward the
men of Shechem(Gen. xxxiv. 25-30), in consequence
of which, it was thought, his descendants were scat-
tered in Israel (Gen. xlix. 5-7). At the time of
the descent into Egypt there were only three sons of
Levi (Gen. xlvi. 11); these had become at the time
of the Exodus a numerous tribe, which then was
chosen for the priesthood and the service of the
sanctuary (Ex. vi. \^ et seq.; Num. i. 49-54, iii. G
et seq.). According to Leviticus and Numbeis a
wide distinction existed at this time between the
house of Aaron, which constituted the priesthood,
antl the remainder of the Levites, to whom tiie more
menial duties of the religious service were assigned
(comp. Num. xvi. 8-11, and Levites).

In the blessing of Moses, Levi is mentioned only
in connection with priestly functions (Deut. xxxiii.
8-11). At the settlement the Levites are said to
have received no definite domain (Josh. xiii. 14),
but scattered cities were as,signed them in territory
belonging to other tribes. From the portion of
Simeon and Judah they received Hebron, Lil)nah,
Jattir, Esliteiiioa, Ilolon, Debir, Ain, -Juttaii, and
Beth-shemesh : in the territory of Benjamin their
cities were Gibcon, Geba, Anathoth, and Almon;
from Epliraim tjicy took Shechem, Gezer, Kibzalm,
and Beth-horon; from Dan, Eltekeh,
Cities of Gibbethon, Aijalon, and Gath-riinmon
Levites. (comp. I Chron. vi. 69, where two of
these cities are ascribed to Ephraim
and two are not mentioned); from the tribe of Ma-
nasseh, Tanach, (Jath-rimmon, Golan, and Beeshte-
rah; from Issachar, Kishon, Dabareh, Jarmuth, and
En-gannim; from Asher, Mishal, Abdon, Ilelkath,
and Kehob: from Naphtali, Kedesh, Hammoth-dor,
and Kartan ; from Zebulun, Jokneam, Kartah, Dim-
nah, and Nahalal : from Reuben, Bezer, Jahazali,
Keilemotli, and Mciiliaath; and from Gad, Ramotli
in Gilead, >hilianaim, Heshbon, and Jazer (Josh.
xxi. 11-39: comp. I Chron. vi. 65-81). When these
cities arc compared with those said to have been left
to the oilier trii)es, one is impressed witii the fact
tliat, if the Levites received all tliese, together witli
tlicir suburbs, tkey must liave had a better and
more commanding inheritance than had any of their

In striking contrast with tliis splendid inheritance
attributed to tlie Levites by.Insliuaand tlie Chronieh'i-
is the nonappearance of tlie lA-vites in any impor-
tant rule during the period of tlie Judges. Tiiey are
not mentioned in tiie Smig of Dei)(>rali, nor do tliey
appearelsewliere in Judges until the appendix, where

two individual Levites are mentioned (comp. Judges
xvii. 7, xviii. 30, and xix. 1). Under David and Sol-
omon, according to the accovmts in
In Early Samuel and Kings, the Levites exer-
Sources. cised the priestly functions, though
not to the exclusion of others from
such functions. For example, Samuel, an Eplira-
imite (I Sam. ix. 13), and the sons of David (II Sam.
viii. 18) offered sacrifices. From this time to the
Exile the Levitical priests held much the same
position as they held in the time of Solomon. They
exercised their priestly functions, but were by no
means, except in rare instances, the dominating in-
fluence. In the post-exilic period, as CIn-onicles,
Ezra, and Nehemiah show, they became a domi-
nant element in the Jewish community.

Critical View : The problem presented by the

Biblical data is this: What is the relation of the clan
mentioned in such passages as Gen. xlix. 5-7 to tlie
priests of a later time? In seeking a solution of
this problem it should be noted that in J, the oldest
source, the patriarch Levi merited his father's curse,
in consequence of which the tribe was divided and
scattered (ccmip. Gen. xxxiv. 30, 31). In narrating
a crisis in the life of IVIoses the same writer men-
tions the "sons of Levi" (Ex. xxxii. 26-28), but in
such a way that the phrase may refer either to the
descendants of the patriarch or to men who pos-
sessed the qualities of a "levi." Later, a narrative
that is ascribed to J by some critics (cr/., 3Ioore,
in "S. B. O. T.") tells how a Levite of Beth-lehem-
judah became a priest at the shrine at Dan (Judges
xvii. 9, xviii. 30). This representation of J would
seem to mean that misfortune overtook a clan known
as that of Levi, that its members became scattered,
and that they were held in such high esteem as
priests that they gradually approjiriated the priestly

pj has almost nothing to say of Levites. Accord-
ing to him. apparently, iVIoses and Aaron were of
one of the tribes of Josei)li, and he uses
In the " Levite " to describe not the member
Source E. of a clan, but a man especially eligi-
ble to the priesthood, distinctly stating
that one such man belonged to the clan Judah
(Judges xvii. 7; comp. "S. B. O. T."). If the
patriarch Levi was mentioned in this source, the pas-
sage in question has not been transmitted. E, ap-
parently, knew no such patriarch, and supjiosed that
a priest might come from any tribe and that he re-
ceived the designation "Levite" for other reasons
than those of descent.

P, the latest of the sovirces in the Pentateuch, dis-
tinctly connects the tribe of Levi with the priest-
hood, bridging all the gaps with extensive genealo-
gies, dividing the various services of the sanctuary
among the different descendants of the jiatriarch,
and assigning to each class of descendants its re-
spective cities in Canaan (Josh. xxi.). Of these
three representations. P's can not he correct. The
whole tenor of the histnry in .Indues and Samuel
contradicts P's assertion tliat the Levites received
all these cities at the time of the coiuiuest, as well
as his view that the religious office was, in any ex-
(lusive sense, in the han<ls of the Levites. Gezer,
for example, was not in Israel's possession until the



Levi, Tribe of
Levi II.

time of Solomon (I Kings ix. 16). Kecent explora-
tion has shown it to have been the site of a great
temple of Astarte ("Pal. E.xplor. Fund, Quarterly
Statement," Jan., 1903, pp. 23 et scq.).

Not in This temple, too, was on the level of
Possession the pre-exilic Israelitish city, and may
of Gezer. have been used liy the Hebrews of the
period. Other Levitical cities in the
list, like Kadesh in Naphtali, Ashtaroth in Bashan,
and Hebron, can be proved to have been old shrines
which in the pre-exilic period were still in use. If
the information contained in the sources known
were more complete, it probably could be shown
that P's whole system of Levitical cities is a post-
exilic explanation of the fact that important sanc-
tuaries had existed at these points in pre-exilic
times, and that they had thus become the centers
where Levites resided in large numbers.

P's whole conception is, therefore, untrustworthy.
Pecent critics are divided in opinion, some believ-
ing, with J, that there was actually a tribe of Levi,
wliich became scattered and gradually absorbed
the priestly office, others adopting the apparent
view of E that "levi" was a general term for a
priest, and then supposing that the existence of
the clan Levi was assumed in order to explain the
origin of the priestly class. Lagarde("Orientalia,"
ii. 20; "Mittheilungen," i. 54), Baudissin ("Priest-
erthum," p. 72), and Budde ("Religion of Israel to
the Exile," pp. 80 et seq.) may be cited as critics
who have advocated this latter view. If Hommel
and Sayce were consistent, they might be placed in
the same class, for if the term came from contact
with the Minoean Jethro, as they believe, it would
not be found in Israel before the time of Moses.
This inference, however, they do not draw. The
former view (which has been called the view of J),
that there was an actual tribe of Levi, has the sup-
port of Wellhausen ("History of Israel," pp. 141-
147; "Prolegomena zur Gesch. Israels," 5th ed., pp.
137-145), Stade ("Gesch." i. 152-157), Dillmann
("Commentary on Genesis," ii. 458; " Alttestament-
liche Thcologie," pp. 128 et seq.), Nowack ("Lehr-
buch der Hebrilischen Archaologie,"'ii. 92 et seq.),
Cornill ("Hist, of Israel," p. 46), Marti (in Kayser's
" Alttestamentliche Theologie," 3d ed., pp. 72, 95 et
seq.), Guthe ("Gesch. des Volkes Israel," ])p. 21-47
et seq.), and Holzinger ("Genesis," in Marti's " K.
H. C." p. 257).

It is probable that there was an old clan which
was overtaken by misfortune and scattered. Sayce
points out ("Patriarchal Palestine," p. 239) that the
" Lui-el " of the list of Ranieses III. is parallel to
"Joseph-el" and "Jacob-el" of Thothmes IIL'slist,
and so may point to a habitat of the tribe of Levi.
It is quite possible that the priestly order originated
quite independently of this tribe, however, and
afterward was erroneously identified with it. In

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