Isidore Singer.

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of ■• Ciiiistiiinsdf St. Jolm "' (the Baptist), on account




of the reverence in which St. John is held among
the members of the sect and because of their fre-
quent baptisms. The sacred books of the Man(hvans
consist of fragments, of various antiquity, derived
from an older literature. Of these the most impor-
tant is the XTJJ ( = " treasure ") or N31 XinO (= " the
great book "), which dates from sonicwhere be-
tween 650 and 900 c.e. It is divided into two un-
equal parts: the larger, intended for tlie living, is
termed H^D'' (= "to the right hand "); the smaller,
containing pra_yevs to be read on the burial of
priests, is called N^XCD {= " to the left hand "). In
this book, and in some other works of lesser impor-
tance, is expounded the Mandcean religious system,
in which Jewish influence is distinctly visible. It
is essentially of the type of ancient Gnosticism,
traces of which are found in the Talmud, the Mid-
rash, and in a modified form in the later Cabala.

The KTJJ gives three conflicting accounts of the
Creation, the least complicated of which may be
summarized as follows: A triad of divinities existed
at the beginning of all things— Pira Rabba (= "the
great fruit"), Ayar Ziwa Kabba (= "the ether of
great brilliancy "), and Mana Rabba. (According to
Joseph Halevy, Mana is the Biblical p, which the
Talmud and Midrash regarded as a celestial food.
The connection between Plra and
Gnostic Mana is easily explained by the Gnos-
Elements. tic idea which compares the divine
essence to the grain of a fig.) The
last-named, the most prominent of the three, is the
King of Light, from whom all things proceeded.
From him emanated the Great Jordan, which per-
meates the whole ether, the domain of Ayar. (The
idea that water, air [ether], and fire existed before
the creation of the world is found in a Palestinian
midrash of the fourth century; see Epstein, in "R.
E. J." xxix. 77.) Then Mana called into existence
Hayye Kadmaye ("primal life "), and, when the act
was accomplished, withdrew into strictest privacy,
being visible only to the souls of pious Manda?ans.

As the revealed and governing deity, Hayye Kad-
maye is entitled to the chief worship and adoration.
Hayye Kadmaye produced, besides the numerous
angels (NnniJ?) that arose from the further develop-
ment and combination of these primary manifesta-
tions, Hayye Tinyano (" secondary life "), or Yusha-
min (= X"'OC' n\ the Jehovah of the Hebrews being
considered by the Gnostics as a divinity of second
rank). The next emanation after Yushamin was
Manda de-Hayye (S^m ta^'O). the Primal Man
(N"'D'Ip X"I3J ; in the Cabala, poip mS)- Then a
revolution occurred in heaven. Yushamin attempted
to seize the government, but failed, and was pun-
ished by ejection from the pure ethereal world into
that of inferior light. (A similar story of the revolt
of Satan and of his banishment to the subterranean
regions is found in thehaggadic literature; see Gen.
R. iv.) Manda de-Hayye revealed himself to hu-
manity in a series of incarnations,
Series of first taking the forms of tne three
Revela- brothers Hibil, Shitiel. and Anosh (the
tions. Biblical Abel, Scth, and Enoch). The
most prominent of these is Hil)il, wlio
possesses the same attributes as Manda de-Hayye,
with whom he is often confounded.

Among the "'utre" (angels) who emanated from
Hayye Tinyane the most prominent is Hayye Tli-
taye ("third life"), often called Abatur (" father of
the 'utre"). He sits on the verge of the world of
light that lies toward the lower regions, and weighs
in his balance the deeds of the spirits ascending to
him from the earthly life. Beneath him originally
was an immense void, with troubled black water at
the bottom in which his image was reflected, the
reflection ultimately becoming solidified into Peta-
hiel, called also Gabriel, who partakes of the nature
of matter. Petahiel received the mission to build
the earth and to people it. Accordingly he made
Adam and Eve, but was unable to make them stand
upright; whereupon Hibil, Shitiel, and Anosh were
sent by Hayye Kadmaye to infuse into their forms
spirit from Mana Rabba himself. Hibil then in-
structed man in the true religion, and apprised him
that iiis Creator was not Petahiel, but the Supreme
God who is far above him. Petahiel was then ex-
iled to the under world, made up of four vestibules
and three hells. Each of these vestibules has two
rulers — Zartay and Zartanay, Hag and ]\Iag (see
Gog and Magog), Gaf and Gafan, Antan and Kin.
In the highest hell rules the grisly king Shedum (in
Haggadic literature, Ashmedai; see Asmodeus).

Invested with the power of Mana Rabba, Hibil
descended into these lower regions and brought forth
Ruha, the mother of falsehood and lies, the queen of
darkness, and prevented her return to the netherworld
(see LiLiTH). She then bore the devil Ur; lie in his
pride sought to storm the world of light, but was
overpowered by Hibil, who cast him into the black
waters and imprisoned him within seven iron and
seven golden walls. By Ur, Ruha bore three sets of
sons, seven, twelve, and five respectively. They all
were translated by Petahiel to the heavenly firma-
ment, the seven forming the seven planets and the
twelve the signs of the zodiac, while the fate of the
remaining five is unknown.

According to the Mandfean belief the appointed
duration of the world is four hundred and eighty
thousand years, divided into seven epochs, in each
of which one of the planets rules. The whole hu-
man race, with the exceiition of one
True and single- pair, has been destroyed three
False times. The Mandseans consider the
Prophets. Biblical saints as false i)rophets. Such
were Abraham (who lived, according
to their computation. 6,000 years after Noah, during
the reign of tlie s>in), Mislia (Moses, in whose time
the true religion was professed by the Egyptians,
from whom the Manda?ans claim to descend), and
Shlimon (Solomon, son of David, to whom the devils
yielded obedience : comp. Git. 5Ta). A true prophet
was Yahya (John), son of Zechariah, who was an
incarnation of Hibil.

During forty years Yahya baptized myriads of
men in the .Jordan. By a mistake he baptized
the false prophet Yishu Meshiha (Jesus), son
of the devil Ruha Kadishta. Thereupon Hibil's
younger brother Anosh descended from heaven,
caused himself to be baptized, performed miracles,
and brought about the crucifixion of the false Mes-
siah. Then he preached the true religion, destroyed
the citv of Jerusalem ("UrShalom " — " the devil




finished it "), wliich liad been built by Adouai, and
dispersed over the world the Jews, who had put
Yahya to death. It is interesting to note that the
Mandseans accuse the (Christians of using the blood
of Jewish children in the preparation of hosts.

Bibliography: Chwolson, Die Ssehier ruid der Smtiinnms,
1. 100, St. Petersburg, 1856; Noldeke, MawUiische aramma-
tik. Introduction, Halle, 1875; A. J. H. Wlllielm Brandt, Die
ManduiiiChe IleAUjUm. Leipsic, 1889; Joseph Halevy. in R. E.
J.xxii. 139 et feq.; K. Kessler, In Uerzog-Hauck, Rcal-Eiicyc.
J. I. Bk.

MANDEL, PAUL : Hungarian jurist and dep-
uty; born at Nyirbator Jan. 6, 1839. He studied
law in Budapest and Vienna, and in 1875 was elected
to the Hungarian Parliament as representative of his
native city. He has retained his seat from that time
up to the present (1904); he became a member of the
law committee in 1881, and has taken a prominent
part in framing the laws concerning guardianship,
copyright, and the ottice of royal notary public.
His parliamentary speeches in 1878 against capital
punisiimcnt aroused much attention, us did those in
1884 in the cause of religious freedom, and in 1885
against the anti-Semites.

Bibliography: Sturm, OrsvdguijlUeslAlmanach,W97:S7Anii-
yei, Mauyar Iruk.
s. L. V .

DOB: Kussiuu iioct and author ; born in Mlyiiov,
Volhynia, 1846; died in Vienna March 24, 1902.
He was educated as a Talmudist. After his father's
death he went to Dubiio (he was then fourteen),
where he continued his Talmudical studies. He
became associated with the Hasidim in that com-
munity and witii their "rabbi,'" jMeiidel of Kotzk,
with whose son David he spent some time studying
Jewisii pliilosopliy and Cabala. Later he became
identified with the Ilaskaiah movement. After his
marriage he went to Wilna, entered its rabbinical
school, and graduated as a rabbi. Mandelkern sub-

se(iuently studied Ori-
ental languages at St.
Petersburg University,
where he was awarded
a gold medal for an
essay on the parallel
l)assages of the Bible.
In 1873 he became as-
sistant rabbi at Odessa,
where he was the lirst
to deliver sermons in
Iviissian, and where he
studied law at the uni-
versity. The degree of
Ph.D. was conferred
upon him by the Uni-
versity of Ji'iiu. About
1880 lie settled in Leip-
sic and oecujiied him-
self with literary work
and with teaching. In 1900 he visited the United
States; he returned to Leipsic in 1901, and was
visiting Vienna Aviieii he suddenly became ill and
died in the Jiwish hosiutal of thai <-ity.

^Mandelkern was a prolilie writer in several lan-
guages, especially in Hebrew, in which he pioduced
poetical works of considerable merit. His literary


jJ^SL . 'il



f ,..;■::,. .i:


Solomon Mandelkern.

career began in 1886 with "Teru'at Melek Rab," an
ode to Alexander II., followed by "Bat Sheba'," an
epic poem, "Ezraha-Sofer," anovel(transl. from the
German by L. Philippson), and a satirical work en-
titled " Hizzim Shenunim " (all published in Wilna).
Other works of his are: " Dibre Yeme Kussiya," a
history of Russia (Warsaw, 1875; written for the
Society for the Promotion of Culture Among Russian
Jews; for this work he was presented by the czar
with a ring set with brilliants); "Shire Sefat
'Eber," Hebrew poems (2 vols., Leipsic, 1882 and
1889); and "Shire Yeshurun," a translation of
Byron's "Hebrew Melodies" (ib. 1890). He pub-
lished also: "Bogdan Chmelnitzki," in Russian, a
translation of Hanover's " Yewen jMezulah " (St.
Petersburg, 1878; Leipsic, 1883); a Russian edition
of Lessing's fables (ib. 1885); and "Tamar," a novel
in German {ib. 1885; really a translation of Mapu's
" Ahabat Ziyyon," without any mention of Mapu as
the author). Sermons by him in Russian, and Rus-
sian and German translations of his Hebrew songs
and articles, have appeared in various periodicals;
and most Hebrew journals and year-books pub-
lished within the last thirty years (especially " Ha-
Shahar," " Ha-Asif ") contain articles, poems, and
epigrams by him.

Mandelkern's greatest work is the " Hekal ha-
Kodesli," or " Veteris Testamenti ConcordantiiE," a
Hebrew-Latin concordance of the Hebrew and Chal-
daic words found in the Bible (Leipsic, 1896), which
has almost superseded all similar works of that na-
ture. An abridged edition of this monumental work
appeared under the title "Tabnit Hekal" (ib. 1897;
for the various criticisms which were made of 3Ian-
delkern in connection with the two editions of the
concordance, and for lists of errata, see Stade's
"Zeitschrift," xviii. 165, 348; xix. 187-191, 350; xxii.
320; xxiii. 94, 352; xxiv. 146; etc.).

In his last years JIandelkern was engaged in the
composition of a Talmudic and Midrashic concord-
ance, part of which, probablj', is among the many
complete and incomplete works which he left in man-

BiBi.ior.RAPHY : Sokolow, Ficfer Zihknran, p. 67, AVarsaw,
1890; Zeitlin, mhl. Post-Moideh.; Lippe, Bihliimraplii.sclicii
Lc.rifdii ; Sislimntifln:<ki I'kazdlcl (an index to Russian
literature upon the Jewst; Wiernik. in Jevisli Cdiiiwi'ut,
Jan. 19. 1900; Ulitstrirte Ziilunu. Keb. 15, 189«; April :i,
V.m: AlUi. Zcit. dcsJud. (May 16, 1902); Jewish E.tiunicnt,
April 11, 1903.

II. K. P. Wr.

MANDELLI, DAVID : Hungarian linguist ;
born about 1780 at Presburg; died at Paris Dec. 22,
1836. He was one of the greatest linguists of his
time, and is said to have excelled in his knowledge
of foreign languages even the celebrated Cardinal
Giuseppe Mezzofanti. Tiie favorite studies of .Man-
delii were Hebrew, Arabic, Persian, Chinese, Greek,
and Latin, from a combination of which he formed
a language of his own (Oettinger, "Moniteur des

s. I. ^VAK.

SEPH: Hussiaii lleliraist and aullior ; born in Zlia-
gory about the end of Ihc eighteenth century; died
iu Simferopol May 8, 1SS6. "lie was the eldest of
several s(ms and received a liberal education. In




the first part of his " Hazon la-Mo'ed " O^ienna, 1877)
Benjamin describes a journey which he made from
Zhagory to Moscow about 1835. The second part
of the work consists of letters which he wrote from
Wilna in 1841-43 in regard to Lilientiial's mission
in Russia. Like most of the leading Maskilim
of the time, Mandelstamm was at first very enthu-
siastic about the movement; but he was much dis-
appointed at the results and expressed strong dis-
approval of Lilienthal's methods. The third part
contains a description of the Crimea with plans for
bettering the condition of the Russian Jews.

Mandelstamm was employed by the Gilnzburgs,
with some intervals, for more than forty years, and
from 1864 until the time of his death he was their
representative in Simferopol. He visited Paris in
1875 and gave a graphic description, in Hebrew, of
the French capital in his "Paris" (Warsaw, 1878).
He furthermore wrote "Mishle Binyamin," which
appeared in the first two volumes of " Ha-Asif "
(published also separately), and contributed to
"Ha-Meliz" (1892, Nos. 267-271) a very interesting
description of the younger days of his brother Leon
and to"Ha-Zefirah"(xv., Nos. '[2etseq.)a.n article on
the anti-Jewish riots of 1881-82. He is considered
one of the best of Hebrew prose-writers, although
his too florid style and his continual deviations from
the subject can hardly please a modern reader.

Bibliography : Ha-Asif, lii. 117 ; Ha-Shalmr, viii. 384 ; Ha-
Zeftrah, xiii.. No. 26 ; Keneset ha-GedolaJi, iv., part 2, pp. 30
€t seq.; Zeitlin, Bibl. Post-yiendels. p. 227.

H. R. P. Wl.

B. JOSEPH : Russian Hebraist, poet, and educa-
tor; born in Zhagory, government of Kovno, in
1809; died in St. Petersburg Sept. 12, 1889. He
was the fourth son of Joseph Mandelstamm, a man
of liberal and progressive views who had imbibed
German ideas and collected German books during
his business travels in German}'. Under the guid-
ance of his father and older brothers Leon acquired
a large amount of rabbinical and secular knowledge
before he was fifteen years of age. He married while
very young, and settled with his wife's parents in
Keidany, government of Wilna; but his progressive
thoughts and habits were considered heretical there,
and he was compelled to divorce his wife after about
six months of married life.

Mandelstamm then resumed his studies with re-
newed vigor, and about 1832 went to Wilna with
the intention of entering its university ; but that
institution being about to be transferred to Kiev,
he entered the University of Moscow instead. He
graduated as a "candidate" (bachelor) in philology
from the University of St. Petersburg in 1844, being
the first Jew in Russia to attain that honor.

Mandelstamm acted as secretary to the rabbinical
commission called at St. Petersburg in the summer
of 1843 to draw up a system of education for the
Jews of Russia. When Lilienthal, who had been
selected to carry out the plans of the commission, or
rather the plans of Uvarov, the Russian minister of
public instruction, suddenly left Russia in 1845,
Mandelstamm was appointed in liis place and served
under Uvarov and his successors until he retired in
1857. In these twelve years he wrote, edited, and
YIII.— 19

published various books for use in Jewish schools,
superintended the establishment of schools in vari-
ous localities, including the rabbinical schools of
Wilna and Jitomir, and appointed teachers for them
(see Gottlober in "Ha-Maggid," xvii. 392). He had
charge also of the disbursement of the candle-tax
funds, which were for the purpose of supporting
those schools; the conservative masses, hating both
the tax and the purpose for which it was levied,
saw in him the embodiment of all the evil of the
new movement. The ill-feeling against him disap-
peared in later years (see Gurland in "Ha-Shahar,"
iv. 112).

After his retirement from the service of the gov-
ernment he engaged in various financial enterprises,
but few of which were successful. He spent much
time in Germany, especially in Berlin, where most
of his works were published. His Russian transla-
tion of the Bible was at first prohibited in Russia,
and was permitted later only on condition that it
would not be sold without the Hebrew text (" Allg.
Zeit. des Jud." 1870, pp. 438-439; ib. 1871, p. 340).
His last years were spent in poverty and neglect.
Having died suddenly on a ferry-boat, he was buried
in a pauper's grave; several days afterward, how-
ever, he was disinterred and buried with proper hon-
ors in the Jewish cemetery of St. Petersburg. His
library was taken to the United States by A. M. Bank
and was sold to the New York Public Library, where
it formed the nucleus of the Jewish department of
that institution.

Mandelstamm was the author of : " Stikhotvoreni-
ya," poems (Moscow, 1840); "Hinnuk Ne'arim," He-
brew and German text-book for schools, in two parts
(Wilna, 1849-50) ; notes to the Bible, in the edition
(24 vols.), with the German translation, printed (un-
der his supervision) by the Russian government (St.
Petersburg, 1852) and known as the " Mandelstamm
edition" of the Bible; "Shene Perakim," better
known as "Kebod Melek," in Hebrew and German
{lb. 1852); "V Zashchitu Yevreyev " (ib. 1858);
"Sefer Millim," Russian-Hebrew and Hebrew-Rus-
sian dictionary («J. 1859); "Horse Thalmudicce," in
German (Berlin, 1860); Russian translation of the
Pentateuch {ib. 1862 ; 2d ed. 1871) ; " Die Bibel, Neu
Uebersetzt und Erklart " (the Book of Genesis and a
dramatization of Canticles, both annotated; ib. 1862);
"Biblische Studien," in two parts (ib. 1862); "Sara-
tovskie Mucheniki," an account of a ritual-murder
trial of 1857 (Berlin, 1863); "Einleitung in den Pen-
tateuch" (ib. 1864); "Yevreiskaya Semyya," a
dram-a(/6. 1864; 3d ed., St Petersburg, 1872); "O
Zheleznikh Dorogakli," on Russian railroads (St.
Petersburg, 186.5-67); " Bibleiskoe Gosudarstvo," in
"Yevreiskaya Biblioteka," for 1871; "Stimmen in
der Wuste," German .songs (London, 1880). He
also contributed numerous articles to periodicals in
various languages. A part of his "Horae Tlial-
mudicae," under the title "Rabbi Joshua ben Hana-
nia," appeared in an English translation (Berlin,
n.d.). The four volumes of extracts from Maimon-
ides' Yad ha-Hazakah, with German translation,
published by the Ru,ssian government (St. Peters-
burg, 1851), were prepared, under Mandelstamm's
supervision, by his townsman Hayj'im Sack.

Mandelstamm had a sou, Joseph, a physician, who




died long before him. A daughter, by a second
marriage, is the wife of Dr. M. L. Zimmerman of

Bibliography: Bloch's Wochensc-hriftASSQ, So. 4fi: Brock-
haus-Efron, Riisxiim Encyclopedia ; Jildwche P/e-sse, xx..
No. 39 ; B. Manilelstamm, Aliimme Aryeh MandcMatnm, in
Ha-Meliz. 1892, Nos. 2«7-271 ; Hn-Mcliz, 18«9; 3fo.s/for-
skii/a ri/cdnmosti, 1889, No. 276; Vorikhod (weekly ed.), 1889,
No.' 3«; Ha-MeUz, 1889, Nos. 198, 199, 201, 232.
H. It. P. Wr.

Russian physician and Zionist; born in Zliagoiy,
government of Kovuo, in 1838. His father, Ezekiel
Mandelstamm, younger brother of Benjamin and
Leon Mandelstamm, taught him French and Ger-
man, in addition to the usual studies of the "heder. "
Later Max attended a school in Mitau for about a
year, and the gymnasium at Wilua from 1850 to
1854. At the age of si.\teen he entered the Univer-
sity of Dorpat as a medical student, and later stud-
ied at Kharknf, where he graduated in 1860. After
practising medicine in Chernigov for about four

years he went to Ber-
lin (1864) and entered
tiie university, where
he studied oplithal-
mology under Graefe
and pathology under
Yirchow. Later he
studied for some time
in Heidelberg under
Helmholtz, and in
1866 he became assist-
ant ]:»hysician in Pa-
genstecher's iKJspital
for eye -diseases in
Wiesbaden. Two
years later he settled
in Kiev, where he still
(1904) resides. He is
considered one of tlie
leading oculists in
Russia. He "was pri-
vat-docentat the Uni-
versity of Kiev for
twelve years, and was tiirice chosen proft'ssor; but
tlie election was each time declared void on account
of his being a Jew. He was for four years the head
of tlie clinic for eye-diseases at the university', and
is now tiie head of a private ophthalmic hospital
which lie established in 1880.

Mandelstamm takes a i)rominent i)art in Jewisii
affairs both in Kiev and in Russia generally. Uv
was president of a committee to assist emigration in
1881 and 1MS2, and was one of tlie two Jewish re))-
resentatives who were permitted to plead the cause
of the Jews before the commission which invesli-
gated Jewisli affairs after the riots of 1S81. He has
taken a leading part also in Zionism since the iiice])-
tion of the movement, and has been a conspicuous
figure at all llie Zionist congresses liehl duiing re-
cent years. Most of Maiidelstamni's writings are on
subjects relating to his scientific specialty, and have
appeared in CJraefe's "Archiv" (vols. \\.. \iii.. xix.)
and " Ceiitialblatt flir Praktische Augenheilkunde " ;
only oneessjiy has been translated into English, under
the title "How Jews Live," London, 1900. His arti-

Max Mandelstamm.

cles on Zionism appeared in " Welt " and " Ost und

Bibliography : Brainin, In Ahiasaf, 1900, pp. 336-349..
H. K. P. Wl.

MANDL, CHRISTOF: Hungarian author;
converted to Christianity in 1534. His godfather
was George, Margrave of Brandenburg, to whom
Mandl dedicated his " Dass Jesus Christus Sey das
Ewig Wort" (1536), in which Jesus is represented
as the Redeemer. His other works are "Rechnung
der 70 Wochen Danielis " (1552) and another, pub-
lished in 1557, in which Jesus is described as the
Messiah (Blichler, " A Zsidok Tortenete Budapesten,"
Budapest, 1901).

D. A. BtJ.

anatomist and pathologist; born at Budapest Dec,
1813; died in Paris July 5, 1881; educated at Vi-
enna and Budapest (M.D. 1836). He then settled in
Paris to study microscopy. His researches in the
einbr3-ology of the higher mammalia attracted the at-
tention of the Parisian Society of Physicians, which,
in 1845, requested him to prepare anatomical speci-
mens. In 1846 he began to lecture on microscopic
anatomy at the College de France. In the same
year he was made a knight of the Legion of Honor.
After 1863 he lectured before the Medical Clinic of
Paris on diseases of the vocal organs.

Mandl was a prolific writer; the following are
among his principal works: "Sanguis Respectu
Physiologico " (Budapest, 1836) ; " Anatomic Micro-
scopique" (Paris, 1838-58); "Traite Pratique du
Microscope" {ib. 1839); " Meinoires d'Auatomie
Pathologique " {ib. 1840); "Manuel d'Anatomie Ge-
nerale" {ib. 1843; awarded a prize by the French
Academy in 1858); "Traite d'Anatomie Microsco-
inquG "(ib. 1847; awarded a prize by the French
Institute in 1850); "Memoires Concernant la Patho-
logic et la Th^rapeutique des Organes de la Respira-
tion " (ib. 1855); "Traite Pratitiue de Maladies de
Larynx et de Pharynx " (ib. 1873).

Bibi.ioguaphy: Jiidwc^ie.s Athrru'lum, p. 129 (inaccurate);
Alio. Deutsche Bi(>a. xx. 178; Ueidi, licih-El, iv. 31 ; Szinn-
vei, Mmn/ar Irak.
s. L. V.

MANDL, MORITZ : Austrian dramatist and
journalist; born in Presbuig May 13, 1840. He
went to Vienna and there joined the editorial staff
of the "Wanderer" (1862) and later that of the
"Neue Freie Presse." Since 1877 he has been as-
sistant editor of the " Fremdenblatt."

Mandl has Avrittcn : " Deutschland und der Augen-
blick " (Leipsic, IH(il). a panqihlct that won some
attention; " KilthclK'n von Ileilbronn" (Vienna,
1873), a German epic; a dramatic jirologue to the
Vienna " Kleisl-Feier " of 1870; and several plays.

Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 72 of 169)