Isidore Singer.

The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) online

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Hihi.iography: Eisenberg, Drw OcishV/c ll'ioi, i. .']:?(>-337.
s N. D.

MANE. See Wkic.iits and Mkastuks.

munal leader; originally fiom Vesoul and luoljalily
of the family of Ileliot of Vesoul, whose ledger has
been published by Isidore Loeb (in " R. E. J." viii.,
ix.). He is chiefly known in connection with the
Paris community. It was he who negotiated for




the return of the Jews to France about the year
1358. He was appointed by the king " proeureur
general" of the Jews, Avith the function of grant-
ing or witlihokling the right of entrance into France
to every individual Jew, being in turn responsible
lor their contributions to the treasury. He held
this position as late as 1376. Associated with him
about 1370 was one Jacob de Pont St. Maxence.
After a time these two quarreled, and Jacob accused
Manessier and Yivant (Manessier's brother) of cer-
tain malversations in his office, of having established
a synagogue witliout the king's permission, and of
having pronounced an edict of excommunication
contrary to the provisions of the act of Parliament
of Feb. 3, 1374. Manessier was imprisoned in the
Chatelet, Paris. The king's proctor demanded a
line, with imprisonment until the fine had been
paid. It is, however, probable that this was re-
mitted, as Manessier afterward recovered his credit
with the court, after having made peace with

Bibliography : Isidore Loeb, in Griltz Jubelschrift, pp. .54-56.
a. J.

MANETHO (Greek, Mavtdui or MaveOuv) : Greco-
Egyptian writer whose history of Egypt, forming a
source of Josephus, especially in his book "Contra
Apionem " (i. 14 ct seq. ; ed. Niese, §§ 73-105 ; 228-
351), possesses special interest for the history of

Manetho was high priest of Sebennytus in the
Delta (according to some, erroneously, of Heiiopo-
iis), and lived under the tirst two Ptolemies. His
history was written after 271 is.c. ; its importance
rests on Manetho's ability to use hieroglyphic
sources directly. Though he seems to have enjoyed
considerable reputation among the contemporary
Greeks, it does not appear that his history was much
read in the lirst century of the common era. Jose-
phus is the only writer who furnishes coherent ex-
tracts. After him, Julius Africanus (221) and Euse-
bius (326) extracted chronological tables of Egyptian
dynasties and kings for their Biblical chronogra-
phies. Both extracts were preserved by Georgius
Syncellus (r. 792). The confusion of facts and
names in Josephus' extracts (especially on the Exo-
dus, "Contra Ap." i. 26; ed. Niese, §§ 228 ct seq.) is
almost incredible. Some of the errors ma_y be at-
tributed to Josephus himself. What Josephus re-
ports about tile Hyksos (or Hykussos) dynasty con-
tains valuable infoi-mation ; but the connection of
those kings and the Israelites is an untenable theory.
What remains of the Manethonian Exodus account
after the correction of the most manifest blunders
seems, however, to show that the writer used the
Biblical narrative .and tried to combine it with some
popular Eg3'ptian tales.

BiBUOttiiAiMiY : The extant fragments of Manetho have often
been collected (hy Hosellini, Bunsen, and others). They are
most conveniently accessible in C. Miiller, Histniici Gi'aci
Minnre>'. ii. .'ill : and the most valuable treatise on them is
Unger, Die Clironologie des ManeAho, 1«67. For scattered
literature see Wiedemann, Gesch. Aeguptens, p. 121.

T. w. :m. :^i.

MANETTI, .GIANNOZZO : Italian statesman
and Christian Hebraist; born in Florence 1396; died
at Naples Oct. 26, 1459. At the suggestion of Pope

Nicholas V., who had made him one of his secre-
taries, Manetti learned Hebrew from a .lew named
Manuel. He is said to have had a Jewish servant
with whom he spoke Hebrew ; and his son Agnolo
from an early age was taught Hebrew besides Latin
and Greek.

Manetti translated the Psalms at Nicholas' re-
(juest, but had to defend the principles of his trans-
lation in a special treatise. In the hope of gaining
the 5,000 ducats promised by the pope for the dis-
covery of the original Hebrew of the Gospel of Mat-
thew, Manetti collected many Hebrew manuscripts
which are now in the Vatican. He also began a
large apologetic work against the Jews.

Bibliography: Burckhart, Renaissance in TtaJi/, i. 270;
Steinschneider, in Zeit. filr Heitr. Bihl. i. 87; Michaud, in
Biographic UniverseUe; JS'uova Encicloijcdia Italiana.

T. J.

MANI, ELIJAH: Turkish rabbi; died in He-
bron, Palestine, in the summer of 1899. He was a
native of Bagdad, where he was held in great esteem
for his piety and his knowledge of the Cabala.
About 1856 he went to Jerusalem, and two years
later settled in Hebron. When R. Moses Pcrcire of
that city died, Mani succeeded himas rabbi of the
Sephardim. For fourteen years he accepted no re-
muneration, but later was forced by poverty to over-
come his scruples. He was very active in charita-
ble and communal affairs, and his simple and noble
life won for him the respect and admiration of all
the inhabitants of that ancient city ; Mohammedans
as w^ell as Jews thronged to his funeral. He is said
to have written eleven works, which he refused to

Bibliography: Ahimaf^rtm] (19()0-1), pp. ;W.V3Krt.

s. s. P. Wi.

MANISSA (the ancient Magnesia ad Sipy-
lum) : Town in the Turkish vilayet of Aidin,
twenty-eight miles northeast of Smyrna. It has a
population of 40,000, of whom 1,800 are Jews
(against 1,200 in 1838). The community there is
said to be older than that of Smyrna. Richard
Pococke, who visited the city about 1733-34, says
("Description of the East," ii. 56): "Several Jews
[of Manissa] exported goods to Smyrna and Europe.
They also manufactured calicoes, and usually were
rich. To-day thej- are the commercial leaders. As
artisans, they are chiefly shoemakers, tinsmiths, etc.
The young women have recently begun to learn the
manufacture of Turkish rugs, and this industry is in
quite a flourishing condition." When Tournefort
visited the district in 1702 ("Voyage au Levant," ii.
490) he found three synagogues there; now there
are five — named Shalom, Mayorca, Toledo, 'Ez
Hayyim, and Talmud Torah. The oldest of these,
Shalom, was destroyed by fire, but has been rebuilt.

Among its benevolent societies are the heljra kad-
disha; the Hospital Society; the Mohar u-Mattan,
which assists and dowers girls who wish to marry;
the Ilesed shel Emet, which provides for poor
families in time of mourning; the Shilluhim, to
assist strangers and the poor to emigrate ; and the
'Ozer Dallim, which provides the poor Avith shoes.
The different societies have their own revenues.

There are two cemeteries, one old and the other




dating back about a century. In the former, tomb-
stones dated 5406 (= 1646) have been found. A por-
tion of the old cemetery was occupied for some years
by Mohammedan refugees, who mistook it for va-
cant ground, and built houses there. To save the
new cemetery from a similar fate, it was enclosed
with walls in 1900 by the hebra kaddisha, which
spent for this purpose 400 Turkish livres. The
community has a small but well-organized hospital,
which was founded in 1869 on the initiative of Rabbi
Hayyim Mazliah and Rabeno Algranati. Before
the establishment of schools by the Alliance Israelite
Universelle (one for boys in 1892 and anotlier for
girls in 1896) the Talmud Torah was the only edu-
cational center. The school buildings stand on a
fine estate belonging to the community. After the
foundation of these schools the Talmud Torah ceased
to exist, and modern ideas of progress have been
adopted. Hebrew, French, and Turkish are taught
in the schools, and a reading-room was established
in 1895. Greek, Turkish, and Judaeo-Spanish are the
vernaculars. The community is governed by a
chief rabbi, who is also the government representa-
tive. Since the abolition of the communal tax called
" 'arikah," the tax upon salt has met the communal
needs and the salaries of the rabbis and shohetim.

The oldest of the chief rabbis of whom any men-
tion is made was Aaron Lapapa, the author of the
"Bene Aharon " (Smyrna, 1674), who was succeeded
by Benjamin Melammed. After Melammed, the
next rabbis known were Zerahiah Azulai, author of
"Sukkat Dawid"; Raphael Abraham Mazliah, au-
thor of " Ma'amar ha-Melek " (Salonica, 1806) ; Joseph
Mazliah, Abraliam Mazliah, Joseph Hakim, Moses
Mazliah, and David Gomel, the present (1904) rabbi.
Two blood accusations have been brought against
the Jews of Manissa, one in 1883 and the other in
1893. In 1837 two hundred Jews died of the Plague.

In a chest in the synagogue Shalom is preserved
a parchment manuscript of eight books of the Bible,
in three volumes. The first volume contains the
books of Genesis and Exodus; the second those of
Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy ; and the
third Joshua, Judges, and Isaiah. At the end of
the last volume is the name of the copyist, Reuben
bar Todros, and the date of the book, 5049 (1289).
These books are greatly venerated. Some years ago
the second volume was sent to Paris to be sold in
order to obtain money for the needs of the commu-
nity. As soon as the l30ok had left Manissa tliere
occurred a succession of sudden and premature
deaths. Attributing these misfortunes to the re-
moval of the volume, the community telegraphed
for its immediate return.

Among the famous Jews born in Manissa was
Samtob (Shem-Tob) Shikar, a composer of Oriental

About eighty years ago, in the time of Kara Oglu
Osman, Chelebi Aaron Franco was the government
treasurer; on the downfall of the former. Franco
shared his disgrace; Franco's enemies went so far as
to pass sentence of death on liim, ])ut he was .saved
through tlie efforts of Hayyim Palaggi, chief rabbi
of Smyrna. One of the contemporaries of Franco
w^as a certain Ciielebi Abnilmmaji Mayo, jiroprietor
of a large estate. Samtob (Sliem-Tob) Joseph is

at present the veterinary surgeon of Manissa and its
dependencies; several Jews are members of local
tribunals, and David Franco is the present drago-
man of the Italian vice-consulate.
D. A. Ga.

MANN, LOUIS: American actor ; born in New
York city 1865 ; son of Daniel and Caroline Mann.
He began his career as an actor when but six years
of age. In 1880 Mann went on tour with a
small company, and subsequently was engaged by
the elder Salvini (1881), by Lewis Morrison (1882),
and by J. K. Emmett (1888). At the conclusion of
these engagements Mann set out as a "barnstormer"
in classical drama. Among the parts he has cre-
ated may be mentioned that of Utterson the law-
yer, in Robert Louis Stevenson's "Dr. Jekyll and
Mr. Hyde," as presented by Daniel Bandmann (1887).
Mann next appeared in "Incog," in which he took
one of the leading parts (1891). His next conspicu-
ous success was in 1896, in a burlesque of the chSiV-
acter of tkengali in "The Merry World." Later he
turned his attention to German comedy parts and
originated those in "The Strange Adventures of
Miss Brown" (1896), "The Girl from Paris" (1897),
"The Telephone Girl" (1898), "All on Account of
Eliza " (1901), and "Master and Pupil." Since then
Mann has devoted himself especially to these and
character parts. In 1902 he took the leading role in
"The Red Kloof," and later joined Weber and Fields
of New York, being associated with them in their
productions until the dissolution of their partnership
in 1904.

A. F. H. V.

MANNA (p). — Biblical Data : The miracu-
lously supplied food on which the Israelites subsisted
in the wilderness. Its name is said to have origi-
nated in the question Kin p ("What is it? " Ex. xvi.
15, R. V. ; conip. Rashi ad loc), asked by the Israel-
ites when they first saw it. According to George
Ebers (" Durch Gosen zum Sinai," p. 236), the name
comes from the Egyptian "mennu" (="food").
The manna is also designated " bread " (Ex. xvi. 4);
it is called " the corn of heaven " and " the bread of
the mighty" in Ps. Ixxviii. 24-25, R. V., and, in a
depreciative sense, "the light bread "in Num. xxi.
5. The manna descended in the night in the form
of coriander-seed of the color of bdellium (Num. xi.
7), so that in the morning the ground looked as if it
were covered with hoar frost. The grains were
ground or pounded into fiour, and then the flour
was prepared and baked in the form of cakes, the
taste of which was like that of "wafers made with
honey" or "as the taste of fresh oil" (Ex. xvi. 31;
Num. xi. 8).

The gathering of the manna was connected with
several miracles: it was collected before sunrise, for,
in spite of its hard substance, it melted in the sun.
The (luantity collected made exactly one omcr for
every person, whether one collected much or little.
On Friday morning the portions were double, for
the manna could not be found on Sabbath. The
manna was eaten the day it was gathered ; if it were
left until the following morning it corrupted and
bred worms, though the manna gathered on Friday
and kept for the Sabbath remained fresh. It con-




tinued to descend during the forty years the Israel-
ites were in the wilderness, but when they arrived
at Gilgal, on the 14th of Nisan, and began to eat
the grain grown there, the manna ceased to fall.
In order to perpetuate the memory of this provi-
dence, Aaron was told to put an omer of manna in
a vessel and lay it " before the testimony " (Ex. xvi.
17-35; Josh. v. 10-12). Num. xxi. 5 makes it ap-
pear that manna was the only food of the Israelites
while they were in the wilderness, although refer-
ences to provisions of fine flour, oil, and meat are
met with elsewhere. It may be either that the
manna constituted their main but not only food-
supply during the whole forty years, or that it be-
came their exclusive food after the provisions they
took with them
from Egypt
were exhausted.
Certain mod-
ern scholars at-
tempt to iden-
tify the manna of
Exodus with the
exudation of the
(named by Eh-
renberg the
" Tammarix
mannifera ") of
the Sinaitic pen-
insula. The
Arabs call it
"mann al-sa-
ma" (= "heav-
enly manna "),
and collect it and
sell it to pil-
grims. It has
been identified
also with the

exudations of other trees found in those regions.
A more recent view identifies the Biblical manna
with lichen and allied species of plants found in
Arabia and other parts of western Asia. The re-
ports of modern travelers, however, are contradict-
ory in regard to "manna."
E. c. M. Sel.

In Rabbinical Literature : Manna was one

of the ten things created on the first Friday of Crea-
tion, in the twilight (Abot v. 9 ; comp. Targ. pseudo-
Jonathan to Ex. xvi. 4, 15). According to Zabdi b.
Levi, the manna which fell near the camp of the
Israelites in the wilderness covered an area two
thousand cubits square ; it remained on the ground
until four hours after sunrise, when it melted. It
fell to a depth of sixty cubits, or, according to
Isi b. Akiba (Midr. Teh. to Ps. xxiii.), of fifty
cubits, and the quantity which fell every day would
have sufficed to nourish the people for two thou-
sand years. The question why was it necessary
that the manna should fall every day is answered
by the Rabbis in different ways : the Israelites could
not be encumbered with its burden; they needed
warm food every day, and the manna was warm
when it fell ; they needed that their hearts should be
turned to God for their daily bread. It was so con-

Israelites Gathering Manna in the Desert.

(From the Sarajevo Haggadah of the fourteenth century.)

spicuous that all the kings of the East and West
could see it from their palaces (Yoma 76a; Tan., Be-
shallah, 21).

In order that the manna might remain clean, a
north wind first swept the ground, and then rains
washed it. Then, after the ground had been cov-
ered with a layer of dew, the manna fell upon
it, and was itself then covered with dew (Mek.,
Beshallah, Wayassa', 3; comp. Sifre, Num. 89). It
so fell that the righteous had no trouble in gathering
it, finding it at the doors of their tents; those of less
firm belief had to go farther for it; the wicked had
to go far from the camp to gather it (Yoma 75a).
A very different statement, but of the same na-
ture, is given in Tan., Beshallah, 22: The diligent

went out into
the field to
gather the man-
na ; the less dili-
gent went just
outside their
tents; but the
indolent lay in
their sleeping-
places while
the manna fell
into their out-
stretched hands.
Created only for
the children of
Israel, the
heathen could
not secure the
smallest quan-
tity of it, for
when one
stretched out his
hand to pick it
up, it slipped
from his grasp
(Sifre, Deut. 313; Midr. Abkir, in Yalk., Ex. 258);
according to another opinion, it tasted bitter to the
heathen (Tan., I.e.).

The melting of the manna formed streams which
furnished drink to many deer and other animals, and
when those animals were afterward killed by
heathen, the latter recognized in the meat the taste
of the manna (Tan., I.e. ; comp. Targ. pseudo-Jona-
than to Ex. xvi. 21). It was only in this way that
the heathen could know the true taste of the manna,
for the water itself was bitter to them (Tan., I.e.).
With the manna precious stones fell every morning
{Yoma. I.e.). The manna was adapted to the taste
of each individual ; to the adult it tasted like the
food of the adult, while to the sucking child it tasted
like the milk of its mother's breasts. By wishing,
one could taste in the manna anything desired,
whether fowl or fruit ; thus the statement that the
people ground it, or pounded it, and then baked it
(Num. xi. 8), is only figurative, for if one so wished
it tasted like food made of flour ground or
pounded, baked or cooked. According to a differ-
ent interpretation, the wicked were compelled to
grind it and prepare it until it was fit for food,
while for the righteous it was ground by angels be-
fore it fell from heaven.




The manna exhaled a fragrant odor, and during
the forty years the Israelites wandered in the wil-
derness it served the women as perfume. Being a
heavenly food, the manna contained nutritious mat-
ter only, without any waste products, so that during
the whole time the Israelites lived upon it the gross-
est office of the body remained unexercised. The
Israelites, nevertheless, complained of it (comp.
Num. xi. 6): "Shall a human being
Charac- not discharge of what he eats? our
teristics. bowels will surely be swollen " (Yoma
I.e.; Sifre, Num. 87-89; Tan., I.e.).
A miracle attended the collecting of the manna,
in that the number of omers gathered by each
family was found to correspond to the number of
its members. This rendered the manna useful in
solving most difficult problems. For instance, when
two people came before Moses, one accusing the
other of having stolen his slave and the other claim-
ing to have bought the slave, Moses deferred his
decision to the following morning, when the number
of omers of manna in their respective houses showed
to whom the slave belonged. lu this way many
otherwise inextricable complications could be un-
raveled (Yoma 75a).

The Rabbis disagreed as to the period of time for
which the pot of manna was placed by Aaron " be-
fore the testimony." It was placed there only for
the following generation; it was placed there for
all future generations; it was to be kept there until
the coming of the Messiah. It is one of the three
things which will be restored by Elijah. Jeremiah,
when remonstrating with the children of Israel for
their neglect of the Torah, showed them the pot of
manna: "See how God nourishes those that occupy
themselves with the study of the Law." There is
also a di.sagreement between the Rabbis with regard
to the length of time after Moses' death in which
the Israelites ate the manna— whether for forty
days, seventy days, or for the fourteen years during
which the land of (Canaan was conquered and di-
vided among the tribes. According to R. Joshua,
the manna ceased to descend immediately after
Moses' death, and the Israelites were compelled to
eat what they had gathered previously (Mek., I.e.).
The manna is reserved as the future food of the
righteous, for whicli purpose it is ground in a mill
situated in Shehakim, the third heaven (Hag. 12b;
Tan., I.e.).

K. c. M. Sel.

brew poet and painter; born at Rodzkovvitz, gov-
ernment of Wilna, 1859; died there in 1886. He re-
ceived the Talmudic training usual in Poland, and
was taught Hebrew grammar by his father. At
thirteen he entered the yeshibah at Minsk, and he
remained there until 1H76, when lie removed to Wilna,
studied at the yeshibah there, and, on the advice of
Joshua Ho.schel Levin, entered the school of paint-
ing and design. His first i)oetical writings also
belong to that time. In 1880 he went to St. Peters-
burg and enrolled as a student at the Imperial
Academy of Fine Arts, receiving, in 1882, a silver
■medal from the grand duke Vladimir for extraor-
dinary progress.

Manne's poems, " Mebasser ha-Abili." "Ha

Abib," "Ha-Shoshannah," and "Mas'at Nafshi"
(which has been set to music and is sung often in
Zionist gatherings), place him among the foremost
Hebrew poets. His best poems are somewhat
didactic in character, as "Tikwah la-'Obed," a frag-
mentary work, depicting the contrast between hope
and despair. Another fragmentary poem, " We-
Zarah ha-Shemesh u-Ba ha-Shemesh," is an elegy
on the death of Emperor Alexander II. His first
prose article, on the art of painting, especially
among the Jews, appeared in "Ha-Zefirah" in
1882. This was followed by a whole series of
papers on art, artists, and esthetics, including one
on the art of poetry and a paper on' the Jewish
painter Oppenheim. His writings have been
published in two volumes, under the title "Kol
Kitbe Mordekai Zebi Manne " (Warsaw).

Bibliography: Oat'und West, 1902, p. 195; K<tl Kitbe, War-
saw, 1896.

H. n. J. G. L.

MANNHEIM : Town in the grand ducliy of
Baden, Germany. It has a population of 141,131,
including 5,478 Jews (1900). Jews are not known
to have lived in Mannheim before the middle of
the seventeenth century. On Sept. 1, 1660, thirteen
families, eleven of German and two of Portuguese
origin, obtained permission from the elector Karl
Ludwig to reside there. A deed dated 1656 mentions
the first burial-ground, which in 1661 was exchanged
for another; the latter was used until 1839. The
first rabbi was Naphtali Herz (1657-71). His suc-
cessor was Isaac Brilin (1671-78), who was appointed
rabbi at Mannheim after the expulsion of the Jews
from Hammelburg. Upon his death his son-in-law,
Eliezer b. Jekuthiel, became rabbi ; but, like his suc-
cessor, Moses Grotwohl (1679), he held the office only
a short time. Even at that early date there were
78 Jews in Mannheim, a fact which induced the
municipal administration to submit a request to the
government of the Palatinate not to grant any more
permits to Jews. Isaac Aaron Worms of Metz was
rabbi from 1685 to 1693. The devastation of the
Palatinate by the French compelled the Jews of
Mannheim, who had assisted in the defense of the
city, to go elsewhere; nearly 70 families lost their
homes by fire. Heidelberg received 26 families un-
til their houses at Mannheim were rebuilt (1691).
Among the new houses was the large quadrangular
building erected by the court factor Emanuel Op-
penheimer of Vienna, .son of the famous Samuel
Oppenueimer, and which, until 1729, wasthe tempo-
rary residence of the elector Karl Philipp. A con-
cession granted in 1698, whose object was to bring
about the reconstruction of the city as .soon as possi-
ble, increased the number of Jewish inhabitants
to 150 families. In 1701 the Jews obtained permis-
sion to extend their burial-iilac(! and to build a

The first rabbi after tlie reconstruction of the city
was Joseph David Ulf (1706-29). It was at this
pi-riod that a Klaus was founded at Mannheim
tiirough the generosity of Leinle Moses Reiuganum,
with a capital of 100,000 gulden. The biiilding, in-
cluding a synagogue and bet hainidrash, was dedi-
cated in 1708,and, with some alterations, exists to-day.
Similar institutions, but sinalitM-, were established by




Michael May and Elias Haium. The rabbi at that
time was Samuel Helmann (1726-51), an opponent

Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 73 of 169)