Isidore Singer.

The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) online

. (page 74 of 169)
Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 74 of 169)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

of Jonathan Eybeschiitz. On Helmann 's appoint-
ment as rabbi at Metz, David (Tebele) Hess was
elected chief rabbi in Mannheim. During his tenure
of office occurred the notorious divorce dispute of
Cleve, which involved a member of the Mannheim
congregation and aroused a bitter controversy among
the rabbis of Germany (1766; see "Or Yisrael,"
Cleve, 1770; Horovitz, "Frankfurter Rabbinen,"
iv. 27-31, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1885; Lubetzki,
"Bidke Battim," p. 44b, Paris, 1896). The elector
Karl Theodor granted more Jews the right to live in
Mannheim (1744), at the same time, however, order-
ing them to settle in the side streets, as they should
not be allowed to own a house in the main street.
For thirty-two years the chief rabbi at the klaus was
Naphtali Hirsch Katzenellenbogen. The "Stadt-
rabbiner" was Ilirschel Levin (1770-73), who left
Mannheim for Berlin. In 1784 Michel Scheuer,
from Mayence, was appointed " Stadtrabbiner " ; he
held the office for twenty-five years and died in 1809.
His successors were : Gottschalk Abraham, who had
been klaus rabbi and " Oberland " rabbi (d. 1824);
Hirsch Traub (d. 1849); Moses Praeger (d. 1861),
who introduced a Reform service (1856) ; B. Friedman
(1863-79); and the present (1904) rabbi, M. Steckel-
macher (since 1880). Mannheim contains many
Jewish philanthropic institutions.

Bibliography: Lowenstein, Gcsch. der Juden in der Kur-
pfalz, Frankfort-ou-the-Main, 1895.

D. L. L.


Hungarian painter; born at Budapest Feb. 27,
1854. He studied at the schools of drawing in
Budapest, Munich, Vienna, and Rome. The best
known of his paintings are: "On Flowery Mead,"
"Procession at Anacapri," "Young Tramps," and
"Italian Evening Landscape."

Bibliography: Singer, AUg. Kllnstler-Lexikoru vol. iil.
s. N. D.

preacher; born at Copenhagen Oct. 17, 1793; died
at Vienna March 17, 1865. The son of a hazzan, he
begau the study of the Talmud at an early age,
though not to the neglect of secular studies. On
completing the course of the cathedral school at
Copenhagen, he took up philosophy. Oriental lan-
guages, and theology at tlie university tliere, at the
same time continuing his studies in Talmud and
Jewish science. When the Jews of Denmark were
emancipated in 1814 confirmation was made obliga-
tor}^ and the office of catechist was instituted by
the state, ]Manniieimer being the first incumbent
(1816). The first confirmation took place May, 1817.
In 1821 Mannheinier went to Vienna, where there
was then no congregation, the community being di-
vided into two opposing parties. Mannheinier, who
was welcomed by botii factions, soon succeeded in
organizing a congregation, drafting a program and
ritual on the traditional basis and liarmonizing the
views of the two parlies. Ho returned to Copen-
hagen in December of tiie same year. Failing in
his attempt to secure a new synagogue for Re-
form services, he accepted a call to the pulpit left

Isaac Noah Mannbeimer.

vacant by Zunz in Berlin. German services, how-
ever, were interdicted in that city; the temple for-
merly under the ministry of B. Beer was closed, and
the royal cabinet order of Dec. 26, 1823, obtained by
the Orthodo.x party, frustrated the attempt to adapt
the old ritual to new forms
by delivering German ser-
mons in tile chief syna-
gogue. Mannheinier there-
fore left Berlin and took
teniporar}' charge of the
pulpit of Hamburg, preach-
ing also at Leipsic during
the fairs. In 1824 he mar-
ried Liseke Damier, and in
November of the same year
he was called to the new
synagogue of Vienna. As
he could not receive the
title of preacher or rabbi,
he was inducted, in June,
1825, as "Direktor der
Wiener K. K. Genehmigten
Oeffentlichen Israel it ischen

Religionsschule " ; he dedicated the new temple in
April, 1826, and officiated there until 1829.

Mannheimer's success was due in great measure
to his oratorical gifts. His sermons were, for their
time, models (Geiger, "Einleitung in das Studium
der Jildischen Theologie," in "Nachgelassene
Schriften," ii. 31). His German translation of the
prayer-book and of the fast-day prayers, and his
arrangement of the fast-day liturgy, are of perma-
nent importance for the ritual, the conservative
spirit in which this work was undertaken leading to
its adoption by many communities.

In 1848 Mannheinier was returned by Brody to
the Austrian Reichstag, where he delivered two
memorable speeches, one on the Jew-tax (Oct. 5,
1848) and the other on the abolition of capital pun-
ishment (Jan. 29, 1849). On his seventieth birthday
the city of Vienna conferred honorary citizenship
upon him. He devoted the gifts bestowed by the
communit}' upon him on that occasion to a founda-
tion for the aid of rabbis, preachers, and teachers,
which still bears his name.

Mannbeimer published the following works:
"Praedikener Holdte ved det Mosaiske Troes-Sam-
fund's Andagts-Ovelser i Modersmaalet i Sommer-
halvaaret 1819" (Copenliagen, 1819); "Gottesdienst-
liche Vortrage Gehalten im Israelitischen Bethause
zu Wien im Monate Tischri 5594 " (Vienna, 1834);
"Gottesdienstliche Vortriige fur die Wochenab-
schnitte des Jahres," vol. i.. Genesis and Exodus (ib.
1835; partly translated into Hebrew by E Kuttner,
under the title nj "Q, il)- 1805); a transhition of the
prayer-book and of the fast-day prayers according
to the ritual of the Vienna Temple (1840; frequently
reprinted). His polemics and responsa include:
"Gutachten fur das Gebetbuch des Hamburger
Tempels" (1841); "Gutachten Gegen die Reforra-
partei iii Frankfurt-am-^laiii in Angelegenheit der
Bcschneidungsfrage" (1843); "Eiuige Worte Uber
Juden und Judenthum " (supplement to the"0e8-
terreichische Medicinische Wochenschrift," 1842,
No. 34), directed against Professor Rosa's statements




in reference to the Jewish question (1848). Two
numbers of his " Gottesdienstliche Vortrage " ap-
peared posthumously, edited by S. Hammerschlag
(Vienna, 1876).

Bibliography : G. Wolf, Isdk Nna Mannheimer, Prediger :
Ewe Biagraphijiche Skizze, Vienna, 1863 (Italian transl.
by Lello della Torre, Trlest, 18tj;i); Kayserling, Bihliothek
Jlldischer Kanzelredner, 1. 2«5, and the bibliography there

E. N.

LOUISE: Writer and poetess; born at Prague
Sept. 3, 1845. In 1866 she went with her parents
to New Yorli, where she became the wife of Prof.
Sigmund Mannheimer. She wrote German and
English poems, and articles and reviews for German
and English periodicals. Zimmermann's " Deutsch
in Amerika" (Chicago, 1894) contains some of her
poems and a short biographical notice. Among her
productions in English are "' The Storm, " a translation
of one of Judah ha-Levi's poems, and" The Harvest,"
a prize poem (printed in "The American Jews' An-
nual," Cincinnati, 1897). In 1895 she published
under the title of " The Jewish Woman " a transla-
tion of Nahida Remy's "Das Jtidische Weib" (2d
ed. 1897). She is the author of "The Maiden's
Song," and is the founder of the Cincinnati Jewish
Industrial School for Boys and the inventor of the
Pureairin Patent Ventilator.

A. S. Man.

educator; born at Kemel, Hesse-Nassau, May 16,
1835. Educated at the teachers' seminary at Ems,
Nassau, lie became teacher in the Jewish schools of
Schierstein (1853) and Hegenheim (1858). lu 1861
he entered the University of Paris (Bachelier ^s Let-
tres. 1863), becoming professor of German in 1864.
In 1865 he went to America and lived successively
in Baltimore (to 1867), New York (to 1873), St.
Louis (to 1876), and Rochester, N. Y. (where he be-
came teacher at the Jewish school). In 1884 he was
appointed professor of exegesis and Aramaic, and
librarian, at Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati,

Mannheimer has published : " Die Wahrheit liber
den Talmud " (Basel, 1858 ; translated from the French
of T. Klein); " Hebrew Reader and Grammar " (New
York, 1873; 4th ed., Cincinnati, 1903); "Anti-Semi-
tism" (Cincinnati, 1897; tran.slated from the French
of Leroy-Bcaulieu); "Iggeret Musar," an English
translation of Solomon Alarai's "Iggeret Musar"
{ib. 1898).

A. F. T. H.

MANOAH B. JACOB: French Talmudist;
lived at Lund in the second half of the tliirteenth
century. He is sometimes quoted under the abbre-
viation □ "-!(= " R. Manoah " ; Halherstam MSS., No.
345). Manoah often cites decisions in the name of
his father. After a brief residence at Narbonne,
where lie studied witli MeVr b. Simon and Reuben
b. Hayyim, Manoah returned to Lunel. Like sev-
eral of his contemporaries, lie was a student of the
works of Maimonides, and wrote a commentary on
the latter's Yad ha-Hazakah, wliich is quoted in
"Sha'arcZiyyon" under the title "Seferha-Mannah,"
and in " Kore ha-Dorot," under the title "Sefer

ha-Menuhah." It was printed at Constantinople
in 1518.

Bibliography: Azulai, Shem ha^GedoUm, p. 60a; Conforte,
Kore ha-Dorot, p. 17a; Isaac de Lattes, Sha'are Ziuyon, p.
7.5; Renan-Neubauer, -Les Babbins FrangaUs, p. 513; Furst,
Bibl. Jud. ; Gross, Gallia Judaica, p. 285.
s. S. K.

MANOAH OF LUNEL. See Manoah b. Jacob.


Polish author; born at Brzeszticzka (xpNf^DDyii),
Volhynia; died in 1612. He was the author of the
following works: " Hokmat Manoah," glosses to the
Talmud (printed in the Cracow 1602-5 edition of the
Talmud, and separately at Prague, in 1602, by his
son); "Menoah ha-Lebabot," commentary to Bahya
ben Joseph's "Al-Hidayah ila Fara'id al-Kulub"
(Lublin, 1596; frequently reprinted); " Manoah Maza
Hen," on the title-page of which tiie emperor Ru-
dolph and King Matthias are mentioned. Manoah
must have composed a number of other works, for
his son, who preserved those already noted, speaks
of his intention to publish "all " his father's works
on the Talmud, the Cabala, and astronomy.

Bibliography : Sternberg, Gesch. der Juden in Polen, p. 184,
Leipsic, 1878; Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 1652, No.'6209.
s. s. G. We.

MANRESA : Town in Spain, in the province of
Barcelona. In the twelfth century it is said to have
contained 500 Jewish families, most of which lived
in a narrow lane named " Grau dels Jueus," near the
town hall; their cemetery, still called "Fossana dels
Jueus," was outside the city. In the thirteenth
and fourteenth centuries the Jews there were en-
gaged in manufacturing, in trading (including that in
slaves), in money-lending (at the rate of 20 per cent,
the usual interest at that time), and in the cultiva-
tion of their vineyards and estates. The hostility of
the Christians toward the Jews which prevailed
throughout Catalonia was manifested in Manresa
also. In 1325 the Christian inhabitants of the town
endeavored to prevent the Jews from baking their
Passover bread, so that the latter were obliged to
appeal to the king for protection. Tlie Jews in
Manresa did not escape tlie general persecution of
1391, and many of thein professed to accept Chris-
tianity. After 1414 comparatively few Jews re-
mained in the town, and in 1492 they sold their
property for whatever they could get for it and left
the country. At the beginning of the fifteenth cen-
tury Manresa had 30,000 inhabitants; three centuries
later it contained barely one-fifth of that number.
Several members of the Zabarra (Sahara) family
lived in Manresa. The town is not mentioned in the
"Shebet Yehudah."

Bibliography: J. M. de Mas v Casas, Memoria HiMoricn de
hot Hfhrenn u tie Im Arabe^ en Manra<a, Manresa, 18:^7 (2d
ed. 1882); Ed. Tamaro, Lns JudinK de Manrem, in Jacobs,
SonrcrK, pp. 1.54 et neq.; R. E. J. v. 286 et seq., vi. 297; RJos,
Hist. 11.155,402; 111.310.
G. M. K.

MEETINGS : Mettings held at the summons of
tiie lord mayor of London by citizens of the English
metropolis to protest against the persecution of the
Jews. The first of these was iield on July 3, 1840,
to protest against tlic blood accusation ])rouglit
against tlic Jews of Damascus. A demand for this




meeting was made bj' 210 important residents of the
city. Speeches were delivered by Daniel O'Connell,
Alderman Thompson, Dr. Bowring, and others, ex-
pressing their disbelief in the accusation and de-
manding the release of the accused. The resolutions
of the meeting were sent by the lord mayor to the
chief ambassadors of foreign powers residing in
England, and an especially favorable reply was re-
ceived from the Emperor of Russia. Over forty
years later meetings were convened by the lord
mayor of London to protest against the persecutions
of the Jews in Russia. Attention had been called
to these by articles in the London " Times " of Jan.
9 and 11, 1883, written by Joseph Jacobs, and a req-
uisition was made for a Mansion House Meeting in
consequence. The requisition was signed by thirty-
eight persons, including the Archbishop of Canter-
bury, Cardinal Manning, Charles Darwin, John
Tyndall, and eighteen members of Parliament.
This meeting was followed by numerous others
throughout the United Kingdom, including one at
the University of Oxford.

The requisition for the Guildhall Meeting of Dec.
10, 1890, was signed by eighty-three persons, again
headed by the Archbishop of Canterbury and Cardi-
nal Manning, and including nineteen peers, twenty-
seven members of Parliament, and the foremost rep-
resentatives of nearly every learned profession. The
following resolution, proposed by the Duke of
Westminster and seconded by the Bishop of Ripon,
was adopted: "That in the opinion of this meeting
the renewed suiTerings of the Jews in Russia from
the operation of severe and exceptional edicts and
disabilities are deeply to be deplored, and that in
this last decade of the nineteenth century religious
liberty is a principle which should be recognized by
every Christian community as among the natural
human rights. " In the name of the citizens of Lon-
don a memorandum was addressed to the czar to this
effect, praying that the Jews of Russia should be
granted political and social equality with the rest of
his subjects. The czar refusing officially to receive
the communication, it was returned through the for-
eign office.

As a consequence of the first of the two last-
mentioned meetings, a Mansion House Fund was
raised of £108,000 and was administered by a Man-
sion House Committee ; this later took over the
£100,000 collected after the Guildhall Meeting, when
it became known henceforth as the Russo-Jewish
Committee. In the early stages of its work the
Mansion House Committee supervised the transpor-
tation of large numbers of Russo-Jewish refugees
from Brody to America, having a branch committee
at Liverpool presided over by B. L. Benas. The
chairman of both committees was Sir Julian
Goldsmith, and the honorary secretary was N. S. Jo-
seph. The committee took part also in all the confer-
ences held to consider the position of the Russian
Jews and helped to found agricultural colonies at
Moosomin, Canada ; Painted Woods, N. Dak. ; Vine-
land, N. J. ; and elsewhere. None of these colonies,
however, had a very long life. The Russo-Jewish
Committee, besides assisting the Jewish Board of
Guardians by arranging for the immigration, repatri-
ation, and settlement of refugees, founded also in

London a Location and Information Bureau as a labor
registry, and evening classes in English for the refu-
gees, so as to enable them to eani their living outside
the congested districts.

Bibliography: The Times (London), Feb. 2, 1882, and Dec.
11, 1890; Publications of the Russo-Jewish Committee.

O. J. S.— J.

MANSUR MARZUK: Egyptian rabbi and
author; settled at Salonica toward the close of the
eighteenth century. He was the author of several
works: "Zur Todah " (Salonica, 1783), a commen-
tary on the Yad ha-Hazakah; "Ben Pedahzur"
{ib. 1786), sermons; "Korban Elizur," a Talmudic

Bibliography: Azulai, Shem ha^OedoUm; Franco, Histoire
des Israelites de VEmpire Ottoman, p. 127.

s. M. Fr.

physician ; died at Damascus in 1549. His parents
— and perhaps Mantino himself — were natives of Tor-
tosa, Spain, which place they left at the time of the
banishment of the Jews from Spain (1492). Mantino
studied medicine and philosophy at the universities
of Padua and Bologna. Having graduated, he es-
tablished himself at the latter place, and devoted his
hours of leisure to the translation of scientific works
from Hebrew into Latin. By these translations he
soon acquired a high reputation, and he was be-
friended by the highest dignitaries of the court
of Pope Clement VII.

The war of 1527 compelled Mantino to leave the
Pontifical States. He settled at Verona, where the
new bishop, Giberti, protected him. In 1528, when
Giberti left Verona for Rome, Mantino decided to
settle at Venice, where the Council of Ten exempted
him from wearing the Jews' hat. This privilege
was granted him, at first for a term of several
months, upon the recommendation of the French
and English ambassadors, the papal legate, and
other dignitaries whom he numbered among his
patients. At the expiration of the prescribed
term Mantino found an influential protector ir
another of his patients, Theodore Trivulce, marshal
of France and governor of Genoa; the latter, urging
his own services to the Venetian Republic, in-
sisted that the council sliould make the exemption

The efforts of the English king Henry VIII. to
get rid of his wife Catherine on the pretext that
their marriage was contrary to the Biblical law, and
that the dispensation obtained from Pope Julius II.
was invalid, involved Mantino in difficulties. Henry
sent Richard Croke to Italy in order to obtain opin-
ions favorable to his case, and the latter addressed
himself to Jewish as well as to Christian scholars.
Pope Clement VII , in his turn, consulted Mantino,
who decided against Henry. This decision created
for Mantino many enemies in Venice, where Croke
had won a favorable opinion from the famous phy-
sician and scholar Elijah ^lenahem Halfon, among
others. Meanwhile the Messianic dreamer Solomon
Molko, whom Mantino had energetically opposed
while he was in Venice, went to Rome, followed by
Mantino. Having many friends and protectors at
the court of Clement VII., Mantino soon acquired




great influence in Rome, wliicli he employed in
crushing Molko. Mautino attained tlie zenitli of
his influence at the accession to tliu papal throne of
Paul III. (1534), who appointed him his physician.
This high position did not prevent Manlino from
concerning himself with the affairs of the Jewish
community of Rome, in whose records he appears
as a member of the rabbinate, with the title "gaon."
In 1544, for some unknown reason, Mantino re-
turned to Venice, where again he was exempted
from wearing the Jew.s' hat. Five j^ears later he
accompanied, as phy-
sician, the Venetian
ambassador to Da-
mascus, where he
died soon after liis

Mantino translated
the following com-
mentaries of Aver-
roes: " Paniphrasis
Averrois de Partibus
ct Generatione Aui-
malium," with the
commentary of Levi
ben Gershon (dedi-
cated to Pope LeoX. ;
Rome, 1521); com-
mentary (the compen-
dium) on Aristotle's
"Metiiphysics"; the
"n-.iddle connnenta-
ries " on Aristotle's
" Isagoge" — books i.-
iv. of "Topics" and
"Poetics" (Venice,
1550); commentary
on Plato's "Repub-
lic " (dedicated to
Pope Paul III.);
proem to the large
commentaiy on Aris-
totle's " Physics " ;
the large comnu II tary
on the third book of
Ari.stotle on the .soul :
proem to book .\ii. of
Aristotle's "Meta-
physics"; the "mid
die commentary " on
Aristotk^s "Phys-
ics." He translated
also Averroes' med-
ical work "Colliget"
(•' Kullayot "), the first book of Avieeiniu's
and Maimonides' "Shemonah Perakim."

Mantle of tbe I>avv, Velvet, Seventeenth Century.

(In the \■i^^Jr^:l .llij ,\!bfrt Museum, London.)


BIBI.IOOR.VPHV: Wolf, Tiihl. Ifrhv. i. laVi; Wiistenfelil. Die
Uchcrsrtzinmrii Aidhi.-^clicr H'o/,.; in ((<(.< La/i iy/i.-c/if
scit linn XI. Jdlninindcrl. m. l-':i f( sfq.; Steiiisclineiiler,
in Zum Jnbihiliri/t.\>\). i;{, 20; iaeiii. Cut. Ilmll. cnj. IL':(5;
Idem, Jfihr. I'lhrrx. pp. 14.J, Ws, cr.i, t^sr,. <t7n ; Kaufiiiiinn,
In li. /•;. J. xxvii. .'!()(■( Hcq.: 11 Ve'<!<Uli) Isrmlil ici, \sk\ p.
317; lifxmx/A, Stiiria it) ir Univernita ili(ili Slmli ili IIhidii,
II. 110; Vogelsteln and lUeger, Uofcli. dcr Jwlin in Umn, ii.
94 et seq.

!>• I. I5H.

MANTLE OF THE LAW (nss) : The cover
of the scroll of tlic Peiitateucii. The Ilebrew name

" mappah " is derived from the Greek fidmra. Orig-
inally, a wrapping of fine silk was spread along
the full length of the parchment, to protect the
writing from dust and injury when the scroll was
rolled up. The mantle is mentioned in Soferim iii.
16. "A scroll that has no mantle shall be turned
face down, so as not to expose the writing" (Yer.
Meg. i. 9). The custom of completely covering
the writing with silk, when the mantle is not
in use, is still practised by the Sephardim in the
Orient. The color chosen is usually green. Prob-
ably, in earlier times
the less expensive
method was adopted
of using a narrow
strip of silk to cover
tlie writing at the
opening of the scroll,
which would account
for the word/idTTTra =
" kerchief " or " nap-
kin." Another kind
of covering wascalled
"mitpahat," and was
used to wrap the
scroll after it had
been rolled up. It
appears from the
.M i s h n a h that all
books or scrolls were
l)rovided with cover-
ings (Kelim xxiv. 14).
When Levi b. Samuel
and Huna b. Hiyya
were preparing cov.-
erings for the books
of R. Judah, they
thought tlie scroll of
Elsther did not re-
quire a mitpahat, for
which opinion they
were rebuked by R.
Judah (Sanh. 100a).
In the Orient, man-
tles are often not
used, carved wooden
boxes being substi-
tuted for tliem.

The " mantle of
the Law," as it is
])opulaily called, is
made in the form
of a bag, to fit the
scroll after it is
rolled up, it is open at the bottom and closed
at tlie to]) except for two openings to allow the
scroll-liandles (" 'ez ha3'yiin ") to pass through. The
mantle is made of expensive material, which must
not liave been used for any other purpose. Old,
worn-out mantles siiouid not be tlirown away, but
should be stored in the genizah or sewed into
a sJiroud for a corpse to be biuied in (Shulhan
'.Vriik, Orah i.Iayyim, 154, 4). JJetween the sec-
tional readings of the Pentatcucii at the synagogue
the scroll is closed and covered with the mantle.
On special occasions, when two scrolls are read from,




the one first used must be rolled up and covered be-
fore the mantle is removed from the second scroll (ib.
147). The mantle of the Law is usually decorated
or embroidered \vith the Ckown of the Law, the

Mantle of ttiu Law, Holland, ICarly Eigliteeatli (Viituiy.

(Kmlii Piuurt.)

Lion of Judah, and with tassels and ornaments. The
mantle is often made ami presented to the syna-
gogue by women, and sometimes bears the name of
the donor or donors.

J. J. D. E.

MANTUA : Fortified Italian city, on the Mincio ;
capital of the duchy of Maiilua. It has a popula-
tion of 29,1()0, including 1,100 Jews (1901). In 1858
it had 3,528 Jews — the greatest number in its his-
tory. The first mention of Jews in JNIantua dates
from the twelfth century, when Abraham ibn Ezra
finished (1145) there his grammatical work "Zahot."
Apjiarently he was in that city again in 1153. There
are no further references to Jews in connection with
Mantua until they are mentioned in the new statutes
of the city at the end of the fourteenth century,
when a large number seem to have lived there. In
145!) a special tax of 2,000 ducats was imposed On
the community, though by vigorous protest they
succeeded in having it reduced to GOO ducats. The
importance of the community about tliat time is evi-
dent from the fact that two famous rabbis, Joseph

Colon and Judah da Napoli (Messer Leon), officiated
in Mantua, although, on account of their inability
to agree, both were expelled from the city in 1475.
In the following year, witii the consent of the pope,
tlie Jews were permitted to lend money at interest,
and eight years later Bernardino da Feltre founded a
"montedi pietS." there, the granting of its charter
being one of the first acts of the government of the

Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 74 of 169)