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new prince, Francesco Gonzaga (1466-1519), who
was generally ill-disposed toward the Jews. In

1485 he ordered all of them, with their
Under tlie wives, to attend Bernardino's anti-
Gonzagas. Jewish sermons. In 1496. when the

preachers again demanded that re-
strictions be placed on courtezans and Jews, the
wife of the prince, during his absence, ordered the
wearing of the Jewish badge.

From this time the treatment of the Jews varied,
and intermittently they were favored by the princes.
Although Frederick Gonzaga, the first Duke of Man-
tua, had a Jewish physician, Abraham Portaleone, he
forbade the Jews to keep Christian servants, an ex-
ception being made in regard to necessary services
performed on the Sabbath. In 1531 the Marano
Solomon jNIolko was burned publicly at the stake
during the visit of Emperor Charles V. Although
the congregation had received permission from Pope
Clement VII. in 1530 to build an Ashkenazic syna-
gogue, the duke did not confirm it until 1540, at the
earnest solicitation of Isaac Porto; tlie last-named
was called to the rabbinate of Mantua in 1550, as the
first of an uninterrupted succession of rabbis whose
names are preserved in the communal archives.

The condition of the Jews imprfived under Duke
Frederick's suc-
cessors. A de-
cree of 1545
says: "We de-
sire that the
Jews shall be as
free and secure
in pursuing
their business
and professions
in our city and
in our duchy as
the Christians."
These were the
best days of the
community, the
numbers of
which probably
were augmented
by Portuguese
immigrants.
The Jewisli mer-
chants of ]\Ian-
tua carried on
extensive busi-
ness with for-
eign countries.
Jews were often

welcomed at court, and after 1543 tlie duke had
Jewish musicians and Jewish actors. Neverthe-
less, oppressive measures were enacted against
them; their cemetery was taken from them in




Mantle of the I nw, Pndua, Eighteenth
('( ntiiry.

(FniTii Kranlierjfer.)



Hantua



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



300



1549 that an extension to a monastery might be
built in its place. Guglielmo Gonzaga, who was
also the first Duke of Monferrato, confirmed their
old privileges and suppressed a riot which threatened
them in 1562. The security which the community
enjoyed enabled
it to interest it-
self in Jewish
affairs at large,
and it was in-
strumental in
securing the re-
ception of a dele-
gation from the
Jewish commu-
nities, in 1563,
bj' the Council
of Trent, which
delegation ob-
tained permis-
sion to print He-
brew books.

In 1577 new
edicts were is-
sued regarding
the wearing of
the badge. Evil
times came with
Vincenzo Gon-
zaga (15 87-
1612), who, in
1590, expelled
all foreign Jews
from the city to
prevent the in-
crease of the
Jewish popula-
tion. In the fol-
lowing year this
decree was rein-
forced by men-
aces against the
entire commu-
nity. On April
22, 1600, Giu-
ditt^Franchetti,
eighty years of
age, was pub-
licly burned on
a ciiarge of
witchcraft, and
other members
of the commu-
nity were sen-
tenced to heavy
punisliments.
In 1602, how-
ever, in spite of
tJiese rigorous
proceedings, the
Franciscan monk Barlolomeo da Salulivo ])ul)licly
accused the prince of leniency toward the Jews.
As the populace was threalening them, Vincenzo
was obliged to interfere sternly in tlicir beiialf
(Aug. 14), although at the beginning of tlie year lie
had issued orders for the complete separation of




Mantle of the

(In the United .Statt-s Nationa



Jews and Christians. He next forbade Jewish phy-
sicians to treat Christians without special permission,
and, at the instance of Pope Clement VIII., decreed
(Nov. 7) that the Jews should sell all their real estate
within a year; he placed all their civic and commer-
cial affairs under
the jurisdiction
of a special offi-
cial termed
"commissario
degli Ebrei,"
and in certain
other relations
they were sub-
jected to eccle-
siastical control.
This office of
Jewish commis-
sioner existed
until 1765. In
1610 the estab-
lishment of a
ghetto was de-
creed, and in
Feb., 1612, the
Jews were com-
pelled to move
into it. The new
edict called the
"Tolleranza
Generale " sub-
jected them to
still more rigor-
ous treatment;
it was renewed
every eight
years, on pay-
ment of a large
sum, and re-
mained in force
until 1791.

Charles of
Rethel, wlio suc-
ceeded to the
dukedom on the
extinction of the
house of Gon-
zaga in 1628, as-
sured the Jews
of his favor.
During the siege
of Mantua by
Emperor Ferdi-
nand II., in the
same j'ear, they
helped to fortify
and defend the
city, even break-
ing the Sabbath;
and when the
city was betrayed (1630) to the enemy 1,800 Jews
were expelled and their property confiscated ; nor
could Ihcy return mitil after many bitterexpericnces,
as Abraham Masserani has recounted in his " Ha-Ga-
lut weha-Pedut" (Venice, 1634). In 1699 the com-
munitv was released from the obligation of attending



Law, uriental.

1 Museum, Wasliinijton, D. C.)



801



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Mantua



Christian sermons, and about 1700 various Jews re-
ceived extensive industrial privileges, and were even
entrusted with the management of state domains.

When Mantua came into the possession of the
Hapsburgs, after the war of the Spanish succession,
the Austrian governors tried to protect the Jews
from the many petty annoyances which tl)e latter
had to suffer through clerical intrigues; for the de-
cree issued in 1740 by the grand inquisitor of the
Roman Curia marked the culmination of the perse-
cution and humiliation of the Jews by Rome. In
Mantua they were permitted to iusti-

TJnder tute a suit for compensation for annoy-
tlie Haps- ance on the street on the testimony of

burgs. a single witness. To avoid being in-
sulted by the students of the gymna-
sium—it had become customary for the students to
insult Jews whenever they met them— the Jews
made a yearly
payment in kind
to the principal.
On special occa-
sions, as during
sieges, large as-
sessments were
levied upon the
community,
which was espe-
cially taxed dur-
ing the reign of
Maria Theresa,
though under
her tiie civic
status of the
Jews began to
improve. In
1752 the sani-
tary laws were
declared to be
equally binding
upon Jews and
Christians, and
the restriction
regarding Jew-
ish physicians
was abrogated.

The condition of the Jews improved still further
when Joseph II. was made coregent. In 1772 they
were allowed to loan money at the " monte-di-pieta,"
while in 1779 many of the ancient restrictions were
repealed, the badge was abolished, Jews were ad-
mitted to the public schools and were allowed to
acquire real estate, and the tribunal of the Inquisi-
tion was suppressed. Under Leopold II. (1790-92)
a deputation sent to Vienna succeeded in having the
"Tolleranza Generale " made permanent and in se-
curing the repeal of all special taxes on the commu-
nity, while the emperor declared that he would
put the Jews on an equality with all other citizens in
all points compatible with the general welfare. But
under Francis I. (1792-1835) the Jews had more troub-
led times and were again heavily taxed.

The community of Mantua, like all other Italian
communities, had a period of freedom in 1797, dur-
ing the French invasion of Italy. Two Jews, David
Pavia and Felice Coen, were made members of the




Mantle of tbe Law.

(In the British Museum.)



municipal council, and the latter became also a
member of the central administration of the district
of the Mincio, while Rabbi Abraham de Cologna
was a member of tlie cabinet of the Cisalpine Re-
public. The gates of the ghetto were torn down by
the people in 1798, but in the following year the city
was retaken by the Austrians, and the political sus-
pects, including some Jews, were imprisoned. Zech-
ariah Carpi has given an account of his suffer-
ings in his " Toledot Yizhak " (Cracow, 1892). The
French, however, soon retook the city, and Napo-
leon's pro-Jewish legislation went into force. Abra-
ham de Cologna represented ^lantua at the Congress
of Lyons in 1801, and he took part also in the Con-
vention of Notables at Paris, being made vice-presi-
dent of the Sanhedrin (1806-7) and subsequently
president of the consistory.

In 1814 Mantua again came under Austrian rule.

The Jews re-
tained their
rights, but were
not permitted to
hold public
offices, with the
exception of
those connected
with the posses-
sion of real es-
tate, and even
this exception
was declared to
be revocable.
The number of
Jewish families
was tobe limited,
special permis-
sion being nec-
essary for immi-
gration and for
marriage. Fran-
cis I., however,
declared that he
would endeavor
to place the
Jews upon an
equality with
the other citizens, his desire being to see that all
shared alike in the welfare of the state. He or-
dered that the rabbis of the commimity should
give proof of sufficient secular and religious educa-
tion. In 1821 Mantua proposed to the communities
of Lombardy and Venice that a rabbinical seminary
should be founded, and as a result the institute at
Padua was opened in 1829. The community con-
tinued to suffer from its insecure legal status and
from the enmity of the populace, and was imperiled
by the riots of 1824 and 1842. The Jews did not ob-
tain full civic liberty until Mantua was incorporated
in the kingdom of Italy by the peace of 1866. One
of the heroes of the Italian struggle for unity, Giu-
seppe FiNzi, was a Mantuan Jew.

The community of Mantua repeatedly held an im-
portant position in Judaism. At the time of the
Renaissance it was distinguished for the number of
its scholars and liberal thinkers ; it was the birthplace
of Azariah dei Rossi. For a long time the com-



Kantua
Manuscripts



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



302



munity was obliged to furnish to the dukes of Gon-

zaga a compauy of actors who from 1525 to 1597

gave dramatic representations, which

Scholars form an important chapter in the early
and liistory of the Italian stage. The dra-

Babbis. maturge of the company, Leone Som-
mo, produced in liis " Dialoghi suU'
Arte Rappresentativa" the first work of its kind; in
recognition of his merits as a poet he was made a
knight, and a member of the Academy of Padua.
Among the Jewish musicians at the court of Mantua
were the liarpists Abraham dell' Aspra and his
grandson; Isacchino Massarano was distinguished as
H lutist, a singer, and a dancing-master; Solomon
Rossi was known as a composer of religious and sec-
ular songs, while his sister Europa was a singer,
and her son Anselmo and Davide Civita were es-
teemed as composers. Mordecai Finzi was a mathe-
matician and Abraham Colorni an engineer. Mantua
was foremost, also, in the sixteenth century in the
field of Jewish science. As a century previously
Joseph Colon had tauglit there, so now the brothers
Moses and David Proven(;al were famous as Tal-
miidists, founding the rabbinical academy which
flourished down to modern times; while a third
brother, Judah Moscato, was famous as a preacher
and philosopher. The brothers Provencal were so
enthusiastic in the cause of science that David and
his son Abraham determined to establish a uni-
versity in their house (1564), and issued a detailed
prospectus inviting students ("Ha-Lebanon," v. 418
et seq. ; "Berliner Festschrift," pp. 164 ei seq.). Sub-
sequently Mantua became the chief seat of the
cabalists.

The community of Mantua has had many famous
rabbis, and a number of rabbinical families whose
members succeeded one another in office. The most
noteworthy names are: Basilea, Brieli, Cases, Co-
logna, Fano, Jar^, Modena, Mortara, Moscato, Por-
taleone, Provencal, Dei Rossi, Romanelli, Saraval,
Viterbi, and Zacuto. Marco Mortara officiated
from 1842 until 1894, and was succeeded by Isaiah
Levi.

Since the sixteenth century the community has

had six jilaces of worship: Scuola Grande (built

1537), transferred a century later to its present site);

Scuola Norsa Torazzo (founded 1513) ;

Syna- Scuola Cases (founded 1590); Scuola

gogues. Beccaria (founded in 1595 over a
slaughter-house and named after it) ;
Scuola Porto (founded 1540); and Scuola Ostiglia
(founded 1558). In the first three the Italian ritual is
followed, in the last three the German. Their founda-
tions have recently been in part imited. The com-
munity owns a large library containing numerous
manuscripts and important archives, from which
Stern has ])ublislieda nuinlicr of documents. Among
jManlua's piiiiaiitliropic instituiions is the Casa di
Ricovero, an asylum for the aged founded in 1825
and connected with a foundation for the promotion
of trade and industry among tiic; Jews and a home
for apprentices. In 1834 Samuele Trabotti devoted
his entire fortune to a fund for dowering Jewish
brides, educating Jewish youths in tiie arts and
sciences, establishing prizes for artisans, and reliev-
ing the sick and the poor. This richly endowed



foundation absorbed the existing institutions of
similar character.

BiBMOfjRAPHY: M. Gloia, Statistlca del I>ipartime)dn del
Miiicin, Milan, 1838 ; C. Diarco, Studi IntoDio al. Municipio
di Mantova, Mantua, 1873 ; R. Rocco, in Aimnli di Stntis-
ticn, 1884; L. Camevali, Gli iKraeliti di Mantova, Mantua,
1878; idem, II Ghetto di Mantova, lb. 1884; Al. d'Ant'ooa,
Orioijii del Teatro Italiano, Turin, 1891; Ed. Bimbauin.
Jildische Muxiker am Hofe zu Mnidua, Vienna, 189:? ; M.
Stem, Urkundliche Deitrdge litter die Stellung der Pdpste
zuden Juden, vol. 1., Kiel, 1893; Mortara, Indicc ; Zunz, Z.
G. pp. 249 et seq.
V. I. E.

Typography : Mantua was among the earliest

places at which Hebrew works were printed. The
physician Abraham Conat started printing there as
early as 1476, when he produced the Tur Orah
Hayyim ; some of his productions may have been
begun even in the preceding year, lie had the
merit of producing the only Hebrew incunabulum
published during its author's lifetime — "Nofet
Zufim." His wife, Estellina Conat, made herself
responsible for the " Bchinat '01am," issued from
his press after his death. In the printing of Levi
ben Gershon's Pentateuch, Conat was as.sociated
with Abraham of Cologne, possibly identical with
the Abraham de Tintori who afterward emigrated
to Bologna. Hebrew printing was resumed at Man-
tua in 1513 by Samuel Latif, who appears to have
been forced from business a year later by tiie com-
petition of the Soncinos. The next printers of He-
brew books were Christians — the Rufinellisand Plii-
lipponis (1561-97) ; their printer's .sign was a peacock.
A large number of Jewish workmen, including Meir
Sofer, his son, and his son-in-law, were employed by
them. In the seventeenth century Eliezer (k; Italia
started aHebrewprinting-press(1612), being followed
by Judah di Perugia in 1622. In the eighteenth cen-
tury Isaac Jare and Raphael Hayyim di Italia itrintcd
at Mantua. For reproductions from books i)rinted
at Mantua see Jewish Encyclopedia, iv. 172, 173,
205; vii. 261.

BiBMOGRAPriY: Steinschneider, in En-irh ami (iruluT, Eiiriic
section ii., pait 28, pp. :(4, 4:MI); C(d. JSinll. ci.l. :!l(i.

J.

MANUEL, EUGi^NE: Frcncli I'ducator and
l)oet; born at Paris July 13, 1823; died there June
1, 1901. A grandson on his motiier's side of the
famous Paris hazzan Lovy, he remained throughout
his brilliant career intimately attached to the faith
of his ancestors. After having linislied his stiidies
at th(! College Charlemagne he entcicd the Eeole
Normale (1843-46), where; he had as eouuadcs Eniile
Burnouf, Paul Janet, Gaston Boissier, Caro, Alfred
Mezi^res, and Pasteur, all of wlimu liave become
renowned in the world of letters and science. Man-
uel became professor of rhetoric successively at the
colleges of Dijon, Grenol)le, Tours, and in the
lyceums (^haiiemagne (1849) and Saint-Louis and
tii(! College l{ollin in Paris. After th(! Franco-Prus-
sian war Jules Simon, having become minister of
public instruction, appointed Manuel his "chef du
cabinet" and in 1872 "directeur du secretariat."

Soon after, Manuel became inspector-general of
secondary public instruction (1876). He now began
to devote much of his energy and time to liter-
ature. In 1852 he had already piiblished an edition
of the "Morceaux Choisis des . . . (Euvres Ly-



303



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Hantua
Hanuscripts



riques " of Rousseau. His second work, written in
collaboration with bis brotiier-in-law Levi-Al varus
(1854-58), was in four volumes, and was entitled
"La France sous I'Aspect Geographique, Historique
et Administratif." His earliest poems. "Pages In-
timcs," date from tlie year 1866, and it was tiiey
which laid the foundation for his literary fame.
The ring of patriotism in his "Poemes Populaires,"
which appeared in 1871, rendered them very popu-
lar. " Henri Kegnault," " Les Pigeons de la Repub-
lique, " " En Voyage, " and " Pendan t la Guerre " have
placed Manuel in the rank of tlie foremost poets
of his time. This last dramatic poem and "Les
Ouvriers " were played at the Theatre Fran^ais with
Coquelin and Sarah Bernliardt in the leading roles
(Jan. 17, 1870). About this time "L'Absent" and
"Pour les Blesses" were represented at the Theiitre
Franyais. Manuel made several unsuccessful at-
tempts to gain admis.sion to the Academic Fran(;aise.
Those of Manuel's poems which bear a special
relation to Judaism are: "La Place du Pauvre,"
dedicated to his friend Isidore Cahen, the director
of the "Archives Israelites"; "Le Verset"; "La
Pri^re " ; " Cain et Abel " ; and " Les Trois Peuples "
(Jerusalem, Athens, Rome). His biography of his
grandfather Israel Lovy, in the " Archives Israelites"
(1850), deserves special mention. For twenty years
Manuel was professor of Greek and Latin litera-
ture at the Jewish Theological Seminary at Paris,
and he was one of the six founders of the Alliance
Israelite Universelle, remaining a member of that
institution until his death. After the death of
Michel Alcan, Manuel was elected to represent the
Jews of Lyons in the Central Consistory of the Jews
of France (1877). He was a commander of the
Legion of Honor. On Oct. 27, 1901, the Societe
Historique d'Auteuil et de Passy, of wdiich he was
one of the founders, placed a memorial tablet on
the house in which the poet died.

Bibliography: Archivcg I>ii-aelites, June, 1901; Univers
Israelite, dune, 1901 ; A la Memnire de Eugene Manuel,
1901 ; A la Memoire de Eugene Manuel, 1902; M. Bloeh, In
R. E. J. xlvi.

s.

MANUSCRIPTS : The first materials used for
writing were such substances as stone, wood, and
metal, upon which the characters were engraved
with a stylus. At a very early time, however, ani-
mal substances were employed, and letters were
written upon them with various liquid preparations.
The usual word for a written document, "sefer,"
which occurs 182 times in different forms in the
Bible, and is to be supplied in man}' places, as, for

instance, with "Toiah," designates
"Writing the skin of an animal, the writing
Material, material anciently employed by the

Orientals, and not papyrus. The
usual word for writing, "katab," the fundamental
meaning of which is "to place signs in succession,"
is found in the Bible 220 times (Blau, "Studien zum
Althebiaischen Buchwe.sen," pp. 9 et seq.). For
private writing in the first centuries of the common
era various materials were used, including clay
tablets for bills. Books might be written only on
skins of animals, of which three kinds were prepared
— "gewil," "kelaf," and "doksostos." Gewil is the
plain hide with the hair scraped off (i.e., leather);



kelaf is parchment, made by paring away the skin,
and which received the writing upon the flesh side
{i.e., a membrane); doksostos is another form of
parchment {ib. jjp. 22 et neq.).

Copies of the Bible were, as a rule, made from
whole skins, as at the present day, which were pre-
pared from clean animals. To tliis the copyist

("sofer") himself generally attended.
Parch- A gaon ssiys, " VV^e have never seen a
ment. Torah scroll which was written on

parchment." There is a possibility,
however, that in ancient times there were Biblical
books written on papyrus; in regard to non-Bib-
lical writings this supposition is even probable. The
skin used for writing was ruled, and there were si>e-
cial regulations for margins and for the number of
lines. Only black, effaccable ink, which was re-
newed when necessary, might be used for Biblical
works. Metallic ink was known, but was forbidden.
The Letter of Aristeas («;§ 176-179), however, re-
lates that the copy of the Bible sent by the high
priest to the Egyptian king Ptolemy was written in
gold, and the Talmud also speaks of gold-writing,
which may have been a Jewish invention (Blau, i.e.
pp. 13, 150 et seq. ; see Index).

Both the Jewish and the non-Jewish world in
antiquity had books in the form of scrolls (Isa.

xxxiv. 4; Jobxxxi. 35-36; Jer. xxxvi. ;

Scroll and Ezek. ii. 8-9; Ps. xl. 8; Zech. v. 1).

Codex. In post-Biblical times the employment

of such scrolls may be traced for a
thousand years, and in copies of the Pentateuch for
the synagogue this usage has survived until the
present time. Both the Letter of Aristeas {I.e.)
and I Mace. iii. 48 speak of scrolls. On the arch of
Titus a man is depicted carrying on his back a long
roll, undoubtedly a representation of the Torah
scroll of the Temple of Jerusalem, which was taken
to Rome (see Josephus, "B. J." vii. 5, § 5). The
Talmud and Midrash know books only in this form
(Blau, I.e. pp. 40-43), and the Christian documents
of the first three centuries testify also to the use of
rolls (Schulze, in "Greifswalder Studien Hermann
Cremer Dargebracht," pp. 148-158). When and
■where the codex form first appeared among the Jews
is as yet imknown. It is not impossible that the
word "diftera," in Soferim iii. 6, designates a co-
dex. The oldest complete and dated manuscript
of the Bible, the codex of the Prophets at St.
Petersburg, was written in 916. In ancient times
school children had tablets for their first lessons in
reading and writing, while wax tablets {Triva^) were
in general use among citizens, so that the prototype
of the book was familiar from a very early period.
There is, therefore, no need to assume foreign influ-
ence, whether Greco-Roman or Oriental and Chris-
tian, to explain the devcio])meut of the scroll into
the codex. The transition probably began in the
seventh century and proceeded gradually, since no
distinct mention of a codex has yet been discovered
in the Talmud and Midrash.

The books of antiquity were alvvays of small size
(II Kings xxii. 8-10; II Chron. xxxiv. 15 etseq.;
Nell. viii. 1 et seq. ; see references from the Talmud,
Midrash, and classic literature in Blau, I.e. pp. 72 et
seq.), and people sat cross-legged when reading them.



manuscripts



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



304



The largest scroll, the official copy of the Torah,
which was used in the Second Temple had at most
a height of six and a diameter of two
Size, Com- handbreadths {ib. pp. 76 ei seq.). The
pass, and smallness of the books was compen-
Distribu- sated by the minuteness of the charac-
tion. ters (Jb. p. 79 et seq.). The contents of
a manuscript might be very small, as,
for example, one of the Book of Obadiah, or the origi-
nal roll of fasts ic. 100 c.e.), while the normal size
probably never exceeded that of the collection of the
Twelve Prophets. At the time of the first selection
of the canon {c. 4th cent, b.c.) large scrolls could not
have been popular, as is shown by the division of the
Torah into five parts, by the division of the Book of
the History of the Kings into the books of Samuel
and Kings, by the separation of the books of Ezra
and Nehemiah from the Chronicles, and by other
instances. About the year 100 c.e., however, there
were certainly collective scrolls which contained the
three sections of the Bible in one roll each, while
there were even some which included all the books
of tlie Scriptures in one large roll. Such a one,
probably, was tlie Hexapla of Origen. There was,
moreover, no lack of copies of single portions,
which contained a section of a book, such as the
Roll of Jealousy (=Num. v. 11-23, etc.; Blau, I.e.
pp. 46-70).

The preparation of books has had an eventful his-
tory. At the time of the chroniclers {c. 8d cent. B.C.)
Bible copies were rare ; tliey had been almost entirely
destroyed by the Syrians before the Maccabean
revolt. Afterward, however, their number increased
steadily, since it was made incumbent on every one



Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 75 of 169)