Isidore Singer.

The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) online

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Pl,ATE 11.

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Plate HI.

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pi -u^c/ p;u ,uif jna73 n^wfi


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• t>nt> ')X>o Vi> -^la^) 3-01 fito^ "'f^t* ip'3 ri'D
• >w6 nD'^^ai ours J^iijn '^^^'lo fta • fh^Yn

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'pi^ '^n;t't '1^^ ^"^^ ■t:^<^iii ' a;*^ 49
3;nK{^ tN>^^^ (fStX ^ H-jK

Plate IV



a,)<MiV>>^ >jif!m/i

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1 1 1


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w^v^ 2> U/n piyi -»Vt<J /»J««l jOyO'^y »>

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sian origin, probably 11th cent.). With regard to
No. 3 it should be noted that though the final
"nun" (of which, however, no instance appears in
the specimen) is long in the document, this is no
mark of later date ; for the long form of the letter
appears in early papyri (as in specimen No. 2). In
Nos. 4-6 the final "nun " is uniformly short. No. 8
shows the superlinear punctuation combined with
the ordinary mode of accentuation.

SyrO'Egyptian (Nos. 9-11): No. 9 is taken from a
Hebrew letter, dated 1055, brought to the British
Museum from the Cairo Genizah; No. 10, from the
text of the Hebrew Ecclesiasticus (Sirach), also from
the Cairo Genizah (llth-12th cent.); No. 11, from
PI. I. of Neubauer's portfolio of facsimiles (referred
to hereafter as "Neubauer") printed to illustrate his
catalogue of Oxford manuscripts (12th-13th cent.).
In No. 9 note the peculiar combined form of px
(which is really Rabbinic). The mark over the sec-
ond word of line 2 in No. 10 refers to a marginal
note in the original. In No. 11 both the punctua-
tion and the accentuation are superlinear.

Spanish (Nos. 12-15): No. 12 is taken from the
Brit. Mus. MS. Harley 5720 (11th cent.); No. 13,
from Brit. Mus. MS. Or. 2201 (dated 1246); No.
14, from a Bible codex belonging to the Earl of
Leicester (13th cent. ; see C. D. Ginsburg, "Facsim-
iles," London, 1898) ; No. 15, from Brit. Mus. MS. Or.
2626 (dated 1483). No. 12 may fairly be described
as representing a transition stage from the early
Oriental square writing to the Spanish.

Italian (Nos. 16-18) : No. 16 is taken from Brit.
Mus. MS. Arundel Or. 2 (dated 1216) ; No. 17, from
Brit. Mus. MS. Or. 2736 (dated 1390); No. 18, from
Brit. Mus. MS. Add. 18.692 (handwriting of Abra-
ham Farissol, dated 1478). It should here be re-
marked that instead of the square writing in the
proper sense of the word, Italian scribes often em-
ploy for Bible codices the semi-Rabbinic character
exemplified in No. 45 (see below).

Franai-Gertnan {l>^os. 19-21): No. 19 is taken from
Brit. Mus. MS. Add. 10,455 (dated 1310); No. 20,
from CaTnbridge University Library MSS. Ee, 8, 9
(dated 1347; seethe "Oriental Series of the PaUeo-
graphieal Society " [hereafter referred to as " O.
S."l, PI. XLL); No. 21, from Neubauer, PI. XL
(written before 1471). Note especially the sloping
character of No. 20, a peculiar mark of German

Greek (Nos. 22-24): No. 22 is taken from the
Carlsruhe codex of the Prophets (dated 1105-6;
"O. S." PI. LXXVIL); No. 23, from Brit. Mus.
MS. Add. 27,205 (dated 1179); No. 24, from Neu-
bauer, PI. XXI. (written before 1263).

Yemenite (Nos. 25-28): No. 25 is taken from Brit.
Mus. MS. Or. 2373 (13th-14th cent.); No. 26, from
Brit. Mus. .MS. Or. 2370 (dated 1460-01); No. 27,
from Brit. Mus. MS. Or. 2210 (dated 1468); No.
28, from Neubauer. PI. XXXI. (dated 1561).

Varia (Nos. 29-31): No. 29 is taken from Brit.
Mus. MS. Or. 2496, showing Karaite square wri-
ting of apparently the thirteenth century; No. 30,
from a Pentateuch roll written for the Jews of K'ai-
Fung-Foo, China (18th cent. ; Brit. Mus. MS. Add.
19,250; showing the dependence of Chinese on Per-
sian writing); No. 31, from Neubauer, PI. XXXIX.

(see Harkavy, "Neuaufgefundene Bibelhandschrift-
en," Table II. — perhaps a forgery).

B. Square Rabbinic or Semi-Rabbinic Writing : This
series shows an approximation in greater or less de-
gree to the freer Rabbinic style of writing.

Syro-Egyptian (Nos. 32-38): No. 32 is taken from
an Oxford papyrus of the sixth or seventh century
(see "J. Q. R." xvi.. No. 61); No. 33, from a manu-
script of the above-mentioned Hebrew Ecclesiasticus
(perhaps 9th cent.) belonging to E. N. Adler; No.
34, from the Genizah document Brit. Mus. MS. Or.
5538 (dated 1003) ; No. 35, from the Genizah docu-
ment Brit. Mus. MS. Or. 5536 (dated 1015) ; No. 36,
from the Genizah document Brit. Mus. MS. Or. 5545
(dated 1089); No. 37, from the Genizah document
Brit. Mus. MS. Or. 5551 (dated 1151); No. 38, from
Neubauer, PI. IV. (signature of Maimonides). The
Rabbinic tendency in No. 35 is only slight; but
the n is written freely, and the general appearance
of the specimen shows attinity with semi-Rabbinic.
It is necessary to note the slighter approximation of
the square to the freer Rabbinic forms.

Spanish and North- African (Nos. 39-42): No. 39
is taken from Brit. Mus. MS. Harley 5530 (13th
cent.); No. 40, from Brit. Mus. MS. Or. 5866 (mid-
dle of 15th cent.); No. 41, from Brit. Mus. MS. Or.
5600 (15th cent.); No. 42, from Brit. Mus. MS. Add.
19,780 (17th cent.). No. 40 appears to be of deci-
dedly Spanish origin, the remaining three numbers
being North-African (No. 42 can be definitely located
as Algerian).

Italian (Nos. 43-46) : No. 43 is taken from the
Leyden copy of the Talmud Yerushalmi (dated 1281 ;
see "O. S." PI. LVL); No. 44, from Brit. Mus. MS.
Add. 18,690 (written between 1332 and 1350); No.
45, from Brit. Mus. MS. Add. 19,944 (dated 1441);
No. 46, from Brit. Mus. MS. Or. 1081 (dated 1390).
No. 46 appears to show French characteristics com-
bined with Italian one.s.

Franco-German (Nos. 47-50): No. 47 is taken
from the Vatican copy of the Sifra (dated 1073; see
"O. S." PI. XC); No. 48, from Brit. Mus. MS.
Add. 27,214 (dated 1091); No. 49, from Brit. Mus.
MS. Arundel Or. 51 (dated 1189); No. 50, from Brit.
Mus. MS. Or. 5466 (dated 1690). In Nos. 47-49 the
tendency to semi-Rabbinic is but slight.

Greek (No. 51): This specimen is taken from Brit.
Mus. MS. Harley 5583 (15th-16th cent.).

Yemenite (Nos. 52-53): No. 52 is taken from Brit.
Mus. MS. Or. 4837 (a fine copy of Ibn Janah's
"Kitabal-Usul," 14th cent.); No. 53, from Neu-
bauer, PI. XXXII. (dated 1491).

Karaite (Nos. 54-56): No. 54 is taken from Neu-
bauer, PI. XXXIV. (I3th-14th cent.); No. 55, ib.
PI. XXXV. (written before 1353); No. 56, ib. PI.
XXXVI. (dated 1747).

/'e/'strt/i(Nos. 57-58): No. 57 is taken from Brit. Mus.
MS. Or. 5446 (Pentateuch in Persian; dated 1319);
No. 5S. from Brit. ^lus. ]MS. Or. 2451 (dated 1483).

C. Rabbinic Writing : This series exhibits various
styles of writing of a decided Rabbinic character.

PJarly Oriental (Nos. 59-60): No. 59 is taken from
the Decalogue papyrus referred to above (probably
6th or 7th cent.); No. 60, from Brit. Mus. MS. Or.
73 (perhaps written at Mosul: dated 1190).

Syro-Egyptian (Nos. 61-63): No. 61 is taken from




Brit. Mus. MS. Or. 5519 (12th cent.); No. 62, from
Neubauer, PI. III. (13tb-14th cent.); No. 63, ib. PI.
VI. (14th cent. ?).

Spanish (Nos. 64-65) : No. 64 is taken from Brit.
Mus. MS. Add. 14,763 (dated 1273); No. 65, from
Brit. Mus. MS. Or. 5866 (middle of 15th cent. ; for
semi-Rabbinic forms from the same manuscripts see
No. 40).

North- African, etc. (Nos. 66-68) : No. 66 is taken
from Brit. Mus. MS. Add. 27,113 (dated 1282); No.
67, from Neubauer, Pi. VII. (dated 1480; described
as Syrian Rabbinic Maghrebi character); No. 68,
ib. PI. XIII. (15th cent. ; described as Oriental Pro-

Italian (No. 69): Specimen taken from Brit. Mus.
MS. Or. 5024 (dated 1374).

Fimnco-Oerman (Nos. 70-72): No. 70 is taken
from Brit. Mus. MS. Add. 17,049 (dated 1394); No.
71, from Cambridge University Library MS. Add.
560 (dated 1401 ; see "O. S." PI. LXVIIL); No. 72,
from Brit. Mus. MS. Add. 27,199 (Elijah Levita's
autograpli; dated 1515).

Greek (Nos. 73-74): No. 73 is taken from Neu-
bauer, PL XXIII. (written before 1184); No. 74, ib.
PI. XXV. (dated 1375).

D. Cursive Writing : This series is preceded by two
specimens (Karaite) of writing in which the Hebrew
text is written in the Arabic character and provided
with Hebrew punctuation. No. 75 is taken from
Brit. Mus. MS. Or. 2540 (10th cent.), and No. 76
from Brit. Mus. MS. Or. 2549 (11th cent.). No. 77
(Neubauer, PI. XIX. ; dated 1506) is Oriental. No.
78 {ib. PI. X. ; handwriting of Jacob b. Hayyim,
early 16th cent.) is a specimen of Spanish cursive.
Nos. 79-83 are Italian. No. 79, from Neubauer,
PI. XXIX., is old Italian; No. 80, from Brit. Mus.
MS. Add. 27,096, is Mordecai Dato's writing (16th
cent.). No. 81, from Brit. Mus. MS. Add. 27,148,
is Judah Modena's autograph (1648); No. 82, from
Brit. Mus. MS. Add. 26,991, is Solomon Portaleone's
autograph (17th cent.); and No. 83, from Brit.
Mus. MS. Add. 27,103, is Joseph Almanzi's auto-
graph. Nos. 84 and 85 are German, the former
being taken from Brit. Mus. MS. Add.

Specimens 18,695 (a Mahzor in a Judoeo-German
of Cursive, translation, dated 1504), and the latter
from Neubauer, PI. XVII. (Heiden-
heim's autograph). No. 86 is Karaite German cur-
sive writing, dated 1826 (Neubauer, PI. XXXVII.).
Here may fitly be added a specimen of writing from

•o**7)eK I'i^yy n>5K m^
T^ri'ff A'^ yiy^ ¥«9vn

Codex Gaster 80, fol. 23b, which contains forms
rarely found elsewhere. Remarkable is the abbre-

viation of lyni^K in line 2. The manuscript contains
Maimonides' "Sefer ha-Madda'," and may belong to
the fourteenth or to the thirteenth century. The
writing appears to combine Yemenite Avith Persian
characteristics (perhaps displaying tlie former more
than the latter).

V. Illuminations : Illuminations in Hebrew
manuscripts are far from being rare. Roughly
speaking, the proportion of illuminated codices in a
large and representative collection of Hebrew manu-
scripts woukl probably be found to be about seven
or eight, if not more, in every hundred. On some
early Eastern illuminations of Biblical codices
(mostly in gold) see M. Gaster, "Hebrew Illumi-
nated Bibles of the IXth and Xth Centuries (Codi-
ces Gaster 150, 151)." A fair specimen of early Per-
sian chain-like ornamentation can be seen in "O. S."
PI. LIV. (Brit. Mus. MS. Or. 1467).
Compara- Fine specimens of arabesque border
tive Pre- illumination are found, e.g., in Brit,
quency of Mus. MSS. Or. 2620-2628 of the year
Illumina- 1483-84, and in Brit. Mus. MSS. Har-
tions. ley 5698 and 5699, a page of which has
been reproduced in colors for the pres-
ent article (see frontispiece). In this instance, how-
ever, the arabesque form has been much modified.
On Haggadah illuminations see Haggadah.

Spain and Provence seem to have been fore-
most in the last-named branch of illustration. Fine
German illuminations are comparatively rare. The
ornamentations, or whatAvere meant for such, found
in German copies of the Bible, etc., are as a rule
grotesque rather than appropriate. Very interest-
ing specimens of French illuminations, however, are
found in Brit. Mus. MS. Add. 11,639 (12th and 13th
cent.), containing a collection of Biblical, liturgical,
and other texts. A finely ornamented page of an
early Karaite Biblical text (10th cent.) has been re-
produced in colors in G. Margoliouth, "Catalogue
of the Hebrew and Samaritan MSS. in the Brit-
ish Museum," vol. i., PI. V. (Brit. Mus. MS. Or.

VI. Palimpsests: Hebrew palimpsests, i.e.,
manuscripts showing Hebrew written over erased or
partly erased earlier Avriting, are rare. The Jews,
as was only natural, did not, as a rule, like to utilize
for sacred purposes material that had been used for
other objects. Some notable examples of Hebrew
palimpsests have, however, been found in the Cairo
Genizah. From this source come the
Palimp- Oxford fragments containing Hebrew
sests and writing of apparently the twelfth cen-
Colophons, tury over Palestinian Syriac of the
sixth and seventh, and eighth and
ninth centuries (see Gwilliam and others in " Anec-
dota Oxoniensia," Semitic Series, 1893-96). More
interesting still are the Cambridge palimpsests which
contain Hebrew of the eleventh and twelfth cen-
turies written over portions of Aquila's Greek ver-
sion of the Old Testament and Origen's Hexapla
(see F. C. Biirkitt, "Fragments of the Books of
Kings According to the Translation of Aquila,"
1897; and C. Taylor, "Hebrew-Greek Cairo-Geni-
zah Palimpsests," 1900). A page of palimpsest in
which a Hebrew liturgical text of 1179 was written
over Latin writing of the tenth century can be seen

Ma'oz Zur



iii"0. S." PI. LXXV^III. (Brit. Mus. MS. A<lil.
27,205); see also Jew. Encyc. s.v. Aquil.\.

VII. Coloplions : At the end of a manuscript,
ami sometimes also at the conclusion of parts of the
same, a colophon (Greek, Ko^oguv) or "finishing
stroke " is often found. In its fullest form the colo-
phon contains (1) the title of the work, (2) the name
of the scribe, (3) the name of the person for whom
the manuscript was written, (4) the placeof writing,
(5) the date, and (6) precative and benedictive sen-
tences, usually taken from the Bible (see Colophon).

Tiie mention of the title in a colophon is, in the
case of unknown or little-known works, helpful for
identification, if, as not infrequently happens, the
beginning of the manuscripts has been lost. The
entries of scribes' names at times reveal long gene-
alogies of families among which the profession of
copying had descended from father to son for a
number of generations. Scribes sometimes mark olT
their names also in the initial letters of one or more
pages of the manuscripts. The complimentary epi-
thets lavished by the scribe on his rich, or compar-
atively rich, employer are often conspicuous enough ;
but the more important references to descent and
position are not wanting. There are also cases in
which the scribe writes his manuscript for himself
or for one or other of his children. The mention of
the place of writing is, of course, useful for local-
izing the different styles of writing, though, as has
already been mentioned, caution has to be exercised
in this respect.

The manner of dating a manuscript demands spe-
cial notice. For some points connected with the
subject see Chronology and Eka. Mention should
be made first of the two specifically Jewish modes
of dating, and then of eras borrowed from other

(1) The era of the Creation is in common use in
manuscripts written in most parts of Europe; and
as it appears to have been generally adopted about
the middle of the tenth century of the common era,

it was used in tlie entire period here
Methods dealt with. If the full number of years
of Dating from the Creation is given, the reck-
Manu- oning is styled " perat gadol " (abbre-
scripts. viatedj'S); and the year of the com-
mon era is obtained by subtracting the
number 3760 (or 3761, if the manuscript was written,
or rather finished, in the first three months of the
Jewish year). But the thousands are often omitted ;
and the reckoning is then called " perat katon "
(abbreviated pQ). In such cases the number 1240
(or 1241) has to be added in order to obtain the date
of the common era.

(2) Dating from the destruction of the Second
Temple {i.e., from the year 68) is comparatively rare
in manuscripts, but it is not, as has been thought,
strictly confined to Greece ; for this mode of dating
is found not only in the Carlsruhe copy of the
Prophets, which was written in a Greek Ashkenazic

hand in 1105-6 (D'l pin:? nV"ihh3i m"'V^^ Vonh NT

riTnin = 4866 of the Creation or 1038 from the de-
struction of the Temple), but also in the Vatican
copy of the Sifra written in a French hand in 1073,
and (see below) in a manuscript from Yemen.

A very common mode of dating manuscripts writ-
ten in the East is (3) by the Seleucidan or Greek era
("le-heshbon ha-Yewauim," "le-minyan shetarot,"
or simply "li-shetarot " ; sometimes considered to
synchronize with the cessation of prophecy). In
order to obtain the corresponding c.e. date, 311 (or
312 if the manuscript is dated within the first three
months of the Jewish year) has to be subtracted.
This era is by far the most common in Hebrew man-
uscripts written in Yemen, though the era of the
Creation as well as the Mohammedan
" Minyan era is also occasionally met with, one
Shetarot." era being sometimes followed by an-
other. The Karaites use also the
Greek era; but the reckoning from the Creation is
more common in their colophons. The Karaites
add the Mohammedan era more frequently than
do the Jews of Yemen.

(4) The Mohammedan era just referred to is gen-
erally introduced under the designation "heshbon
ha-Yishme'elim" ; but the expression "le-keren
ze'era" (in allusion to Dan. vii. 8) is also found.

(5) The common era is of very rare occurrence in
Hebrew colophons; and it then only follows the
year of the Creation previously given. Thus Brit.
Mus. MS. Harley 5704 (containing a unique copy
of the Yalkut Makirion the Minor Prophets, written
for Cardinal ^gidius) is dated "Tuesday, the 16th
day of Ab, in the year 274 of the ' small reckoning '

[p' 2^5 "ionii : this being at the same time an example
of utilizing the numerical value of a Scriptural phrase
for dating], and according to their reckoning 1514"
(the term "li-yezirah" being then added by mis-
take). There are some instances where the Chris-
tian month is given side by side with the year of
the Creation.

A remarkable instance of multiple dating (though
given at the beginning of the manuscript, and, there-
fore, not in the form of a colophon) is found in
Brit. Mus. MS. Add. 27,294 (containing an Arabic
commentary in Hebrew characters on Maimonides'
Mishneh Torah, ch. i.-iv. ; see "J. Q. R." xiii. 488),
which was written by the scholarly Yemenite com-
piler Sa'id ibn Daud, It contains the following

datings: (1) bbjiriN \\^iri pin^ (1889 years since
the destruction of the First Temple);

Multiple (2) livK'K ^JC piPI^ (1398 since the de-
Dating, struction of the Second Temple); (3)
. . . DnVD nX^V'^ (date of Exodus no
longer legible); (4) nyd'HS miDt'^ (1778, according
to the era of contracts) ; (5) . . . nTV'^ (date of the
Creation no longer legible); (6) nxnJH pl^o!?
nytJ'riN (1778 since the cessation of prophecy; the
same as No. 4).

It should here be remarked that the date of a
manuscript may, in the absence of a colophon, be
computed from the table of calendar cycles of nine-
teen years that is sometimes (more especially in
liturgical manuscripts) added to the text. Thus
Brit. Mus. MS. Add. 27,205 must have been written
about 1180; for the table of cycles commences with
xbS, the two hundred and sixty cycles past yielding
260x19 = 4940 a.m. = 1180 c.?:. In manuscripts
containing digests of Talmudical law, the date may



Ma'oz Zur

sometimes be galhcrcd from the year given in tlie
form of the letter of divorcement (" get "), etc.

A curious addition, sometimes attached to colo-
plions (in certain cases standing by itself), is tlie
prccative phrase tliat tlic scribe sliould suffer no in-
jury (p]i n!?) " until an ass sliould mount on the lad-
der [dreamed of by Jacob] " (dSiDI *Tl?Dn r\hv^^* "IJ?
[D^n ir^N 3py' "It^X] ; see " O. S." description of PI.

VIII. Owners, etc. : A large number of manu-
scripts contain the names of tiiose who at one time
or another owned them. These are generally found
on fly leaves at the beginning or at the end, but
sometimes also in the margin of inner leaves. Oc-
casionally owners record the births of their children
on the fly-leaves, more rarely deaths and other
events. In a number of instances manuscripts are
marked as liaving been obtained by an owner at the
division of his late father's or another testator's prop-
erty. Contracts of transfer of manuscripts by sale
are also often found; and occasionally the pawning
of a manuscript is recorded on one of its fly-leaves.
The money value that was at the time attached to
the manuscript is sometimes stated in the notices of

IX. Censors : On this subject see Censorship
OF Hebkew Books. The following few remarks
may, however, be added to what is said in that arti-
cle: An instance of self-imposed censorship in
France, about 1291, is found in a Hebrew manu-
script at the British Museum (Add. 19,664). Brit.
Mus. MS. Add. 17,050 contains (in the form of a
fly-leaf) a document, dated Lugo, Feb. 16, 1610, by
which permission was given to carry the codex to
Modena. Brit. Mus. MS. Or. 74 contains an entry
made for the censor by his notary. Very often the
entries of several censors are found on the same page,
the manuscript having been from time to time sub-
jected to fresh examinations.

Bibliography: In addition to the sourees plven In the article
the followinK may be cited : On papyri : Steinschneider, in
Zeitachrinjur Aeqijptische Sprachc. xvii. 93; Chwolson,
C. I. H. cols. 120-li); Erman and Krebs, Aus den Papmi
des Ki'iniiilichen Mtweu/ns, p. 290; MittheiiM/ififOi aunder
Sammluna des Erzherzoa iiaincr, i. 38-44. Catalogues:
See list in Jew. Encyc. iii. 618 ct scq. Facsimiles : Neu-
bauer, Facitimiles of Hebrew MSS. in the Bodleian Li-
hrar^i. Preface, 1886 (which has been largely drawn upon in
the accompanving plates); CD. Ginsburg, of XVIII.
Facsimiles of MSS. of the Hehreiv Bible, London, 1898;
The Haggadah of Sarajevo, Vienna, 1898 ; and The Frag-
ments Hitherto Recovered of the Hebrew Text of Eccle-
^asticus, Oxford and Cambridge, 1901.

G. G. M.

The following list gives the number of known
Hebrew manuscripts in existence with the names of
libraries or private owners possessing them. The
dates in parentheses are those of the printed cata-
logues of the collections.

Bodleian, Oxford (1886). 2,541

E.N. Adler 1,476

British Museum (1893) . 1,196
Cambridge University.. 762
Jews' College ( 1903) .... 580
Beth-Hamedrash (1884). 147

C. D. Ginsburg 80

Trinity College, Cam-
bridge .. 29

Christ Church, Oxford . . 13


Paris, Biblioth^ue Na-

tionale (1866) 1,313

Barou GUnzburg 900








St. Petersburg 880

FriedlaiKliana '.UM


Munich (1897) 408

Hamburg (1878) 35.")

Berlin (1897) 2o9

Vienna ( 1847) 2;'i7

Breslau Seminary 190

Strasburg (1881) 51

Leipsic, Ratsbibliothek

(1838) 43

Erfurt (1863) 17

Budapest Seminary 12

Geiger (Hochschule),

Berlin 12


Parma (1803, 1880) 1,&34

Vatican, Rome (1756) . . . 580

Turin (1874) 294

Mantua (1878) 178

Florence 130

Angelica, Rome (1878) .. 54

Bologna (1887) 28

Vittorio Emanuele,

Rome (1878) 28

Modena 27

Venice (1881!) 19


Escurial 75

Toledo 42

Elsewhere 27

Jewish Theological

Seminary, New York. 750

Columbia University 100

Sutro, San Francisco 135


Leyden (18,58) 116

Upsala (1893) 38

Rosenthal 32

Copenhagen (184ti) 16

Lund (ia50) 6

Besides there are other collections not yet
catalogued; some in piivate hands, e.g., those of
Dr. M. Gaster of London, and of the late D. Kauf-
maun at Budapest, others in public libraries, as, for
example, the Alliance Lsraelite Library. The frag-
ments of the Cairo Genizah, numbering many thou-
sands, and scattered in Cambridge, Oxford, London,
and Paris, are not included. Many libraries, as the
Bodleian and Bibliothfique Nationale, have received
notable accessionssincetheircatalogues were printed.

BiBLiOffRAPHY : Steinschneider, Vorlesungen ilber die Kunde
Hebrilischer Handschriften, pp. 68-90.

tJ .

MA'OZ ZUB (-n^ nVD) : Commencement of the
hymn originally sung only in the domestic circle,
but now used also in the synagogue, after the kin-

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