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the present state of knowledge it is impossible to
tell whether the view of J or of E more nearly rep-
resents the truth.

The origin of the name " Levi " has been quite vari-
ously explained. (1) In Gen. xxix. 34, J regards it
as from the stem TVO ("to join "), and explains it by
Leah's hope that her husband would now be joined
to her. (2) Lagardc (I.e.) derives it from the same



stem, but explains it as referring to Egyptians who,
like Moses, attached themselves to the Israelites when
they left Egypt. (3) Baudissin (i.e.) derives it in
the same way, but refers it to those who were at-
tached to, or accompanied, the ark. (4) Budde
(I.e.) gives it the same derivation, but applies it to
those who attached themselves to Moses in some
great religious crisis. (5) Hommel (" Aufsatze und
Abhandlungen," i. 30; "Siid-Arabische Chrestoma-

thie," p. 127; "Ancient Hebrew Tra-

Origin of dition," pp. 278 et sey.) derives it from

Name. the ]\Iin«an "lawi'u" (= "priest");

with this Mordtmann (" Beitrage zur
Minaischen Epigraphik," p. 43) and Sayce ("Early
Hist, of the Hebrews," p. 80) agree. (6) Well-
hausen ("Prolegomena," 5th ed., p. 141) suggests
that it is a gentilic name formed from the name of
Levi's mother, Leah ; in this opinion Stade (" Gesch. "
i. 152), Gray ("Hebrew Proper Names," p. 96), Nol-
deke (hesitatingly ; in "Z. D. M. G." xl. 167), Gunkel
("Genesis," p. 301), and Luther (Stade 's "Zeit-
schrift," xxi. 54) concur. (7) Jastrow ("Jour. Bib.
Lit." xi. 120 et seq.) connects "Levi" with "Laba"
of the El-Amarna tablets. " Laba " he connects with
the word ^'2^3 (" lion "), thus making Levi the " lion "
tribe. (8) Skipwith (in "J. Q. R." xi. 264) connects
"Levi" with "leviathan," making it refer to the
coils of the serpent. This variety of opinion illus-
trates and emphasizes the present uncertainty con-
cerning the origin and existence of the tribe, which
results from the scanty evidence.

Bibliography: In addition to the works already cited, see
Graf, Gesch. des Stnmnies Levi, in Merx, Archiv, i. 68-10(3,
308-236; Hiimmelauer, Da.i VDrmosni.sclic Pricstertlnim in
Israel ; Eduard Meyer, Gesch. des Altertum.% i. 377 et seq.

E. G. H. G. A. B.

LEVI I. See Levi b. Sisi.

LEVI II. : Palestinian scholar of the third cen-
tury (third amoraic generation); contemporary of
Ze'era I. and Abba b. Kahana (Yer. Ma'as. iii. 51a).
In a few instances he is quoted as Levi b. Lahma
(Hama; comp. Yer. R. H. iv. 59a with R. H. 29b;
Yer. Ta'an. ii. 65a with Ta'an. 16a; see Rabbino-
vicz, " Dikduke Soferim," to Ber. 5a, Ta'an. I.e. ,Zeb.
53b). In later midrashim the title "Berabbi" is
sometimes added to his name (Pesik. R. xxxii. 147b;
Num. R. XV. 10; Tan., Beha'aloteka, 6; comp.
Pesik. xviii. 135a; Tan., I.e. ed. Buber, p. 11; see
Levi b.\u Sisi). He quotes halakic and homiletic
utterances by many of his predecessors and contem-
poraries ; but as he (juotes most frequently those of
Hama b. Hanina, it may be conjectured that he was
the hitter's pupil, though probably he received in-
struction at Johanan's acadeni}- also. In this acad-
emy he and Judah b. Nahman w'ere alternately en-
gaged to keep the congregation together until
.Tohauan's arrival, and each was paid for his services
two "selas" a week. On one occasion Levi ad-
vanced the theory that the propliet Jonah was a
descendant of the tribe of Zebulun, deducing proof
from Scripture. Soon after Johanan lectiired on the
same subject, but argued that Jonah was of the
tribe of Asher. The next week being Judah's turn
to lecture, Levi took his place and reverted to the
([uestion of Jonali's descent, proving that both
Johanan and himself were right: on his father's



Levi II.

Levi ben Abraham



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



22



side Jonah was desceuck-d lioni Zcbulun: <mi liis
niotliei-'s, from Asher. Tliis skilful balancing of
tlicir opposing opinions so pleased
Views Johanan that he doclarod Levi capa-
About blu of tilling an independent lecture-
Jonah, siiip, and for twenty-two years tliere-
after Levi successfully tilled sucli an
office (Gen. 11. -xcviii. 11; Yer Suk. v. 55a). This
incident seems to indicate lli.a Levi's earlier years
were spent in poverty: later, liowever, he seems to
have been better circumstanced, for he became in-
volved in litigations about some houses and con-
sulted Johanan on tlie case (Yer. Hanh. iii. 21d).

Levi's name but rarely appears in halakic litera-
ture, and then mostly in connection with some Scrip-
tural phrase supporting the dicta of others (see Yer.
Ber. i. 2c. 3d ct seq. ; Yer. Ter. iv. 42d [wliere his
patronymic is erroneously given as "Hina'']). In
the Hag!,^adah, on the contrary, he is one of the
most frequently cited. In this province he became
so famous tliat" halakists like Ze'era I., who had no
special admiration for the haggadist (Ver. Ma'as.
iii. 51a), urged their disciples to frequent Levi's lec-
tures and to listen to them attentively, for "it was
impossible that he wouid ever close a lecture with-
out sayinsr sometliing in.structive " (Yer. K. H.
iv. 59b; Yer. Sanh. ii. 20b). In these
Fame as lectures he would frequently advance
Haggadist. different interpretations of one and the
same text, addressing one to scholars
and the other to tiie masses (Gen. R. xliv. 4; Eccl.
R. ii. 2). Sometimes he would discuss one subject
for months in succession. It is reported that for six
mouths he lectiurd on I Kiugs x.\i. 25— "There was
none like unto Ahab, Avhich did sell himself to work
wickedness in the sight of the Lord." Then he
dreamed that Ahab appeared to him and remon-
strated with him: "Wlierein have I sinned against
thee and how have I offended thee that thou
shouldst continually dwell on that part of the verse
which refers to my wickedness and disregard the
last part, which sets forth the mitigating circum-
stance— 'whom Jezebel his wife stirred up'V"
(nnon = " instigated," "incited "). During the six
months following, therefore, Levi spoke as Ahab's
defender, lecluring from the same verse, but omit-
ting the mi(hlle clause (Yer. Sanh. x. 28b).

Levi divided all haggadisis into two classes: those
who can string ])earls (i.e., cite apposite texts) but
can not ))erforate them {i.e., jienetrate tlie depths of
Seiiiiliire). an<l those who can jxiforate but can not
string them. Of himself, he said that he was skilled
in both arts (Cant. H. i. 10). Once, however, he so
provoked Abba b. Kahana by what was a palpable
misinterpretation that the lattei' called
String of him "liar" and "fabricator." IJut it
Pearls. is authoritatively a<lded that tiiis hap-
liened once only (Gen. R. xlvii. U).
lie and Abb;i were? lifelong friends, and tin; latter
manifested his admiration for his colleague's exe-
gesis by pul)li(ly kissing him (Yer. Hr)r. iii. 4H().

To render Scrijitural terms more intelligible Levi
fretpuMitly used ])arallels from cognate dialects,
especially froni Arabic ((Jen. R. Ixxxvii. 1; Ex. \\.
xlii. 4; Cant. R. iv. 1); and to elucidate his s\ibject
he would cite popidar proverbs and compose fables



and parables. Thus, connnenting on Ps. vii. 15
(A. V. 14), "He . . . hath conceived mischief, and
brought forth falsehood," he says: "The Holy One
having ordered Noali to admit into the ark pairs of
every species of living beings. Falsehood applied,
but Noah refused to admit him unless he brought
witli him hismate. Falsehood then retired losearch
for a mate. Meeting Avarice, he inquired, ' Whence
comest thou?' and on being told that he too had .
been refused admission into the ark because ho had
no mate. Falsehood proposed that they present
themselves as mates. But Avarice would not agree-
to this without assurance of material gain; where-
upon Falsehood promised him all his earnings, and
Avarice repeated the condition agreed ujion. After
leaving the ark Avarice approjuiated all of False-
hood's acquisitions, and when the latter demanded
some share of Ins own. Avarice replied, ' Have we
uotagreed tliatall thy earniygs shall be mine? ' This
is the lesson : Falsehood begets falsehood " (Midr.
Teh. to Ps. vii. 15; Hamburger [" R. B. T." s.r.
" Fabel "] erroneously ascribes this fable and several
others to Levi bar Sisi). Levi became known among
Ills contemporaries as ^{nyOL•^ NID (= " uiaster of
traditional exegesis"; Gen. R. Ixii. 5).

BHii.iociR.VPHV: Bacher, Aij. Pal. Amor. ii. 29t)-43ti; Frankel,
M<liii,\). Ula; Hei\pr\\\.Sr<U I- lia-D(>r(it,n.<s.v. Levi /).i»i.'<(,
with whiiiii he erroneously identities Levi II.; Weiss, Dor, iii.
1:35.
s. s. S. M.

LEVI, AARON. See Moxtezinos, Antonio.

LEVI, ABRAHAM: German traveler; born at
Horn, ill the principality of Lippe, in 1702: died at
Amsterdam Feb. 1, 1785. At the age of live he
was sent to Brog, near Lemgo, for the sake of his
studies, and he stayed there till 1714, when he re-
turned home. He then acquired a ])assion for travel-
ing, and in 1719, when only seventeen years old, he
detinitely left the parental home in order to execute
his plan.

Levi traveled through Germany, Bohemia. Mora-
via, Hungary, Austria, iind the whole of Italy. Full
of youthful ardor, he did not leave unnoticed the
most trivial circumstance. He mentions among
other things the synagogues of Frankfort, and the
riches of his relative Samson Wertheimer of Vi-
enna. He wrote an account of his travels in Judao-
Gernian (imblished by Roestin"Isr. Letterbode "),
adding a Hebrew poem describing ten of the most
noteworthy events and giving an acrostic on his
name. The poem is followed liy explanatory notes,
also in Hebrew. Levi's narrative is interesting in
that it gives statistics and customs of the Jews in
small localities not mentioned by other historians
or travelers.

nilii.iO(iKAiMiv : Uofst, In hr. Litttrhoik, x. 148 et seq.
^ v;. M. Skt,.

LEVI BEN ABRAHAM BEN HAYYIM :

French iik yeloliedisl ; cliaiiipion of the liberal party
in Provence in the struggh' for the study of secular
sciences; born at Villefranehe-de-Confliient, Rous-
sillon, between 1240 and 1250; died at or near Aries
soon after 1315. He was deseeiiiled from a schol-
arly family. His father. Ar.UAii.vM jjkn H.wyi.m,
was a syuagogal poet, and rabbi in Narbonne.



23



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Levi II.

Levi ben Abr-aham



which place he left about 1240 to settle finally in
Villefianche. Levi's uncle Reuben ben Hayyim,
also, like his grandfather, was a scholar. A son of
this Reuben ben Hayyim was, probably, Samuel ben
Reuben of Beziers, who took Levi's part, altliough
in vain, in his conflict with the ortluxlox party in
Provence. Levi himself was the maternal grand-
father of the philosopher Levi ben Ger.shon of
Bagnols.

Levi ben Abraham was instructed in Bible and
Talmud, and in secular sciences as well, and was
soon drawn into the rationalistic current of the
time. One of his teachers was a certain R. Jacob,
whom he cites as his authority for an astronomical
explanation, ami wlio may have been Jacob ben
Machir ibn Tibbon. It is probable.
Life. also, that Levi was instructed by
his uncle Reuben ben Hayyim, from
whom he quotes an explanation of Gen. i. 3 (Vati-
can MS. cxcii. 56b).

Levi left his native city (probably on account of
poverty, which oppressed him almost throughout
his life;, remained for a short time in Perpignau, and
then went to Montpellier, where, in 1276, he was
engaged in literary pursuits, and earned a scanty
living by teaching languages and lecturing. Dur-
ing the heat of the controversy over the study of
secular sciences lie was at Xarbonne, in the house of
tlie wealthy Samuel Sulami, who was prominent
both as a poet and a scholar. Levi enjoyed his
hospitality until, yielding to the pressure of the
opposing party, represented especially by Solomon
ben Adret, Samuel Sulami asked his guest to leave.
The latter then sought shelter with his cousin Sam-
uel ben Reuben in Beziers (see "Minhat Kena'ot,"
No. 41), but was persecuted, apparently, even there.
He was excommuuicated by tlie orthodox party,
yet, after the conflict was over, in 1315, he found
rest and quiet at Aries, where he remained until his
death. He has been identified by some with Levi
of Perpignan, whom Judah Mosconi, in his super-
commentary to Ibn Ezra, characterizes as one of the
most prominent of scholars (see Berliner's "Maga-
zin," iii. 148 [Hebr. part, p. 41]).

Steinschneider points out that a large portion of
the scientific works written in Arabic were made
accessible in Hebrew translations in
Works. the first half of the thirteenth century,
and that the entire realm of knowledge
began to be treated in encyclopedias in the second
half of the same century. Levi ben Abraham wrote
two such encyclopedic works, which show the
range of knowledge of an educated rationalistic
Provencal Jew of that period. The first of these is
the "Batte ha-Nefesh welia-Lehashim," the title of
which is taken from Isa. iii. 20. It is a rimed com-
pendium, didactic in tone, of the various sciences, in
ten chapters and 1,846 lines, with a few^ explanatory
notes and a preface, also in rimed prose. In the
preface to this work, which is frequently foimd in
manuscripts. Levi demonstrates the usefulness of
his compendium by pointing out the difficulties
which those who are not well acquainted with gen-
eral literature must surmount in order to acquire a
knowledge of the sciences, which are scattered
through all sorts of books. He had long cherished



the thought of compiling an encyclopedia, but had
always been deterred by the fear that the task
would prove beyond his power; at last, in 1276,
strength Avas promised him in a vision, whereupon
he began the work at Montpellier.

Levi was compelled, by the nature of the work,
to limit himself to giving the conclusions of the
chief authorities, particularly of Mai-
His Ency- monides, wiiom he follows step by
clopedia. step. Cli. i. treats of ethics. In tlie
paragraphs treating of the history of
the diffusion of learning, the author expresses the
view that the Greeks and Arabs derived almost
their entire scientific culture from the ancient
Hebrews, a theory whicli justified the reading of
Greco-Arabic ideas into the Bible (Steinschneider).
The following chapters treat of logic (ii.), the
Creation (iii.), the soul (iv.), prophecy and the Mes-
sianic period (v. ; the coming of the ^Messiah will oc-
cur in the year 1345), the mystic theme of the
"Merkabah," the divine throne-chariot (vi.), num-
bers (vii.), astronomy and astrology (viii.), physics
(ix.), and metaphysics (x.). After the author him-
self had found it necessary to provide the difficult
verses with explanatory notes (which are not found
in all the manuscripts), Solomon de Lunas. proba-
bly identical with Solomon ben IMenahem Prat (or
Porat), wrote, about 1400. a commentary to the
"Batte ha-Nefesh weha-Lehashim."

The second Avork of Levi was the '• LiAvyat Hen "
or"Sefer ha-Kolel," a "comprehensive book" (en-
cyclopedia). The dates of its beginning and com-
pletion are unknoAvn, but it must have been Avritten
before the outbreak of the controversy mentioned
above. It is divided into two "pillars,"
His called "Jachin" and "Boaz" (after I

" Liwyat Kings vii. 21), the first containing five
Hen." treati-ses, and the second one. Since
no complete manuscript of this AVork
has yet been discovered, any analysis of its contents
is naturally uncertain. According to Steinschneider,
its six treatises are as folloAvs: (1) logic or arithme-
tic (?): (2) geometry; (8) astronomy and astrology;
(4) physics (?), psychology, and the "theory of intel-
lect"; (5) metaphysics; (6) theology, prophecy, the
mysteries of the LaAV, and belief and tiie Creation.
In the third treatise, the most complete (Paris j\IS.
No. 1047; Varican MS. No. 383; Neubauer. "Cat.
Bodl. Hebr. MSS." No. 2028, and additamenta), the
astrological Avritings of Abraham ibn Ezra are sla-
vishly followed, and the prediction is made that the
Messiah Avill appear in the year 1345. The last, or
theological, treatise, Avhich is extant at Oxford
(Neubauer, "Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS." Nos. 1285.
2023), Parma (MS. de Rossi No. 1346). and Rome
(Vatican 3IS. No. 2893), natm-ally had a greater
circuhirion, and, on account of the author's ration-
alistic interpretarion of the Scriptures, aroused nmch
more opposition than the other sections of the work,
Avhich aimed at nothing original and included only
Avhat could be found eisewliere.

The teachings Avhicli Levi ben Abraham promul-
gated, both by pen and by speech, although not
original Avith him, naturally aroused the anger of
the orthodox. In his'hands Abraham and Sarah be-
came symbols of " matter " and " intellect " ; the four



Levi ben Abraham
Levi, David



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



24



kings against whom Abraliam went to war repre-
sented the four faculties of man ; Joshua's miracles
were symbolically interpreted: they were not ac-
tual occurrences; the possibility of a supernatural
revelation was doubted ; and there were other and
similar doctrines that poisoned the naively credulous
and religious mind.

Orthodox resentment was first shown at Narbonne,
where Levi was residing in the house of Samuel
Sulami. It mattered little that Levi " Avas in general
very reserved and was communicative only to those
who shared his views" ("Minhut Keua'ot," No.
121), and that it was not known with
Opposition certainty whether he was to be reck-
to His oned among the ortliodox or among
Views. the heretics; nor yet that he always
put off Don Vidal Crescas, who, al-
though he opposed his teachings, was his personal
friend, and had often, but vainly, asked him for his
writings. Equally imavailing were liis observance
of the ceremonial law and his pretense that he occu-
pied himself with philosophical questions only for
the sake of being able to cope with heretics {ib. No.
14). Poverty compelled Levi, "who was born un-
der an unlucky star," to teach at this dangerous and
critical period and thereby spread his doctrines.
Solomon ben Adret, therefore, then the champion
of the orthodox party, felt constrained to attack
this "'arch -here tic, condemned by the voices of all."
" A Moiiammedan is dearer far to me than this man,"
he wrote (ib. No. 14; see J. Perles, "R. Salomo ben
Abraham ben Adereth," p. 25), " who is not ashamed
to say openly that Abraham and the other patriarchs
have ceased to exist as real personages and that their
places liave been filled by philosophical concepts.
. . . Levi and his adherents are enemies not only of
Judaism, but of every positive religion." In his re-
ply to Levi's letter, in which the latter endeavored
to clear himself of the charges brought against liim,
Solomon ben Adret advised Levi in friendly terms
to confine himself to Talnnidic sciences; this Levi
plainly did not wish to do, and thus he brought ex-
comnnmication upon himself.

Levi expanded and revised his "Liwyat Hen" in
Sept., 1315, at Aries, and tlie manuscript (Vatican
MS. No. cxcii.) Avas discovered by Steinschneider
(••llcbr. Bibl." 1869, p. 24).

In addition to these works Levi wrote three others
— "Sodot ha-Torah," "Sefer ha-Tekunah," and an
astrological treatise. Tiie "Sodol ha-Torah" (Paris
MS. No. 1066), which probably was an exposition
of the mysteries contained in tlie Ten Command-
ments, and wliicii was written before 1276, is said
to be lost, but it was probably incorporated, in a
revised form, in his "Liwyat Hen." The "Sefer
lia-Tekunah." on astronomy and chronology, con-
sisted of forty chapters and was written in 1276.
Tlie treatise on predictive astrology is entitled
"Sha'ar lia-Arba'im be-Kohot ha-Kokabim," "the
fortieth chapter " of the preceding book, although
it forms a separate work. They were edited at the
same time. The great dcpendrnce on Abraham ibn
Ezra's astrological opinicms shown in this treatise
woidd suggest that it may be the compendium
which Levi is Siiid to have made of Ibn Ezras
works. All these smaller treatises seem to have been



merely preparatory to the "Liwyat Hen," in which
they are used.

Bibliography: Carmoly, La France Israelite, p. 46; A. Gel-
frer, in Ozar Nchmad, ii. 94 et seq.; idem, in He-Haluz, 1i.
13 ct scij.: Griitz, Gesch. vii. 219, 233; Gross, in MoiiaU-
.sf/iriff, 1879, p. 428; idem, Gallia Jndaica, pp. 8:3. 199. 329,
465 ; Renan-Neubauer, Les Rahbins F7-an^ai«, pp. 628 ef .seg..
6.58 et scq.; J. Perles, R.Sahimo hciiAhraham hfu Adcrctii,
pp. 13, 22 et seq., 70; Steinschneider, in Erscli and (iriiber,
Encjic. section ii., part 4:3, pp. 294 et xeq. (where all the pre-
vious literature on the subject is given).

J. 31. Sc.

LEVI, BENEDIKT : German rabbi ; born at
AVorms Oct. 14, 1806 ; died at Giessen April 4, 1899 ;
son of Samuel Wolf Levi, a member of the San-
hedrin of Paris and rabbi of Mayence from 1807
until his death in 181H. Beuedikt Levi, who was
destined for a rabbinical career, received his early
Talmudic education from Rabbis Gumpel Weis-
mann, Epliraim Kastel, and Lob Ellinger. Hav-
ing prepared himself under the tuition of Michael
Creizcnach, he entered the University of Wi'irz-
burg (1824) and attended at the same time the lec-
tures on Talmud of Abraham Bing, rabbi in tliat
city. Three years later he entered the University
of Giessen, where he took the degree of Ph.D.
When A. A. Wolf was called from Giessen to Copen-
hagen, Levi was appointed (1829) his successor, re-
maining in that rabbinate for sixty-seven years.

Levi, who was an advocate of moderate Reform,
published, in addition to various addresses and ser-
mons, the essays "Beweis der Zulassigkeit des
Deutschen Choralgesanges mit Orgelbegleitung
beim Sabbathlichen Gottesdienste der Synagoge "
(in Weiss's "Archiv fiir Kircheurecht," 1833; re-
published separately, Offenbach, 1833) and "Das
Programm der Radicalen Reformgemeinde Giessens
Beleuchtet" (Giessen, 1848). Several minor tiea-
rises by him appeared in " Allg. Zeitung des Juden-
thums," "Der 'Volkslehrer," and other periodicals.

Bibliography: Kavserling, nUiUnthck JVul. Kanzclralner,
ii. 25-39; AllQ. Zeit. des Jud. pp. 63, 173 et xeq.
s. M. K.

LEVI, BORACH (Joseph Jean Frangois

Elie) : Convert to Chiistiaiiity ; born at Hagenau
in 1721 ; son of a Jewisii commissary. He went to
Paris in March, 1751, to follow up a lawsuit, and
while there became a convert to Christianity, and
was baptized Aug. 10, 1752. He attempted to win
over his wife, whom he had left behind at Hagenau,
but she refused, thougli she was forced by tiie law
of the time to surrender her two daughters; thej'
were baptized ten years afterward. He endeavored
to gain permission to marry again, though he re-
fused to give a Jewish bill of divorce to his wife.
He obtained from the bishops of Verdun and Metz
canonical ojiinions that a baptized Jew might marry
a Christian if his wife refuses to be converted witli
him, and he attempted to get tiie cure of his town
to cry the banns for his marriage with one Anne
Thaevert. The cure refused, and a long series of
lawsuits ensued. The whole question of the valid-
ity of a Jewish marriage was raised, and the tech-
nical ditllculty which presented itself to the canonical
lawyers was the possibility of Levi's wife becoming
Christian after he had married a Christian woman.
Parliament refused to give him relief (Jan. 2. 1758).



25



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Levi ben Abraham
JLevi, David



No more is known of him, though several legal
memorials were written ou the curious case.

Bibliography: Isidore Loeb, in Annuairc de la Societe des
Etudes Juives, 1884, pp. 275-334.

LEVI, CARLO: Italian physiologist; born at
Genoa March 26, 1866; educated at the University
of Modena (M.D. 1889). In 1888 he was appointed
tutor, and later assistant professor, of experimental
physiology at the University of Modena; in 1893
he assumed charge of the classes in special physiol-
ogy, and in 1897 of the classes in histology, at the
veterinary college connected with the same institu-
tion. In 1904 he was appointed editor of "L'Idea
Sionista"; he is also vice-president of the Modena
chapter of the Dante Alighieri Society. He has
written papers on Jewish medical statistics, on phj's-
ical culture, and on other scientific subjects for va-
rious periodicals, including the " Congresso Medico
Internazionale di Roma" (1894) and the "Congresso
Internazionale di Fisiologia a Torino" (1901), and
has publislied lectures on experimental, technical,
and veterinary physiology.

s. U. C.

LEVI, DAVID : Italian poet and patriot ; born
at Chieri 1816; died at Venice Oct. 18, 1898. Edu-
cated at the Jewish schools of his native town and



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