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where with Fourcroy, Cabauis, Desgenelles, and
others, he founded the Societe Medicaie d 'Emula-
tion. For several years he had a hard struggle, but
by 1811 his position had become secure: his books
won him fame, and he became a member of the
Board of Health (1816) and of the Academy of
Medicine (soon after its foundation, in 1820). In
1829, with Esquirol, Parent-Duchatelet, Orfila, and
others, he founded the "Annalcs d'Hygiene Pub-
lique et deMedecine Legale," to which he wrote the
introduction. After the Revolution of July, 1830,
he became first physician to Louis Philippe. He
embraced Christianity.

Marc published : " Observations -Generales sur les
Poisons" (1795, translated into several languages);
" Sur les Hemorrhoidcs Fermees " (Paris, 1804, trans-
lated from the German of Hildenbrand) ; " Manuel
d'Autopsie Cadaveriquc Medico-Legale " (1808,
translated from Roze) : "' Recherches sur I'Emploi du
Sulfate de Fer dans le Traitement des Fifivres Inter-
mittentes" (ib. 1810); "La Vaccine Soumise au.\
Simples Lumieres de la Raison " (ih. 1810 and 1836);
" De la Folic Consideree dans Ses Rapports avec les
Questions Medico- Judiciaires " (2 vols., ib. 1840; one
of the first works to show the connection between
crime and insanity); etc. He contributed many
articles to the "Bibliotheque Medicaie," the "Dic-
tionnaire de Medecine," the " Dictionnaire des
Sciences Medicales," and to other journals.
Bibliography: La Grande Encyclopedie; Larousse, Diet.

s. N. D.

MARC-MOSSi:, JOSEPH: French poet and
author; born in Carpentras about 1780; died in Paris
Feb. 21. 1825. His name appears to have been orig-
inally "Mo.ses"; he was known also under the
p.seudonyms "L'Ami" and "Lejoyeux de Saint
Acre." At the age of six Joseph wrote verses,
and at seven knew by lieart the finer scenes of
Racine's " Athalie," and had versified passages from
Fenelon's "Telemaciue." In 1787 he was kidnaped
by the Catholic clergy, baptized, and shut up in a
monastery, whence for five years his friends, not-
withstanding great efforts, found it impossible to
extricate him. In 1792, however, after the outbreak
of the Ri'volution, lie was restored to his family,
transformed into a little "abbegalaut" — diseased in
body, depraved in taste, corrupt in morals, and
given over to laziness and sensuality. He presently
went to Paris, where he showed himself a born
courtier and frequenter of the society of the great,
and when- he was much souglit after and adndred.
The irregularities of his life gradually brought on
consumption, and, rather than endure the trials that
lay beff)re him, he committed suicide, in company
with his English wife.

Marc-Mosse wrote: "Ciironique de Paris" (1819);
"Archives des Lettres, des Sciences et des Arts"
(182')-21): "Eucharis, ou les Sensations de lAmour "
(1824); "La Canineidc" (epic-satiric poem); "Le
Printemps" (idyl read by the author at the Paris
Athenee in 1810); "Ode.s" (to the refugees from



Spain, to war, to Napoleon's marriage); "La France
Consolee," etc. ; a criti(!al exannnatiou of Lamennais'
"Essai sur I'lndilYerence en Matiere de Religion " (in
defense of the Israelites). He wrote also many ama-
tory poems, studies, and treatises upon the art of
pleasing, the art of preserving and increasing beauty,
the art of making oneself loved by women, etc.
(1808-11). and he left a large number of works in
manuscript.

Bibliography: La Grniule Kuctivlopedie; Servi, Iifraeliti
iVEuropa, pp. 197-199.

S. N. D.

MARCELLO, BENEDETTO: Italian musi-
cian; born at Venice 1686; died there 1739. He
is particularly celebrated for his settings to the
Psalms, fifty of which, under the title of "Estro
Poetico-Armonico, Parafrasi Sopra li Salmi," were
published at Venice between 1724 and 1727, in eight
volumes. These compositions, in the cantata form,
for from one to four voices, with accompaniments for
organ, violoncello, two violas, or other obligate
strings, are noble and dignified ; and their grandeur
and beauty have earned them republication in nu-
merous editions. Important for the study of He-
brew melody is the circumstance that for the themes
of eleven of the earlier Psalms, Marcello utilized
Jewish airs, taking six from the German and five
from the Spanish tradition. Some historians of
music, led by Forkel, have fallen into the error of
assuming that Marcello's selected melodies repro-
duce the ancient Temple intonations for the P.salms.
The list of Hebrew originals, given by Marcello
himself, should, however, have guarded against
this. The themes utilized by Marcello are: (1) to
Ps. ix., a chant of the Spanish Jews for Ps. clxiv. ;
(2) to Ps. X., a German drone for Ps. cxiv. ; (3) to
Ps. xiv., a"Hallel"airused in the Spanish ritual; (4)
to Ps. XV., a German melody for "Ma'oz Zur"; (5)
to Ps. xvi., a Spanish chant for Ps. xcvi. and xcviii.
(comp. De Sola and Aguilar, "Ancient Melodies,"
No. 13 ; Cohen and Davis, " Voice of Prayer and
Praise," No. 16); (6) to Ps. xvii., a Spanish hymn by
Solomon ben Mazzal Tob, No. 233 in Soncino's collec-
tion (Constantinople, 1545), for the Sabbath when
a bridegroom attends the synagogue; (7)toPs. xvii.,
a German melody for the hymn " Ha-Mabdil " ; (8) to
Ps. xviii., a Spanish melody to Ibn Gabirol's hymu
"Sha'ar Asher Nisgar" (Dukes, "Ehrenstlulen," p.
76; F. II. Cowen has employed the same melody for
the "Dance of the Reapers" in his oratorio "Ruth,"
composed for the Worcester Musical Festival of
1887); (9) to'Ps. xix.. a German melody for the Sab-
bath evening hymn " Lekah Dodi " ; (10) to Ps. xxi.,
a German melody for Ibn Gabirol's hymn "Shofet
Kol ha-Arez" (comp. Racr. "Ba'al Tefi'llah,"Frank-
fort-on-the-Main, No. 1426); (11) to Ps. xxii., a Ger-
man air, in the major mode, for the "Kaddish " at
the conclusion of the service on the eve of the New-
Year.

Hihliograpmy: Ed. Rirnbaum. In Der JlMische Kantor,p.
'.UH, Bromherj!:, 1883; .1. Slnper, MarccUo Benedetto, exn
ChristUclicr t'salmen-Cornponist dct 17. Jahrhunderts, VI-
»'nna, 1885.

V. F. L. C.

MARCUS AURELIUS ANTONINUS. See

Anton IN IS.



325



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Marc
Maretzek



MARCUS, BRENTGEN : First Jewisli court
singi'r ill Gerinuiiy ; llourishod toward tliei'iid of tlic
seveiitoeutli century. She lived with lier fatlier,
Isaac Marcus, in the town of Wesel in Brandenburg,
wiierc, in 1G90, Frederick of Uiundenburg, after-
ward Kintr Fredcricic I. of Prussia, licard lier sing.
A(hniring- lier voice, and desiring to secure for her a
musical education, he sent her and her father to
Berlin. On July 16 of that year he wrote to the
Prince of Anhalt and the council notifying Ihein of
his discovery and his wishes concerning Brentgen,
and conuneuded her to the attention of his wife, the
princess Sophie Charlotte, who, however, was not
at Berlin when the singer arrived. On July 25 the
Prince of Anhalt wrote to the crown prince that ho
and others had heard and admired her unusually
fine voice, and that provision would be made for her
in accordance with his wishes.

BiBMOGRArHY: Isaak Miinz. Eiuc JVnUseltr H->,fs(inafri7ivor
JDi) Joliroi, ill Dcr IsraeJit, .\xv., .No. 54, Supplement.

;.. M. Co.

MARCUS, LEWI (LEWIN) : German lawyer;
born Oct. 15, IbUt), at Hheua, Mecklenburg ; died Oct.
7, 18S1, at Manchester, England. On account of his
indefatigable exertions in behalf of his coreligionists
he became known as the "Gabriel liiesser of Meck-
lenburg." He was the first Jewish deputy of the
Mc'cklenburg Diet, of which he became vice-presi-
dent. He was made honorary citizen of the city of
Schwcrin, and for seventeen years was acting presi-
dent of its municipal council (Kayserling, " Gedenk-
bliitter," Leipsic, 1892), and president of the Jewish
community of Schweriu.

s. I. AVak.

MARCUS, LOUIS. See Maukcs, Ludwig.

MARCUSE, ADOLF: German astronomer;
born Nov. 17, 1860, in Magdebui'g; educated at the
universities of Strasburg and Berlin (Ph.D. 1884).
Before his graduation he took part, as assistant, in
the German expedition (1882) to South Carolina to
observe the transit of Venus. In 1885 he studied at
the Russian observatory at Pulkova, near St. Peters-
burg ; in 1886 he went to Santiago, Chile, as astron-
omer-in-chief to the national observatory, remaining
there for two years; while in South America he
visited the Argentine Republic, Brazil, and Per'i.
On liis return to Germany he received an appoint-
ment at the royal observatory in Berlin, wliere in
behalf of the Centralbureau dcr International Erd-
messung he was engaged, until 1891, in making
continuous observations of the periodical changes
of latitude. In April, 1891, he was commissioned
by the same society to conduct the astronomical-
geodetic expedition to the Hawaiian Islands; as
a result of his observations the investigation of
the changes of geographical latitude was consider-
ably advanced.

After his return from the South Sea Islands and
from a journey to Samoa, Australia, and Ceylon,
he constructed a large photographic zenith-tele-
scope in Berlin for the purpose of improving the
photographic method of determining the altitude of
the pole, and of rendering it available for scientific
purposes. His lectures at the Royal University of
Berlin are chiefly on the determination of geo-
graphical and nautical locations by means of



astronomy, with practical demonstrations at tiie ob-
servatory. He improved also the photograpJiic
method of determining locality by constructing a
photographic instrument for purposes of travel.
Since 1908 he has been one of the editors of the
■' Geographisches Jahrbuch " (Gotha).

Marcuse is a member of the international astro-
nomical and of the geographical societies of Berlin^ of
the Free Photograpiiic Association, and of the Ger-
man society for the study of aerial navigation. Of
his writings the following may t)e mentioned : " Die
Physisclie BeschalTenlieil der Cometeu " (Berlin,
1884); "Beobachtungsergebiiisse der Kbuiglichea
Sternwart(^ •' (part 4, ih. 1888); "Die Ilawaiischen
luseln " {ib. 1894) ; " Die Atmosphiirische Luft " (ib.
1896); "Die Piiotograpliische Bestinimungsweise
der Polhbhe" (ib. 1897); "Die Fehler der Siunes-
wahrnehniungen bei Pracisiousmessungen" (ib.
1897); "Beitrage zur Nautischen Astronomic" (ib.
1899); "Anwendung Photograpbischer Methoden
zur Geographischen Ortsbestimmung " (ib. 1899);
" Die Neuere Entwickelung der Geographischen
Ortsbestimmung "(?:6. 1901); " PhysikderErde " (tft.
1902); "Bearbeitung der Berliner Polhohen 1889-
1890 im Auftrage des Centralvereins der Interna-
tionalen Erdmcssung " (ib. 1902); "Handbuch der
Geographischen Ortsbestimmung " (Brunswick,
1904). S.

MARCZALI, HEINRICH : Hungarian histo-
rian ; boruat Marczali April 8,1856 ; educated at Raab,
Papa, Budapest, Berlin, and Paris. In 1878 he be-
came professor at the gymnasium of his native town.
He became a member of the Hungarian Academy in
1893, and two years later he was appointed professor
of Hungarian history at the University of Budapest.
In addition to numerous contributions to specialist
journals, he has written the following books: "A
Foldrajzi Viszonyok Befolyasa Magyarorszag Tor-
tenetere" (Budapest, 1874); "A Magyar Tortenet
Kiitfoi" (ib. 1880; German transl. "Quellen der
Ungarischeu Gesch." Berlin, 1882); " Regestak a
KiiTfoldi Leveltarakbol" (Budapest, 1882); "Ujkor
Tortenete" (ib. 1883-86); " Magyarorszog Torteuete
II. Jozsef Koraban " (ib. 1882- 88) ; " Maria Theresia "
(ib. 1891); " A Legujabb Kor Tortenete " (/A. 1892);
•• Az Arpadok es Dalmaczia" (French transl. under
the title " Les Relations de la Dalmatie du XI. an
XIII. Sifecle," Paris, 1898); the first, second, and
eighth volumes of the great history of Hungary jiub-
lished by Szilagyi.

BiDLiOGRAPiiY : PnlUui Lex.

s. L. V.

MARETZEK, MAX: Austrian impresari. i;
born at Brunu, Moravia, June 28, 1821 ; died at
Pleasant Plains, New York, May 14, 1897. He was
a pupil of Sey fried in Vienna, and also attended tiie
university in that city. Several years later he be-
came connected with Italian opera in London. In
1848 he went to New York, where lie began his
career as leader of tiie orchestra at the Italian opera.
From 1849 lo 1878 he was organizer and manager of
grand opera at the Aslor Place Opera House, the
Academy of :\Iusic. and Pike's Opera House (now
the Grand Opera House). He occasionally made
professional tours to other cities of the United



Maretzek
Margolioth



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



326



States, and to Mexico and Cuba. In 1849 he brought
to America the celebrated singer Mile. Bertucca,
who afterward became his wife.

In Oct., 1854, Maretzek leased the Academy of
Music, and in the following year had a brilliant sea-
son, his company including La Grange, Brignoli,
Vestvali, and Badiali. " Semiramide " and " II Tro-
vatore" were produced for the first time in America
during that season. "Rigoletto" was brought out
in 1855, and "Traviata" and "William Tell" in
1856. In 1858 Maretzek engaged Piccolomini, and
on Nov. 24 of that year he introduced Adelina Patti.
He controlled the Academy from 1864 until it burned
down in 1866. Among his singers of that period
were Gazzaniga, Clara Louise Kellogg, Ronconi,
Adelaide Phillips, Mazzolini, and Succi. On Nov.
25, 1863, he conducted the first performance of
"Faust" in America, the cast including Kellogg,
Sulzer, Mazzolini, and Biacchi.

Upon the restoration of the Academy of Music in
1867, opera was given there under his direction, with
Kellogg, Mazzolini, Ronconi, Minnie Ilauck, and
Antonicci in the cast. In the following year he
leased Pike's Opera House, but returned to the
Academy in 1869, where he brought out the French
tenor Lefranc. It was Iiere also that Lucca made
her first appearance under Maretzek 's management
in 1872.

The list of operas introduced by Maretzek to the
New York public, in addition to those already men-
tioned, includes the following : " Forza del Destino " ;
" lone " ; " Carneval de Venice" ; " Don Sebastiano " ;
"Saffo"; Peri's "Judith"; "Fra Diavolo"; "Le
Prophe^te"; " L'Africaine " ; "Aroldo"; "I Masna-
dier"; "Medea"; "Crispinoe laComare"; "Romeo
et Juliette " ; " L'Etoile du Nord " ; " Luise Muller " ;
" I Due Foscari " ; " Attila " ; " Rolierto " ; " Anna Bo-
lena"; "Policlito" ; "Maria di Rohan"; " Linda di
Chamounix"; "La Favorita"; "Don Pasquale";
"Macbeth"; "Marino Faliero"; "Belisario";
" Betty " ; "I Lombardi. " During the latter part of
his life Maretzek enjoyed great popularity as a
teacher of singing in New York. On Oct. 12, 1889,
his golden jubilee was celebrated, Mme. Leiimann,
Herr Kalisch, Signor Perotti, Mme. Fursch-Madi,
Miss Anna Juch, Herr Alvary, Herr Fisciier, the
Daly and Palmer companies, as well as several other
artists, participating. Maretzek composed the
operas " Hamlet " (Briinn, 1843) and " Sleepy Hol-
low " (Academy of Music, New York, 1879). He
composed also orchestral and chamber music, piano-
forte pieces, songs, etc., and wrote "Crotchets and
Quavers," New York, 1857.

Baker



BiBLiorjRAPFiY : The Jlcrahl. New York. May 15, 1897
liio(irai>lnrnl Dictiunaru i)f MitMcianx.
S. J-



So.



MARGALIOT, MARGALIOTH. See M.\u-

GOIJOTH.

MARGALITA, AARON : Polish convert to
Christianity; born 166:3 at Zolkiev. He was a
learned rabbi, and traveled as a maggid in Poland
and Germany, preaching in the synagogues. In
Holland he remained for seven years teaching rab-
binics at Leydcn. He thus became intimate with
Trigland, through wliose influence lie was converted
to the Reformed Church, as Marg^lita himself re-



lates in his work "Oblatio Aaronis scu Tractatus de
Passionibus Christi," Fraukfort-on-the-Oder, 1706.

Disappointed in his hope of receiving support
which would enable him to study for an academic
career, he left Holland and went to Berlin. Here
he denounced the Talmudic Ilaggadah as contain-
ing blasphemiesagainst the Christian religion, where-
upon King Fredeiick I. of Prussia ordered that the
copiesof a new edition of the ]\Iidrash Kabbah, which
had been published at Frankfort-on-the-Oder in
1705, shouhl be placed under seal until the Christian
theological facultj - of that city should render an
opinion upon the work. This opinion being favor-
able, the order of suspension was revoked and the
sale of the book was permitted.

Through the protection of King Frederick, Mar-
galita was appointed professor of rabbinic Hebrew at
the University of Frankfort-on-the-Oder. Here he
remained but a short time, and it is said that in 1712
he became a convert to the Lutheran Church at
Hamburg. Joclier says in his lexicon that for hav-
ing expressed a tlesire to return to Judaism, Marga-
lita was imprisoned at Copenhagen, where he died
a few years later.

Bibliography: Bisclioff, Thnlmud-Ucbersetzxtnaeiu P- ITl.
note 11, Frankfort-on-Uie-Main, 1S99; A. Furst, Christen uml
Juden, pp. 192 193, Strasbur?, 1892; Gratz, Gesch. x. ;313-H14;
Jost, Uexch. des Judeiitltiims und Seiner Sektcn, vlii. 298.

D. S. 'M\Js.

MARGARITA, ANTONIXJS : Convert to
Christianity in the first half of the sixteenth cen-
tury ; born about 1500 at Ratisbon (Regensburg),
where his father, Jacob Margolioth, was rabbi ; died
at Vienna; baptized in 1523 at Wasserburg. Ba-
varia. He was teacher of Hebrew successively at
Augsburg, Meissen, Zell, Leipsic, and (from 1537
till his death) at the University of Vienna.

He wrote "Der Gantz Judisch Glaub mlt Sampt
ainer Grlindlichen und Wahrhafften Anzaygunge,
Aller Satzungen, Ceremonien, Gebetten, Haymliche
und Offentliche Gebreuch, Deren sich dye Juden
Halten, Durch das Gantz Jar, Mit Schonen und
Gegriindten Argumenten Wyder Jren Glauben,"
Augsburg, 1530; Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1544, 1561,
1689; Leipsic, 1705, 1713. The author ridicules
Jewish ceremonies, accuses the Jews of usury and of
sentiments hostile to Christians and Christianity,
and argues against their Messianic hopes. He de-
nounces the 'Alexu prayer as anti-Christian in
tendency. Declaiming against the usury and idle-
ness of the Jews, he appeals to the magistrates to
remedy the evil and to force the Jews to perform
manual labor. He charges the Jewish physicians
with ignorance and greediness, and asserts that, de-
spite their minuteness in ritual, the Jews are neither
pious nor charitable, and that, notwithstanding their
apparent aversion to pro.selytism, they are eager to
gain adherents to their faith.

This libelous book had a great influence \ipon
Luther, who made use of it in writing his "Von den
Juden und Ihrrn Liigon. " It was jiraised by Hoorn-
beck, B. Lutberus, and Joseph I\IUlIer; but Wagen-
seil speaks of it less favombly. When it appeared,
JosKi. OF RosiiF.iM, being at that time at Augsburg,
made complaint to Emperor Charles V., who ap-
pointed a committee to examine the denunciations



327



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Maretzek
Marg-olioth



contained in the book. The author was imprisoned
and later expelled from Augsburg.

Bibliography: De le Rol, Die Evangelische Christenheit
imd die Jnden, i. 221, Leipsic, 1884: A. Fiirst, Christen uiul
Juden, p. 191, Strasburg, 1892; Fiirst, Bibl. Jud. ii. :«); Gei-
ger, Gesch. der Judoi in De)t('«c//?«»d, ii. 324-325. v. 310-312;
Gratz, Gesch. ix. 190-191, ;«i-304, 3U, note; Steinschneider,
Cat. Bod]. No. 626:3; Wolf, Bihl. Hehr.U No. 335; G. Wolf,
Studien ziir Jubelfcier der Wiener Universitilt, pp. 28-29,
Vienna, IStw.



D,



S. M.\N.



controversies with the author of "Noda' bi-Yehu-
dah," among others. The most renowned of this
branch of the Margolioth family was Ephraim
Solomon of Brody (d. there Aug. 5, 1828). Ephra-
im Solomon was not a rabbi, but his numerous
works were accepted in the rabbinical world as au-
thoritative. There are numerous scholars bearing
the name of Margolioth whose relationship to the
famil}', though probable, can not be determined.



Samuel Margolioth
(dayyan at Posen c. 1550)



Mendel of Wilna



Zebi Hirsch
(rabi)i at Vladimir)



Moses Mordecal
(rabbi at Cracow ; d. 1616)



Abraham
(of Zolkiev)



Moses (?) Joseph
(Talmudist ;
d. Cracow)



Sheindil
(d. Cracow =
1624)



Mendel

(rabbi at Przetnvsl ;

d. April 2, 1652)



Israel Samuel Mordecai Asher
(son-in-law of of (son-in-law of

Abraham of Wilna Kapel of

Tismenitz) Krotoschin)



Nahman
(rabbi at
Meseritz)



Mendel
Heikeril



Judah
of Potok
(d. 1672)

I
Eliezer



Elijah

of Przemysl

(son-in-law

of Hirsch

Hinker)



Eliezer
(rabbi at
Lubomil)

I

Moses Zeeb

(rabbi at

Fiirth)



Moses
(rabbi at
Tamow)



Joel Feibus
(son-in-law of

R. Abraham
of Brest-
Litovsk)



(of Lublin) Isaac of
Jaworow

I
Menahem
Monis (of Zolkiev)



Mordecai



Zebi Hirsch

■ I
Alexander Sender
(rabbi at Satanov ; d. 1802)



Samuel Zebi Hirsch Mordecai

(rabbi at Dulczawka) ' (followed his father in

I the rabbinate of

Satanov)



I

Menahem Monis

(rabbi at Dunoiowce ; d. 1829)



Ephraim Zalman
(d. Brody 1828}



Hayyim Mordecai

(rab'bi at Dubno ; d.

1818)



I

Meshullam Nathan

(rabbi at Berdychev ;

d. 1861)



A. S. W.



Maugolioth Pedigree.



MARGOLIOTH ; (nvf'J")0 ; the name occurs also
as Margaliot, Margolis, Margulies, Margo-
louth, and in various other forms) : Polish family
of Talmudic scholars that traces its descent from
Rashi, on the one side, and from the families of Shor
and Samuel Edels on the other. The first Margolioth
known was Samuel, dayyan at Posen about 1550;
one of his sons, Moses Mordecai, was rabbi at Cra-
cow. The daughter of R. Moses Mordecai married
a relative, Mendel Margolioth, rabbi at Przemysl
(d. April 2, 1652), and bore him eight sons, all of whom
were distinguished Talmudists. It is not certain
from which one of Mendel Margolioth's sons Judah
of Potok (d. 1672) was descended. From Mor-
decai b. Menahem Monis, the great-great-grand-
son of Judah of Potok, descended a line of scholars.
Mordecai himself was a cabalist and had Talmudic



Bibliography: Walden, Shem ha-GedoUm he-Hadojih, pp.
24-25,53,94-97, 111, Warsaw, 1888; Tc ha-Zedek, p. 43;
Fuenn, Kcnesei Yisrael, p. 327 ; Buber, JRirmh Nisgabah,
p. 8, Cracow. 1903.
J. A. b. W.

Abi Ezra Selig Margolioth: German Tal-
mudist; flourished in the first half of the eighteenth
century; born at Kalisch, where he was subse-
quently preacher. He preached also at Prague for
a short time. He then went to Halberstadt,
where he was prebendary of the " Klaus " founded
by Berent Lehmann in 1703. According to Stein-
schneider, he then Avent with his wife to Palestine,
Lehmann furnishing him with the necessary funds.
Margolioth was the author of: "Kesef Nibhar,"
commentary on the Pentateuch (Amsterdam, 1712) ;
"Hibbure Likkutim," novellae andresponsa (Venice,
1715).



Margolioth



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



328



Bibliography: Azulai, S/iem/ia-Gedoiini, ii.68; Steinsehnei-
der, Cat. Bndl. No. 2584; Auerbacb, Gesch. der Gememde
HalberstaAt, p. 62.
D. A. Pe.

Abraham Elijah b. Nathan Margolioth :

Rabbi of Nachod, Bohemia, wliere he was a " moreli
zetlek " (acting rabbi) at the beginning of the eiglit-
eentli century. With Eliezer b. Pethahiah, hazzan
of Worms, he wrote " Tetillah ie-Kibbuz Galyotenu,"
published at Amsterdam in 1705 (Benjacob, " Ozar
ha-Sefarim," p. 661; Steinschneider, "Cat. Bodl."
No. 3347; Wolf, "Bibl. Hebr." iii. 21).

D. P. Wl.

Alexander Margolioth : Polish rabbi ; died in
Satanov, Podolia, Jan. 3, 1802. He succeeded his
father, Zebi Hirsch, as rabbi of Zbaraz, Galicia, and
was there in 1774. Later he became rabbi of Sata-
nov, where he remained until his death. He is
spoken of very highly by contemporary rabbis like
R. Ezekiel Landau and R. Aryeli Lob of Stry (au-
thor of "Kezot ha-Hoshen"). A collection of his
responsa from 1776 to 1791 was published more than
half a century after his death, under the title " Te-
shubot ha-RAM." (Warsaw, 1859). He was the
teacher of his nephew Ephraim Solomon Margolioth
of Brody.

Bibliography: Elsenstadt- Wiener, Da'at Kedoshim, p. 73;
Fuenn, KeneJiet Yisrael, p. 138.
H. R. P- Wl.

Asher Solomon Margolioth. See Judah Lob
BEN AsHER Margolioth.

Ephraim Zalman Margolioth : Galician rabbi;
born in Brody Dec. 19, 1762; died Aug. 24, 1828.
He received his Talmudic education at different
yeshibot, in which he distinguished himself for the
acuteness of his intellect and for his astonishing
memory. His correspondence with Ezekiel Landau
and other leading Talmudists soon gained for him a
high reputation. He established a banking house
which proved so successful that within a short time
he became quite wealthy. In 1785 he published his



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