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responsa entitled "Bet Hadash ha-Hadashot " ; and
in the following year the rabbis of Brody elected
liim one of their number. Being of independent
means, he opened in his house a yeshibah of which
he was the head ; and several of his pupils became
eminent rabbis.

Margolioth was considered a high rabbinical au-
thority. He published the following works: "Bet
Efrayim" (2 vols., Lemberg, 1809-10), commentary
on parts of tiie Yoreh De'ah; oration at the funeral
of R. Meir Kristianopoler(iVj. 1815); "Bet Efrayim"
(4 parts, ib. 1818), responsa on the four parts of the
Shulhan 'Aruk; "Yad Efrayim" (Dubno, 1820),
commentaries on Shulhan 'Aruk, Uiah Hayyim;
"Sha'are Efrayim " («V>. 1820), on the rules pertain-
ing to the reading of the Law; "Yad Efrayim"
(Zolkiev, 1823), extensive commentaries on the names
of men and i)f women to be employed in letters of
divorce; "Shem Efrayim" (Berdychev, 1826), com-
mentary on the Pentateuch ; " Matteh Efrayim " (Zol-
kiev, 1834), on tlio ritual laws to be observed from
the beginning of tlie month of Elul until after the
Feast of Tabernacles, as well as on the regulations
regarding the Kaddisji of orphans; "Zera' Efra-
yim " (Lemberg, 1853), commentary on the Pesikta



Rabbati. Many other works by him are still in

manuscript.

Bibliography : Walden, Shem ha-Gedolim he-Hndat^h, p. 21,
Warsaw, 1864; Kluger, Tolcdnt Shelomoh, p. ;i3, Leiiiberp,
1888; S. J. Fuenn, Ke)ieKet YisracU p. 327, Warsaw, l^Hi;
Zedner, Cat. Hchr. Iiniikt< Brit. Mus. p. 511 ; En Dinah (ora-
tion delivered at MarRoliotli's funeral), Zolkiev, 1834.
s. (^. B. Fr.

Hayyim Mordecai- Margolioth : Polish rubbi;
died at Duuajowce 1818; brother of Ephraim Solo-
mon Margoliotli. Hayyim ]\Iordecai was at tirst
rabbi at Brestitzki, and later became rabbi in Great
Dubno, where he established a printing-office. He
was among those who elected the three deputies
sent to St. Petersburg to confer with the govern-
ment upon Jewish affairs, and was the author of
"Sha'are Teshubah," commentary to Shulhan
'Aruk, Orah Hayyim (Dubno, 1820); it contains ex-
tracts from other works and appears in most edi-
tions of the Shulhan 'Aruk.

Bibliography: "Ir Duhmi ivc-Ruhhanclia, p. 2(5, Cracow, 1902;
Steinschneider, Cat. Bndl. No. 4698; Fiirsl, Bilit.Jud. ii.327.

Isaac ben Jacob Margolioth : Rabbi of
Prague, where he died April 17, 1525; son of Jacob
Margolioth, rabbi of Nuremberg. He is mentioned
in connection with the Mintz-Margolioth affair, in
which he sided with his father. He wrote the pref-
ace to his father's "Seder Gittin wa-Halizah."

Bibliography: Eisenstadt-Wiener, Da'at Kcdosliim^ pp. 17,
68, St. Petersburg, 1897-98; S. Rapoport, Gat 'Ed, p. 30,
Prague, 1856.
K. C. A. D. VV .

Jacob Margolioth of Nuremberg: German
rabbi of the tifteeuth century; died at an advanced
age about 1492. His contemporaries Joseph Colon
(Responsa, No. 26) and Judah Minz (Responsa, No.
13) speak of him as one of the greatest rabbis of his
time, which caused Gratz ("Gesch." viii. 268) to
hold that in all probability he presided over the
meeting of German rabbis held in Nuremberg in
1474. Emperor Frederick III. ordered, in 1487, the
two brothers Abraham and Solomon of Ulm to
submit their disputes to Jacob Margolioth, " Hoch-
meister" of Nuremberg (see Wiener, "Regesten zur
Gesch. der Juden in Deutschland," No. 126). In the
quarrel between Moses Capsali and Joseph Colon,
Margolioth sided with the former. Later, accord-
ing to Gratz ("Gesch." viii. 58), he opposed Jacob
Pollack, who is said to have been his pupil; but
the above-quoted responsum of Judah Minz proves
this to be only a surmise.

Zunz ("Z. G." p. lOG), and after him Gratz and
Fuenn, confounded this Jacob Margolioth with a
younger contemporary at Ratisbon, of the same
name, who corresponded with Reuchlin. It is jiiob-
able that Jacob Margolioth " of Nuremberg " is iden-
tical with R. Jacob Margolioth "of Worms," and
perhaps with R. Jacob Margolioth "of Lucca" (?)
and Jacob Marmonda'Margolioth (Moses Minz, Re-
sponsa, Nos. 73, 114). He is commonly accepted
as the author of "Seder Gittin wa-Halizah," and,
consequently, as the father of Isaac b. Jacob Mar-
golioth of Prague (d. 1525), the editor of that work,
which appeared together with the "Tib Gittin " of
Ephraim Zalman Margolioth (Zolkiev, 1823).

Bibliography: Elsenstadt-Wlener, Da'at Kedoshim, Appen-
dix, pp. 67-fts, 74. St. I'etersburg. 1897-98; Fuenn, Keneset
yi.'<rarl. pp. .t.>5-.').'j6, Warsaw. 1886 ; Idem, fCiryah Ne'ema-
nah, p. 328, Wllna, 1860; Wiener, In MnnaVisehrift, 1868,
xvll. iiii ct scq.



329



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Margrolioth



Jacob Margolioth of Ratisbon : German
rabbi and HL'braist; Hourisbed aljout 1500. He is
known cliietiy by a Hebrew letter addressed to
RcMicblin, wbicli is preserved iu "Epistolae Clarornm
Viioniinad Keuchlinuni " (see text in Fuenn, "Ke-
neset Yisrael," pp. 550-556, wliere he is confounded
with Jacob ]\Iargoliotb, rubbi of Nuremberg). His
son, the apostate Antonius' IMargarita, relates
the great services which Jacob rendered his towns-
men by interceding in their behalf with Siegmund
von Kohrbach, who was imperial governor at Ratis-
bon from 1499 to 1512 (quoted by Wiener from
Margarita's " Der Gantz Jiidisch Glaub," p. 138,
Leipsic (1705). According to the same authority
this Jacob Margolioth had another son, who was
a musician in Prague; this led Wiener to believe
that tliis musician may be identical with R. Isaac b.
Jacob Margolioth of Prague (d. 1525), who edited
his father's "Seder Gittin wa-Halizah " (see Margo-
lioth, Jacob, of Nuremberg); but the supposi-
tion seems improbable.

Bibliography: Wiener, in Monatsschrift, 1868, xvii. 345 ct
seq. (where all other sources are quoted and discussed) .

D. P. Wl.

Jacob Koppel b. Zebi Margolioth : Polish
preacher and moralist of the seventeenth century ;
died 1678 (?). He came from Vladimir, Volhynia,
where he was an eye-witness of the massacres of
1648-49, from which he escaped to Germany. He
was the author of ''Mar'ot Ya'akob," tables of eth-
ical rules (Venice, 1662); "Mizbah Ya'akob," a ser-
mon on penitence and some haggadic novelloe {ib.
1662); and "Kol Ya'akob," on the Pentateuch and
the Talmud, to which is appended an elegy on the
victims of the above-mentioned massacres (Amster-
dam, 1708).

Bibliography: Fuenn, Keneset Yisrael, p. 556; Fiirst, Bibl.
Jnd. ii. 328 ; Lewinstein, in Dor Dor we-Dorshaw, p. 109,
Warsaw, 1899.
If. R. P. Wl.

Judah Lob ben Asher Margolioth. : Grand-
son of R. Mordecai Jaffe; died at Frankfort-on-the-
Oder June 14, 1811. He was successively rabbi at
Busnow, Szebrszyn, Polotsk, Lesla, and Frankfort-
on-the-Oder, and wrote the following works: " Kor-
ban Reshit," responsa and discussions on Rosh
ha-Shauah (Frankfort-on-the-Oder, 1778); "Peri
Tebu'ah," responsa (parts i. and ii., Novidvor,
1796; parts iii. and iv. are still iu manuscript);
•'Tal Orot," treatises on the essence of the soul,
on immortality, etc. (Frankfort-on-the-Oder, 1751);
"Or '01am," treatises on natural philosophy, to
which is appended Saadia Gaon's commentary on
Canticles {ib. 1777); "Bet Middot," on "ethics, in
prose and verse (Dyhernfurth, 1778) ; " 'Aze 'Eden,"
homilies on belief, philosophy, pride, and humility,
with a criticism of Mendelssohn's "Jerusalem" (ib.
1802); "Amirah Ne'imah," on the Haggadah and
the Pentateuch (in manuscript); "Iggeret ha-Meli-
zah," on stylo (Novidvor, 1794); " Sefer Tob we-
Yafeh," collection of poems on dogmatic, grammat-
ical, and liturgical subjects (Frankfort-on-the-Oder,
1770). He was probably the tirst Judoeo-Poli.sh au-
thor to write on natural philosophy.

Bibliography: Ha-Zeman, i. 97; Fuenn, Keneset Yisrncl,
p. 413, Warsaw, 1886; Steinschneider, Cat. BocU. No. 574U ;
Furst, Bibl. Jud. ii. 328; Zeitlin, Bibl. Hebr. p. 229.
E. C. A. S. W.



Meir b. Zebi Hirsch Margolioth : Polish
rabbi and author; born jji-obably at Horodenka,
Galicia; died at an advanced age at Ostrog, Vol-
hynia, April 24, 1790. lie was rabbi of the district
of Lembergfor more than forty years (c. 1742-82), at
the time when Lemberg had two rabbis, one for the
city proper and one for the surrounding district.
In 1782 he seems to have gone to Ostrog, where he
remained until his death. ^largolioth was a pupil
of R. Israel Ba'al Shcm Tob (BEShT), the reputed
founder of Hasidism, and was probably the greatest
Talmudical authority of the time to confess to such
discipleship. He was the author of " Meir Netibim,"
responsa and novellie (Polnoi, 1791), "Sod Yakin u-
Bo'az," on the Cabala (ib.), and "Derek ha-Tob
wehaYashar," on the Shulhan 'Aruk (Polnoi and
Shklov, 1799).

Margolioth left four sons: Joseph Nahman,
rabbi of Polnoi and father of R. llayyim of 0.strog;
Bezaleel, rabbi of Zwahil and successor to liis fa-
ther as rabbi of Ostrog; Saul, rabbi successively of
Komorn, Zbaraz, and Lublin ; and Naphtali Mor-
decai. Margolioth's daughter married Naphtali
Herz ha-Kohen, rabbi of Scharigrod. Margolioth
had also an older brother, Isaac Dob Bar (rabbi of
Jazlowicz and the district of Podolia; author of
"Be'er Yizhak "), who is mentioned in his works.
Isaac Dob Bar was one of the three rabbis (the
other two being R. Israel Ba'al Shem and R. Hay-
yim Cohen Rapoport of Lemberg) who represented
the Talmudist position in the discussion with the
Frankists under the auspices of Bishop Mikulski in
1759. Margolioth's mother was a sister of R. Aryeh
Lebush b. Mordecai Auerbach of Stanislau (d. 1772).

Bibliography : Buber, Anshe Shem, pp. 137-140, 202, Cracow,
1895 ; Lazar ha-Kohen, Kin\U Soferini, pp. 162-163, Lemberg,
1892; Walden, Shem hd-GedoUm he-HadasK p. 87.

D. P. Wl.

Moses b. Judah Lob Margolioth : Rabbi at
Semnitz, Hungary, in the nineteenth century; son
of Judah Lob Margolioth. He was the author of
"Hakirat ha-Gemul," treatises on retribution and
punishment, with an appendix under the title
" Keter Malkut," a poem by W. Buchner (Budapest,
1829; Steinschneider, "Cat. Bodl." No. 6518).

Moses Mordecai ben Samuel Margolioth :
Talmudist and cabalist; born probably at Posen,
where his father was rabbi, about 1540; died at
Cracow Nov. 21, 1616. On the death of Joseph
Katz (1591) Moses Mordecai Margolioth oecame head
of the yeshibah at Cracow, which office he retained
over twenty years. He wrote: "Hasde Adonai,"
on the thirteen attributes of God (Cracow, 1589);
"Selihah 'al ha-Kedoshim," prayer for the martyrs
of 1596, published in an edition of selihot (Dyhern-
furth, 1702): "ZoharHadash'imMidrashha-Ne'lam"
(Cracow, 1603).

Bibliography: Zunz. Tr ha-Zcdek, p. 42, Lemberg, 1874;
Steinschneider, Cat. Bodh No. 6517 ; Fiirst, Bilil. Jud. ii. 330.

Naphtali Margolioth (Margaritha) : Scholar
and author; boi'u at Vienna 1562. He embraced
Christianity in 1603, taking the name of Julius
Conrad Oibto, and later became professor of He-
brew at Altorf. Subsecjuently he returned to Ju-
daism. He wrote: "Usus Ebreaj Linguae" (Nu-
remberg, 1604); "Grammatica Hebrsea" {ib. 1605);



Margrolis
Mariamne



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



330



"Lexicon Radicale," a dictionary of rabbinical and
Talmudic words {ib. 1607); "Gale Razaya," a work
full of false Talmudic citations and of misinterpre-
tations of Talmudic sayings regarding the Messianic
idea and the doctrine of the Trinity {ib. 1605).

Bibliography : Wolf, Bihl. Hehr. i. 4«n, iii. 3&5, iv. 845 ; De le
Roi. Evanudische ChrUstenheit, i. i;«; Steinsctineider, Cat.
Bodl. No. 6703 ; Furst, Bibl. Jud. ii. 330. . „ ,xt

E. C. A. S. W.

Saul b. Meir Margolioth : Polish rabbi; died
in Lublin Dec. 13, 1800 (?); son of R. Meir of Os-
trog and Lemberg (author of "Meir Netibim")and
pupil of R. Israel Ba'al Shem-Tob. He was rabbi
successively of Zbaraz, Galicia, and of Komorn, be-
fore he went to Lublin, where he remained until
his death.

Saul is often mentioned in the records of the com-
munity of Lublin as the author of useful communal
measures. He left no works, but is mentioned in
the above-cited work of his father's. His son Zebi
Eirsch, who married a daughter of R. Lob of
Amsterdam, succeeded Saul b. Meir as rabbi in the
city of Lublin.

BiBMOCiRAPHY: Biiber, Anshe Shem, p. 202. Cracow, 1895;
Nissenbauin. Le-Knrot ha-Yehudim he-Ljihlin, pp. 91-94,
Lublin, 1899; Lew'lnstein, In Dor Dor xve-Dorshaw, p. 124,



Warsaw. 1899.
H. R.



P. Wl.



MARGOLIS, ISAAC BFN ELIAH : Russo
Polish rabbi and author; born in Kalvariya, gov-
ernment of Suwalki, Russian Poland, 1842; died in
New York Aug. 1, 1887; son of the rabbi of Wiz-
hajny, and a descendant of Yom-Tob Lipmann Hel-
ler of Prague.

His youth was devoted to the study of the Talmud ;
and in 1862 he settled in Meretz, government of
Wilna, wliere later on he embarked in business.
The zealots of that city and business reverses ren-
dered his life there unpleasant; and in consequence
he removed to Kovno, where he soon found employ-
ment as tutor in the house of Ezekiel Jaffe. Later
he became rabbi of Druskeniki, government of
Grodno. In 1884 he emigrated to the United States
and became rabbi of the Congregation Anshe-Kal-
variya. New York.

Margolis was the author of "Ma'oz ha-Talmud "
(Warsaw, 1868), an apologetic work in defease of
the Talmud and the Shulhan 'Aruk against certain
critics; "Ma'oz ha- Yam " (Wilna, 1870), a reply to
the attacks of M. L. Lilienblumin "Megillah 'Afah";
and "Sippure Yeshurun" (Berlin, 1876), a collec-
tion of Talmudic and Midrasiiic legends, anecdotes,
etc., written in an elegant Hebrew style. He also
contributed largely to the Hebrew periodicals " Ha-
Maggid," "Ha-Zefirah," and "Ha-Meliz."

Bmi.iorjRAPHY : H. Hfrzmann, in TIn-AMf, Iv.; M. Caplan, in
nn-Zrfuah. No. 16H; American Hebrew, Aug. 22, 1887, p. 8.

II. K. I. S. B.

MARGOLIS, MAX LEOPOLD: American
pliilologist; born at Meretz, government of Wilna,
Russia, Oct. 15, 1866; son of Isaac Margolis; edu-
cated at the elementary school of liis native town,
the Leibnitz gymnasium, Berlin, and Columbia Uni-
versity, New York city (Pli. D. IS91 ). In 1891 he was
appointed toa fellowsliip in Semitic languages at Co-
lumbia University, and from 1892 to 1S97 he was in-
structor, and later assistant professor, of Hebrew



and Biblical exegesis at the Hebrew Union College
of Cincinnati. In 1897 he became assistant professor
of Semitic languages in the University of California;
in 1898, associate professor; and since 1902 he has
been acting liead of tlie Semitic department.

Of Margolis' works may be mentioned: "The
Columbia College MS. of Megillali," New York,
1892; "Notes on Semitic Grammar," parts i. -iii., in
" Hebraica " (" American Journal of Semitic Lan-
guages and Literatures"), 1894, 1896, 1902; "The
Theology of the Old Prayer-Book," in " Year Book of
the Central Conference of American Rabbis," 1897;
"The Theological Aspect of Reformed Judaism,"
Baltimore, 1904.

Bibliography: The American Israelite, 1903.

A. F. T. II.

MARGOLIUT, MARGULIES, MARGU-
LIOTH. See M.\rgoi,I()tii.

MARGOLIUTH, MOSES : Convert to Chris-
tianity ; born in Suwalki, Poland, Dec. 3, 1820; died
in London Feb. 25, 1881. He went to Liverpool,
England, in 1837, where he met a convert named
Lazarus, and the Rev. H. S. Joseph ; the latter bap-
tized Margoliuth in April, 1838. He entered Trin-
ity College, Dublin, Jan., 1840; became curate of St.
Augustine, Liverpool, June 30, 1844; and had many
ecclesiastical appointments, ultimately becoming
vicar of Little Linford, Buckinghamshire (1877-81).
He took the degree of Ph.D. at Erlangen in 1857.
In 1847 he started a Hebrew-Christian monthly
magazine entitled "The Star of Jacob."

Margoliuth wrote the following works, all pub-
lished in London: "Modern Judaism " (1843); "The
History of the Jews of Great Britain " (1857 ; a work
of some merit in the last two volumes) ; " A Pilgrim-
age to the Land of My Fathers" (1858); "The Cu-
rates of Ri verdale " (1860) ; " The Spirit of Prophecy "
(1864); "The Poetry of the Hebrew Pentateuch"
(1871). Margoliuth was one of the revisers of the
English version of the Old Testament. He wrote
also a considerable number of minor works.

Bibliography : Jewii^h World, Loudon. March 4, 1881 ; Jour-
nal of British ArdHvological Association, 1881; M. Margo-
liuth. Some Triumphs and Trophies of the World (1882);
Autohiogi-aphy preUxed to Modern Judaism.
J. G. L.

MARGULIES, SAMUEL HIRSCH: Rabbi;

born at Brzezau, Galicia, Oct. 9, 1858; a descendant
of Rabbi Ephraim Zalman Margolioth; educated at
the theological seminary at Breslau. He was from
1885 to 1887 rabbi of the Congregation Newe Sha-
lom in Hamburg; till 1890, of the congregation at
Weilburg, Ilesse-Nassau ; and since 1890 lie has been
chief rabbi of Florence. In 1899 he was appointed
principal of the Collegio Rabbinico Italiano, which
was later transferred from Rome to Florence.

Margulies has published several es-says in Ber-
liner's "Magazin" and in the "Monatsschrift," and
is the author of: "Saadja Alfajflmi's Arabische
Psalmen-Uebersetzung," Breslau, 1884; "Zwei
Pcsach-Predigten," Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1888;
"Dichter und Patriot," Treves, 1896. He is also
(1904) editor of the "Rivista Israelitica."

8. F. T. H.

MARHAB IBN AL-HARITH: Jewish
Aral)iaii warrior and poet; killed during Moham-



331



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Marg-olis
Mariamne



mod's invasion of Khaibar about 638. Marhab, who
was of Himyarite descent, distinguisheil himself
by his bravery in defending one of the forts of
Kiiaibar. He is represented in tlie "Ta'ril<li al-
Hamis" (quoted by Caussin de Perceval) as a man
of uncommon strength and audacity, wearing two
cuirasses, a double turban and a helmet, and a
sword at each side, and brandishing a three-pointed
lance. According to the custom of Arab warriors,
Marhab senta poem challenging any of Mohammed's
heroes to single combat. Ali, Mohammed's cousin
and third successor, answered the challenge, and
Marhab was killed. According to Ibn Hisham, Mo-
hammed's biographer, it was Mohammed ibn Masla-
mah, who, wishing to avenge his brother, killed on
the previous day, offered to fight Marhab. Ibn
Ilisham further says that the two combatants kept
a tree between them as a defense, and that the
branches of the tree immediately over their heads
were soon cut away. Marhab accidentally dropping
his sword, Mohammed seized the opportunity to
deal him a fatal blow.

Bibliography : Caussin de Perceval, Essai sur VHistoire des
Ai-abes, iii. 195 et seq.; Gratz, Oesch. 3d ed., v. 105-106 ; Ibn
Hisham. Kitab Sirat Rasxd AllaK pp. 760-761, ed. Wiisten-
feld, Gottingen, 1858.

J. M. Sel.

MARHESHWAN. See Heshwan.

MABI BEN DIMI : Second gaon of Pumbe-
■dita. When the Jewish scholars were compelled to
leave the Babylonian academies, Mari, with others,
went to FiruzShabur and there established a new
academy which became associated with his name.
After the death of the gaon Hanan of Iskiya, in 609,
he was elected successor in the gaonate. Two ha-
lakic decisions of his have been preserved — one,
quoted by Judah Gaon, concerning two unknown
plants mentioned in the Talmud (Chaim M. Horo-
witz, "Halachische Schriften der Geonim," ii. 56,
Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1851; "Teshubot ha-Geo-
nim," p. 45, ed. Lyck, 1864), and the other concern-
ing the marriage of a "mamzer " ("Halakot Gedo-
lot," ed. Vienna, p. 22a).

Bibliography: Gratz, Gesc/i. v. 12-13; MuWer, Einleitwig in
die Responsen der Bahylnnischen Geonen, p. 63: Weiss,
Dor, iv. 6; Letter of Sherira Oaou, in Neubauer, M. J. C.
i. 35, ii. 187.

E. c. M. Sc.

MARIA THERESA. See Austria.

MARIAMNE: 1. Wife of Herod the Great;
the first of this name. She was the daughter of the
Hasmonean Alexander, a son of Aristobulus II.,
who was conquered and put to flight by Herod's
father, Antipater. Her mother was Alexandra,
daughter of the reigning prince Hyrcanus II.
When Herod, at that time tetrarch, entered Jerusa-
lem in triumph in 42 B.C., Alexandra sought to bring
about the marriage of her daughter to him, hoping
thus to avoid the ruin of her house (Josephus,
"Ant." xiv. 12, § 1 ; idem, "B. J." i. 12, § 3). The
war, however, left Herod no leisure; and not until
five years after his betrothal to Mariamne, and three
years after he had become nominal king of Judea,
did he leave the siege of Jerusalem, in 37 B.C., and
celebrate his marriage in Samaria ("Ant." xiv. 15,
§ 14; "B. J." i. 17, § 8). Mariamne bore him three



sons, Alexander, Aristobulus, and one who died
young, and two daughters, Salampsio and Cypros.

The marriage proved an unhappy one. The king,
indeed, loved the beautiful woman passionately;
but the queen could not forget that Herod had been
the murderer of all her family and that he had suc-
ceeded to the throne really at the cost of her pater-
nal house. She displayed a natural pride toward
this parvenu which was especially felt by Herod's
mother and by his sister Salome, who wrought so
much evil in the course of her life.

The queen ruled the king completely. This was
made manifest when Alexandra Insisted that her
son, Mariamne 's brother, should be made high
priest. On the advice of Dellius, the friend of
Antony — who wished to give the latter's passion
another direction — she sent pictures of her two beau-
tiful children to the Egyptian queen, Cleopatra.
Antony had, in fact, designs on the youthful Aris-
tobulus ; and since Mariamne also asked the favor of
the king, he found himself obliged to make the
youth high priest (35 B.C. ; "Ant." xv. 2, § 6; "B.
J." 1. 22, § 3), although, in reality, only to kill him
on a suitable occasion. When, later, Herod was
obliged to justify before Antony at Laodicea the
killing of Aristobulus, he placed Marl-
Left in amne under the protection of Joseph,
Charge of his brother-in-law, commanding him
Joseph. to kill her in case he (Herod) should
not return alive. As Joseph had oc-
casion to associate a good deal with Mariamne in
connection with governmental affairs, he good-
naturedly told her of the boundless love the king
felt for her and of the secret instructions which
Herod had given him. A false report of Herod's
death being circulated, Mariamne sought refuge
with the Roman legions. Herod, however, was dis-
missed with the favor of Antony. On his return
Salome accused Mariamne of adultery with Joseph.
Herod at first would not believe the charge; but it
chanced that the queen reproached him for the
secret commission he had entrusted to Joseph, and
this convinced Herod of the criminality of Joseph
and Mariamne. In his anger he caused Joseph to
be put to death immediately, and he would have
similarly disposed of Mariamne had not his love for
her been greater than his anger. He, however,
threw Alexandra into prison (34 B.C.) as the instiga-
tor of the scandal ("Ant." xv. 3, §§ 5-9; "B. J." i.
22, §§ 4-5).

In the spring of the year 30, Herod visited Augus-
tus in Rhodes. He left Mariamne and her mother
under the protection of a certain Joseph and of the
Iturean Sohemus. Again he commanded that his
wife should be killed in the event of his death.
The king had hoped to find love on his return ; in-
stead he found himself hated and avoided. The
king's mother and sister found him
Falsely ready to listen to their slanders. Sa-
Accused lome told him that Mariamne sought
by Salome, to poison him. Thereupon the king
questioned Mariamne's favorite eu-
nuch, who said he knew nothing of the poison, but
that the queen was offended because of what Sohe-
mus had told her in regard to his secret instructions.
Sohemus met the same fate as had Herod's brother-



Mariamne
MarKs



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



332



iu-lavv, aud Herod caused Mariamne to be accused
before a tribunal composed of his friends, wliicli pro-
nounced sentence of death. The king aud some of
the judges did not wish to liasten the execution, de-
siring merely to put Mariamne in prison ; but Salome
represented that the people might raise a disturbance
and seek to release Marianuie, and the latter was con-
sequently led to death. During the entire route to
the place of execution her own mother, Alexandra,
desiring to rehabilitate herself in Herod's eyes, re-
viled her, accusing her of adultery and of ingrati-
tude toward Herod. Mariamne answered not a
word, and died calm and composed ("Ant."xv. 6,
§ 5; 7, i^ 6), being about twenty-eight years of age
(39 B.C.).

The fact that Mariamne was twice accused under
similar circumstances of adultery with the regent,
makes it probable that Josephus' account contains
some inaccuracies, the more so as the second account
is wholly lacking in "B. J." (Destinon, "Di Quellen



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