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des Josephus," p. 113). The second account, how-
ever, can not be a simple repetition on the part of
Josephus of the first, since Josephus himself, in re-
lating the second incident, refers to
Discrep- the first (•' Ant." xv. 7, § 1). It is re-
ancy in the markable that Josephus mentions Jo-
Sources, seph the second time without any
further particulars {ib. 6, § 5), which
looks, it is true, as though he had before him two
parallel accounts which he tried to combine in this
way. According to "B. J.," Mariamne was put to
death in the first case— that is, in the year 34. But
this is impossible, since she could not have borne
five children between the years 37 and 34. Indeed
on closer scrutiny the two incidents do not appear at
all identical, since in the second case it is not the re-
gent Phreroras with whom Mariamne is associated,
but Sohemus, who was of comparatively low rank.
Hence the two incidents are probably liistorical, and
the omission of the second account in"B. J." is due
to the fact that Josephus, as usual, has condensed
his narnition in that work. The historian Nicholas
of Damascus believed in Mariamne's guilt (•' Ant."
xvi. 7, ^ 1).

There is a Talmudic legend concerning the mar-
riage and death of Marianme, although her name is
not mentioned. It is to the effect that when the
whole house of the Hasmoneans had been rooted
out, she threw herself from the roof and was killed
(B. B. 3b). Out of love for her, Herod is said to have
kept lier body preserved in honey for seven years
{lb. ; S. Geiger, in " Ozar Nelimad," iii.
Talmudic 1). In the Talmud this sort of mental
Legends, derangement is called a "deed of
Herod " (Sanii. GCb). Josephus relates
also that after her death Herod tried in hunting and
bamnietiiig to forget his loss, but that even his
strong nature succumbed and he fell ill in Samaria,
where he had made Mariamne his wife ("Ant." xv.
7, ^ 7). The Mariamne tower in Jerusalem, built
by Herod, was without doubt named after her; it
was called also "Queen " (BaffiX/'c; " B. J." ii. 17, i^ 8 ;
V. 4, § 3).

Josephus writes the name Mnptifxr/, adding the in-
flectional ending to Mni>tn/i{= D'^O). theSeptuagint
form of the name. In some editions of Josephus



Mapia/ifxr/ stood with double "// "; this was dissimi-
lated to"nm" in the Middle Ages, and the name
has so remained (S. Pape-Benseler, " Worterbuch
der Griechischen Eigeimanien," 3d ed. 1870, s.v.).

Bibliography: Griitz, Grxch. 4th ed., iii. 187, 2(K). 210; Dcren-
bouig. Hist. p. 151; Schiirer, Gri^di. 'M ed., i. 358 o8.i ; Well-
hauseu, /. J. G. Jth ed., pp. ai5, 338.

2. Wife of Herod the Great; the second of this
name. She was held to be very beautiful; and
Herod, on first seeing her, was seized with an ardent
passion for her. Since he did not wish to obtain
possession of her by force, lie thought ii bust to
marry her. He advanced her father, Simon the son
of Boethus (a man of humble birth, originally from
Alexandria, but at that time living in Jerusalem), to
the position of high priest (25 B.C.) a few years
after the execution of the first Marianuie (Josephus,
"Ant." xviii. 5, §4; comp. ib. xvii. 1, g 2; idem,
"B. J." i. 28, §4).

Mariamne bore Herod one son, also called Herod
(" Ant." xvii. 1, § 2), who married Herodias {ib. xviii.
5, § 4), and who was in fact the destined heir to the
throne ("B. J." i. 29, § 2; comp. ib. 30, § 3). Mari-
amne knew of Herod's intention in regard to her son
{ib. 30, § 7). Josephus always writes Map/d/u>/ or
Mainctfx/j.?!, as he does also in the case of other persona
of the same name.

BiBLiOGRApnT: Gratz, Gesc?i. 4th ed.,111.233; Scburer, Gesch.
3d ed., 1. 407. „ ^^

G. S. Kr.

MARIAMPOL (Polish, Marjampol ; called
formerly Staripole) : Town situated in the govern-
ment of Suwalki, Russian Poland. The Jewish
community there, like the town itself, is of compar-
atively recent date. At first the community was
dependent, in communal alTairs, upon the neighbor-
ing town of Kalvariya. Its first rabbi, Hayyim
Shershaver, was elected in 1780, though the com-
munity was too poor to build a synagogue ; and the
rabbi then visited a number of towns in order to col-
lect money for that purpose. In the Polish revolu-
tion of 1831a Polish regiment passed through Mari-
ampol and carriedaway four of the Jewish elders who
were faithful to the Russians, and left them, bound,
in the forest. In the same year, on the occasion of
an encounter between the Russians anil the Poles at
Mariampol, the latter locked all the Jews in the syn-
agogue, with the result that only one Jew was killed.
Mariampol has (1897) a total population of 6,298, of
which over two thousand are Jews.
Bibliography: YalkutMa'arahi, i. 116.

H. u. A. S. W.

MARIK, SOLOMON: Spanish surgeon, of
whose life no details are known. He wrote in Span-
ish in Hebrew .script a work entitled "Libro de la
Cirogia," of which a fragment exists in a voliuneof
miscellanea in tlie royal libiiiry at Munich.

David Marich or Marik, a physician and mer-
chant, and Abraham Marich, both Spanish exiles,
together with nineteen oliiers, received pciinission
from Duke Alfonso of Este on Feb. 1, 1493, to
.settle with their families at Ferrara (" R. E. J."
XV. 120).

BinLioGRAPiiv : StPinschnplder. Cat. Munkh, loUex 391, 3;
Kavserlinir, Bihl. E-<i>.-I'<irt.-Jud. p. 65.

G. M. K.



333



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Mariamne
Marks



MARINI, SOLOMON B. ISAAC : Ituliuii

rabbi of tJie seventeenth ceutuiy ; died iu 1070. He

was tlie only rabbi at Padua who survived tlie

plague of 1G31, wliieh decimated the community.

His wisdom and his eloquence contributed much to

the restoration of order. He wrote a commentary

to Isaiah entitled "Tikkun '01am" (Verona, 1652).

He was renowned as a scholar, teacher, and pastor,

and among his pupils was the physician and rabbi

Isaac HayyimCantarini. His brother, Shabbethai

b. Isaac Marini (d. 1685), was a physician.

Bibliography: Nepi-(ihirondi, Toledot Gedole Yisrad, pp.
330, 338 t'f t<f(/. ., .^

D. I- E.

MABIX, ADOLPH: American naval com-
mander; born Apr. 24, 1848, in Saxony. He went
to America while still a boy, and in 1864 entered
the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis,
Md., graduating in 1868. In 1869 he was pro-
moted to the rank of ensign, and in the following
year was assigned to special duty on the U. S. S.
"Congress." He was promoted master in 1870,
served on the " Canandaigua " with the North At-
lantic squadron during 1871-72, was commissioned
lieutenant in 1872, and served thereafter on vari-
ous ships in the North Atlantic and Asiatic sta-
tions until 1879, when he was assigned to service in
the Hydrographic Office. In 1880 he was ordered
to the training-ship "Minnesota," from which, in
1882, he was transferred to the battle-ship " Brook-
lyn, " then with the South Atlantic squadron. From
1883 to 1886 he served again on the Asiatic station,
after which he was assigned to special service in
the judge-advocate-general's office. In connection
with his duties in this department he was sent to
Australia (1888), and on his return (1889) was or-
dered to the training-ship "Jamestown," from which
he (1892) was transferred to the Hydrographic Of-
fice in New York. In 1893 he was promoted lieu-
tenant-commander and assigned to the receiving-ship
"Minnesota," until in 1895 he was transferred to
the ill-fated battle-ship " Maine," on which he served
until January, 1898, when he took command of the
U. S. S. "Scorpion." He served as recorder of the
Maine court of inquiry. In March, 1899, he was
promoted to the rank of commander.

Commander Marix was by act of Congress ad-
vanced two numbers for "eminent and conspicuous
conduct in battle in two engagements at Manzanillo
July 1 and July 18, 1898," during the Spanish-Amer-
ican war.

Bibliography : Hamersly, Records of Living Officers of the
U. S. Navy, New York, 1898 ; LM of Officers nf the U. S.
Navti and of the Marine Corps 1775-1900, pp. 351, 718.
E. C. P. C.

MARK. See Seal; Signature.

MARK. See New Testa.ment.

MARKENS, ISAAC: American writer; born
in New York city Oct. 9, 1846 ; son of Elias Markens,
a linguist and Orientalist. Isaac Markens was edu-
cated in the public schools of his native city. He
became a merchant, and afterward private secretary
to Railway Commissioner Albert Fink. Subse-
quently he entered the journalistic field, and wrote
for the New York "Commercial Advertiser" and
the "Mail and Express." In 1888 he published



"The Hebrews in America," a series of historical
and biographical sketches of value as being the first
of their kind on American Jewish history.

JNIarkens was for several years secretary to the
board of arbitration of the Joint Executive Com-
mittee of Eastern and Western Railways. ^

MARKS, B. S. : English artist; born in 1827 at
CardilT, where he received his art education and fol-
lowed the i)rotession of portrait-painter until his
removal to London in 1867. Asa native of Wales
he became Royal Cambrian Academician. During
the more than thirty years of his professional career
in London he has executed commissions for many
distinguished sitters, including the Prince of Wales,
Lord Rothschild, Chief Rabbi N. M. Adler, the late
Lord Shaftesbury, Lord Aberdare, and Field -^Marshal
Sir John Burgoyne. Marks is an active communal
worker in connection with Jewish schools and insti-
tutions. He was a member of the committees of the
Jews' Free School and of the Westminster and the
Bayswater schools, and for a long period acted as
honorary art teacher to the pupils and teaching staffs.

In the general community Marks has been active
in the free-library and art-school movements, and
contributed to the establishment of the Cardiff and
Ealing libraries. His son, Percy L. Marks, is an
architect, and has published "Principles of Plan-
ning" (London, 1901). His daughter, Constance
Isabelle, has shown considerable mathematical
talent, having become editor of the mathematical
department of the "Educational Times." Two
other daughters, Anne and Gertrude, follow their
father's profession, while another, Helena, has pub-
lished several songs.

Bibliography : Young Israel, Aug., 1898 ; Jewish Year Book,
1900-1 and 1903-4.
J. G. L.

MARKS, DAVID WOOLF : The " father " of
Anglo-Jewish Reform; born in London Nov. 22,
1811; educated at the Jews' Free School, London.
He acted as pupil-teacher at Solomon's boarding-
school at Hammersmith for five years, and then be-
came assistant reader at St. Alban's Synagogue, but
resigned the latter position to go to Liverpool as as-
sistant reader and secretary. At Liverpool his desire
for Reform found expression in his refusal to read
the Law on the second days of festivals. Mean-
while Marks devoted himself to general literature,
and ultimately secured the appointment of professor
of belles-lettres at Wigan College, Liverpool. About
1840 a movement was in progress in London for es-
tablishing a Reform synagogue, and the sympathy
with Reform of which Marks had given evidence
brought him under the notice of the founders of that
movement; he was accordingly elected, at the age
of twenty-nine, minister of the West London Syna-
gogue of British Jews.

During his sixty years' ministration to that congre-
gation Marks has effected important changes in the
community. He has been active in furthering edu-
cational projects, in instituting regular pulpit in-
struction, and in improving decorum in Jewish
public worship. In 1848 he w-as appointed to the
chair of Hebrew at University College, London,
which he filled until 1898.



Marks
Marriag-e



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



334



Marks has published three volumes of sermons,
and a pamphlet entitled " The Law is Light " ; he
was one of the editors of Smith's "Dictionary of the
Bible," and he compiled and published the order
of service used in the Reform synagogues.

Bibliography: Jew. Chron. Nov. 22, 1895; Young Israel,
Jan., 1898; Morals, Eminent Isradiiea of the Nineteenth
Century; Jewish Year Book, 190;}-4.

J. G. L.

MARKS, HENRY HANANEL : English
journalist and politician ; born April 5, 1855, in
London ; fifth son of the Rev. Prof. D. W. Marks ;
educated at University College, London, and at the
Athenee Royale, Brus»els. At the age of sixteen he
went to the United States, where he entered the
journalistic field, meeting with varying success.
Finally, when his resources were at their lowest ebb,
he returned to London (1883), and soon after estab-
lished the "'Financial New^s." Beginning in a very
small way, he made the paper a power in the finan-
cial world. In 1889 Marks was elected member for
Marylebone of the London County Council; three
years later at the parliamentary election he con-
tested the Northeast Bethnal Green division; and in
1895 he was elected member of Parliament for St.
George's Tower Hamlets. He retained his seat until
1900.

Bibliography: Who's TF/io, 1904; The Jewish Year Book,
1904.



J.



E. Ms.



MARKS, MARCUS M. : American merchant ;
born at Schenectady, N. Y., March 18, 1858. In
1877 lie started a business at Passaic, N. J., and later
entered the wholesale clothing firm of his father,
David Marks & Sons. He has held many prominent
positions in connection with the clothing trade, be-
ing president of the Clothiers' Association of New
York, president of the National Association of Cloth-
iers, president of the Clothing Trade Association of
New York, and chairman of the Hospital Saturday
and Sunday Association Trade Auxiliary. He has
served also as trustee of the Hospital Saturday and
Sunday Association, director of the Educational Alli-
ance, member of the Conciliation Committee of the
National Civic Federation, director of the National
Butchers' and Drovers' Bank, and is now (1904) or-
ganizing credit cooperation in several trades, with
the view of establishing a central clearing-house for
direct trade information. Marks has been a contrib-
utor to labor and trade journals on subjects of labor
and conciliation and on credit cooperation.

A. F. H. V.

MARKS, SAMUEL: South-African pioneer;
born in Sheffield about 1850. He went to Cape Col-
ony about 1868 and commenced trading in the coun-
try. He entered the diamond trade, and, gain-
ing the confidence of the diggers, bought claims
and worked them. He was joined subsequently by
his brothers; working harmoniously together, they
amassed an enormous fortune. In 1884 Marks left
the diamond-fields for the Transvaal, where he be-
came acquainted with President Kruger, advanced
the government considerable sums of money, and
acquired numerous farms in the Transvaal. Tlu-se
farms turned out to be extensive and valuable coal-



mines, and the Cape government contracted with tlie
firm of Lewis &, Marks for the supply of coal for its
railway. The interests of the firm in South Africa
at the end of the century were almost colossal. It
gave great impetus to the trade of the country by
its opening up of coal- and silver-mines and by its
establishment of glass, jam, and other factories. It
furthermore held the monopoly of the manufacture
of spirits and possessed a distillery near Pretoria.

Bibliography: Jewish Chronicle, June 28, 1895; March 17.
1899.



J.



G. L.



MARKUS, LUDWIG: German Orientalist; bora
in Dessau Oct. 31, 1798; died in Paris July 15, 1843.
He attended the Franzschule and the ducal gym-
nasium in Dessau ; he was sent to the latter by the
hereditary' Prince of Anhalt-Dessau, his father hav-
ing lost liis means. He then studied medicine at
Berlin University (1818-21), but wlien in the last
year of his course he abandoned medicine for philos-
ophy, and studied astronomy under Encke at the
Berlin Observatory so ardently that his mind was
for a time affected. When scarcely recovered he
became a member of the Society for Jewish Culture
and Science in Berlin. In its "Zeitschrift fiir die
Wissenschaft des Judenthums " for 1822 (pp. 401-
418) appeared his first publication, the beginning of
a work on the natural history of Palestine, which
was still unfinished when the periodical discontin-
ued publication. He then began his life labor — a
work on the foreign colonies in Abyssinia and Sen-
aar from the seventh century B.C. to the fourth cen-
tury c.E. In 1825 Markus went to Paris, where Cu-
vier appreciated his attainments; through Cuvier's
influence Markus was engaged to edit part of the
notes to Panckoucke's Latin-French edition of Pliny
(1829). He steadily proceeded with his work on
Abyssinia, though he was without means to publish
it; but two extracts from it appeared ia the "Journal
Asiatique " for 1829. In 1830 Cuvier secured for him
an appointment as teacher of German in the royal
college at Dijon, where lie wrote the elementary
works needed b}' the pupils.

The loss of his devoted mother in 1835 having left
Markus almost alone in the world (he already had
lost nearly all his brothers and sisters), he fell into a
state of melancholy which made teaching in Dijon
distasteful to him. His work on the Vandals having
been very well received, he resigned his position in
Dijon and (1838) returned to Paris. It was one day
about this time that Markus met Heine and a com-
panion walking on the boulevard. Heine's com-
panion, struck by Markus' somewhat ludicrous ap-
pearance, inquired, "Who is that man?" Heine,
who had known the Orientalist at the university, re-
plied, "That is the King of Abyssinia." This title,
so thoughtlessly conferred, thereafter clung to him.
Markus died in Dr. Pinel's asylum for the insane.
Baroness de Rothschild l)ore the funeral expenses,
and Heine Avrote an obituary. Markus had a re-
markable memory and was called the " walking li-
brary." He %\as very modest, and, in spite of his
poverty, charitable to the extent of his means.

He wrote: "Storia dei Vandali " (1836); "Geo-
graphic Ancienne des Etats Barbarosques " (1842;
translation of a part of K. Mannert's " Geographic



335



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Marks
Marriage



der Griechen unci Komer," with extensive notes and
additions); a comparative chronology of the princi-
pal nations of antiquity ; and a prosody of the Greek
and Latin languages.

BU!i.io(iRAPiiY: Arch. Jsr. 1843, pp. 54]-.")49 (obituary by S.
Miiiik ; translatea into (Jermau by S. Heilberp, Breslaii, 1847);
Servi. y.-^rdrhd' irEutopa, pp. I'Jr-li*!*; Heine, Gc!<aiiuiultc
ircr/ic, xiv. lTi»-:i(«, Hambiirfr, 1S7G; Alio. Zcit. dcs Jud.
1843, Nos. 18 and '.ii.
^. N. D.

MARLI ("^-iXfD), SAMUEL RAPHAEL

BEN MAZLIAH: Italian Talmudist and litur-

gist of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

According to S. D. Luzzatto, the name " Marli "

means "of .c\j-les" (Steinschneider, "Hebr. Bibl."

iv. 97, V. 46). Marli was the head of the yeshibah

of Mantua (Abraham Portaleoue, "Shilte ha-Gib-

borim," p. 20a), and was one of the rabbis that

participated in the heated controversy over the

" Mikwah " of Kovigo (Moses Porto, " Paige Mayim, "

p. 55).

Bibliography : Nepi-Gbirondi, Tolcdnt Gedole Yixrael, p.
SJT ; steinschneider. Cat. BodL col. 3435; Zunz, Literatur-
Uesch. p. 421.
D. M. Sel.

MARMOREK, ALEXANDER : Austrian
phy.'^ician ; born at Mielnica, Galicia, Feb. 19, 1865;
educated at a gymnasium and at the L^niversity of
Vienna (M.D. 1887). He removed to Paris, where
he became a pupil, later an assistant, at the Pas-
teur Institute. He is the author of " Versuch einer
Theorie der Septischen Krankheiten," Vienna, 1894.

In 1900 Marmorek claimed to have discovered an
antidote (antistreptococcus serum) against puerperal
fever; but his remedy did not prove efficacious.
It is still, however, used at the Pasteur Institute.
Again, in 1903 he appeared before the French Acad-
emy of Medicine in Paris, claiming to have found
an antidote for tuberculosis. He stated that the tu-
berculin discovered by Koch was not the toxin (or
poison) of the tubercle-bacillus, but a product which
only stimulates the ceils to produce the toxin ; that
the real toxin had been found by hitn (Marmorek),
and that he had discovered also the antituberculosis
vaccine. He claimed good results for his remedy,
which he had sent to Duyen of Paris and Von Mi-
kulicz of Breslau. The first-named expressed him-
self in favor of Marmorek's antidote; the other con-
demned it.

^Marmorek is known also as an ardent Zionist. As

a student he had been a member of the Kadimah,

the first students' Zionist society of Vienna; he is

therefore one of the earliest of the modern Zionists.

He was made an officer of the first Zionist Congress,

and has held office in each succeeding one. He is at

the head of the French Zionist Federation and is the

founder of the Jewish Popular University in Paris.

He has taken an active part also in communal Avork

in Paris, and was one of the founders of the " Echo

Sioniste," the Zionist monthly published in Paris.

Marmorek has been decorated with the Legion

d'Honneur

Bibliography : The medical journals for Nov. and Dec, 1903 ;
Lc Petit Journal (Paris), Dec. 2, 1903.
s. F. T. H.

MARMOREK, OSKAR : Austrian architect;
brother of Alexander Marmorek ; born at Skirta, Ga-
licia, April 9, 1863. He studied at the polytechnic



high school at Vienna and took a postgraduate
course at Paris. Returning to Vienna in 1889, he
settled there as an architect. Several important
works have been undertaken by him, including the
illuminated foimtain at the Forestry Exposition of
1890 at Vienna, the mu.sic-hall at the Vienna ]Mu-
sical Exposition of 1892, -and the plan of the villa
district of Assee.

Marmorek, like his brother Alexander, is an en-
thusiastic Zionist, having been a member of the
Vienna Kadimah. At the first Zionistic Congress he
was appointed member of the Actions Committee,
which office he has since held. In 1902 he was a
member of the 'Arish Expedition.

At the Congress of Basel in 1901 jMarmorek pro-
posed to recognize the hospitality of Basel by erect-
ing a Zionist Congress Home, and exhibited plans
therefor which he had prepared.

Bibliography: Eisenberg, Das Geistige Wien, Vienna, 1893.
s. F. T. H.

MARRIAGE.— Biblical Data: The earliest He-
brew literature represents a comparatively high de-
velopment of social and domestic life. Of primitive
conditions of pol3'^andry, such as existed among the
early Arabs, there is no certain evidence in the Old
Testament. Even of the matriarchate, or reckoning
of kinship through the mother, which W. Robertson
Smith holds to have been originally the universal
rule of Arabia ("Kinship and Mar-
Forms of riage," 2d ed., pp. 145-190), there is
the Mar- no clear indication. Traces thereof
riage Re- have been supposed to remain in certain
lation. family connections, such as those of
Milcah and Sarah, or in tribal groups,
such as the sons of Leah and of Rachel, and also in
the evidently closer and more intimate relationship
between children of the same mother or with rela-
tives on the maternal side. There is, however,
probably nothing more in these than such distinc-
tions as would necessarily arise in polygamous fam-
ilies and in the natural intimacy between full broth-
ers and sisters. Polygamy, or, more correctly,
polygyny, was the prevalent form of the marriage
relation in Old Testament times. There seems to
have been no limit to the number of Avivesor concu-
bines a man might have, except his ability to main-
tain them and their children. As a matter of fact,
however, only men of wealth, chiefs, or kings had
many wives; the historian draws special attention
to the large households of Gideon, David, and Solo-
mon (Judges viii. 30; II Sam. v. 13; I Kings xi.
1 et seq.). The Patriarchs liad not many wives;
Isaac appears to have been content with one. Cases
such as those of Elkanah (I Sam. i. 1-2) and Jehoiada
(II Chron. xxiv. 3), each of whom had two wives,
may have been common (comp. Deut. xxi. 15).

Not infrequently the Hebrew slave girl became
the wife or the concubine of lier master. Instances
are given of the wife voluntarily giving her maid to
be wife to her husband (Gen. xvi. 3; xxx. 3, 9).
The lot of the childless wife in such a home was
evidently an unhappy one. The law of later times
w^as designed to limit the practise and to correct the
abuses of polygamy. The king is enjoined not to
multiply wives, "that his heart turn not away"



Harriagre



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



336



(Deut. xvii. 17). A man maj- not "take a woman
to her sister to be a rival to her" (Lev. xviii. 18, R.
v.). The interests of the less loved, or the liated,
wife and her children are guarded (Deut. xxi. 15-



Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 82 of 169)