Isidore Singer.

The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) online

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colored material, as large as the hand,
while married Jewesses were required to wear spe-
cial veils, "orales." under penalty of a fine of five




sous. As in other cities of the Provence, the Jews
of Marseilles were forbidden to testify against Chris-
tians if their testimony was challenged, or to work
on Sundays and Christian holy days. They were
likewise prohibited from going to the baths more
than once a week, from journeying to Alexandria,
or from embarking in groups of more than four on
the same ship. Jewish passengers on a vessel, more-
over, were forced to refrain from meat on days when
the Christian passengers abstained.

Toward the end of the thirteenth century a Jew
living near the episcopal palace arranged some Purim
games which the Christians regarded as a mockery
of their religion, and the bishop, making the whole
community responsible, imposed a heavy fine upon
it (Ibn Adret, Responsa, iii. 389).

The fourteenth century was a golden age for the
Jews, for they were placed under the absolute pro-
tection of the municipality. The municipal council
did not permit the statutes to be construed in any
way to their disadvantage, nor did it
Fourteenth hesitate to oppose the guardian of the

Century. Jews appointed by the Count of Pro-
vence, or the most hostile of the clergy,
to secure for the Jews the security promised them
by the laws of the city. They were permitted to
engage in the same trades as the Christians ; most
them were brokers, wine-, or cloth-merchants, or
tailors. There was also one " magister lapidis " or
stone-cutter. Another Jew, Crescas Davin, called
Sabonerius, is said to have introduced the soap in-
dustry in 1371, and he was succeeded by his son
Solomon Davin.

Although the majority of the Jews were engaged
in commerce, there were also a number of physicians
(Barthelemy, "Les Medecins a Marseille Avant et
Pendant le Moyen Age," Marseilles, 1883; reprinted
nearly entire in "R. E. J." vii. 293, 294).

The counts of Provence intervened in behalf
of the Jews whenever occasion demanded. Thus,
in 1320 King Robert enjoined his royal officers to
afford special protection to the Jews, to assist them
under all circumstances, and to receive them at need
either in his castles and fortresses or in theirs ; and
in 1331 and 1332 Philippe de Sanguinet, seneschal of
Provence, decreed that the Jewish communities in
general and all Jews in particular should be pro-
tected against every vexation and that their property
should be guarded by royal officers.

No complaint seems ever to have been brought
against the community as a whole. In 1357 it
helped to defend the city, threatened by a siege; in
138.J it contributed fifty florins to a loan which the
citizens of Marseilles found themselves obliged to
contract. In return, Queen Marie, in 1387, and her
son Louis II. in 1389, confinnod tiic liberties, privi-
leges, and immunities of the Jews.
Under As long as Provence was independent
Provengal tlie counts refused to listen to the ex-
Rule, aggcrated complaints against tiie Jews,
who continued to live under benevo-
lent municipal statutes and franchises. In 1422
Queen Yolande of Naples, Countess of Provence,
forbade her royal officers to accept certain jiorsonal
property from the Jews, under penalty of forfeiture
of office and of payment of 100 marks fine silver.

In 1463 King Rene, who ten years previously
had entertained certain charges which had been
brought against the Jews without investigating
them, declared that they had a right to his special
protection, since they could count on it alone, not
being able to rely on that of the Church. In 1481,
on the complaint of two Jewish deputies, Solomon
Botarelli and Baron de Castres, Rene closed the
baptistery of Saint- Martin, where a Christian woman
had forcibly baptized a young Jewish girl, and he
obliged the parishioners to have their children bap-
tized in the Church of St. Jacques de la Corrigerie.

In 1484 the lawless bands which overran the cities
of Provence, attacking and pillaging the Jews, a.s-
sailed the community of Marseilles, and in the fol-
lowing year the inhabitants of the city, accusing
the Jews of usury and of various imaginary crimes,
fell upon them and massacred a large number, de-
manding that King Charles VIII. immediately expel
the remainder from Provence. The king, not daring
to comply at once with a demand so
Projects of contrary to the tolerance hitherto
Expulsion, characterizing the rule of the counts
of Provence, decreed that all Jews de-
siring to depart should be permitted to leave the city
unmolested, provided they had fulfilled 'all their
engagements with the Christians. The municipal
council, ignoring this royal command, forbade any
Jew or Jewess to leave with property. The Jews
protested vigorously to the provost and the munici-
pal council against this unjustifiable action, and
demanded the protection of the magistrates. These
protests must have been in so far effective as to se-
cure them a respite, for in 1492 the community was
still numerous enough to ransom 118 Amgonian
Jews captured by the pirate Bartholemei Janfredi,
paying the sum of 1,500 ecus, which it borrowed
from a Christian. Eight years later a royal decree
of banishment from Marseilles was issued against
the Jews, though it was not carried out completely
until about 1501.

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries some
Jews had again settled at Marseilles. Among them
were Villareal, who was expelled in 1682 for having
induced some Jewish families to come to the city
and having opened a synagogue in his house ; Lopez,
originally from Bordeaux, who was driven out in
1711; and Rouget, who, in virtue of a residence of
fifteen years at Marseilles, claimed in 1771 the right
of engaging in marine commerce.

Since 1808 Marseilles has been the seat of a con-
sistory, whose administrative authority extends over
all the Jewish communities of southern France.

The Jewish quarter, with its principal street,

which was called " Carreria Jusatarie " or " Carreria

Judaeorum," and its lanes and byways,

Ghetto. formed a kind of island designated
"Insula Juzatarie," and occupied a
considerable area. In 1.350 the Jews planned to
leave their ghetto, but the inquisitor objected and
obliged them to remain. When the city was taken
by King Alphouso V. of Aragou, in 1423, the Jews
suffered especially, and most of them fled from
Marseilles, seeking refuge in various places of Pro-
vence. Some returned witliin a sliort time, under
tlie protection of a safe-conduct, while the remainder




were enjoined to return within fifteen days, under
penalty of furnishing their coreligionists with a suf-
ficient security to guarantee the pay-
Syna- ment of the communal debt incurred
gogues and before the disasters of 1423. The
Cemeteries. Jews had two synagogues in the Mid-
dle Ages, one "Scola Major," and
the other "Scola Minor." A Latin document men-
tions a third synagogue in an entirely different
quarter. The present temple was built in 1865.
In medieval times the Jewish cemetery was
situated on the Mont-Juif or Montjusieu, but after
the expulsion of the Jews King Charles VIII. pre-
sented the site to a citizen of Marseilles. In 1783
Solomon de Silvaand Mordecai Hay Darmon bought
a plot in the Quartier du Rouet. This served as a
cemetery for the Jews until 1804, when it no longer
sufficed ; and a larger piece of land was bought in the
vicinity (" R. E. J." xiv. 302). At present (1904) the
community of Marseilles owns two cemeteries, one,
now closed, near the Place Castellane, and the other
in the Quartier de St. Pierre.

The hospital was situated in the vicinity of the
large synagogue, and the two almshouses were
under the supervision of rectors. One of them was
called "Saraca." The Jew Bonias Salemas left it
in 1426 a bequest of four measures of pure wine
annually as a perpetuity ; to the other one he be-
queathed, in a similar manner, a measure of oil to
be delivered every year on the eve of the fast of
Kippur. The women's bath, called "LoBanhador
de las Fennas," was also situated in the ghetto.
The Jews had their own slaughter-house, called
" Lo Masel de los Jusieus. "

In the second half of the twelfth century Mar-
seilles was an important center for Jewish studies.
Benjamin of Tudela styles it "the city
Scholars, of geonim and sages." In 1194 it was
to these " scholars and learned men "
that Maimonides addressed his letter on astrology
(comp. Maimonides, "Iggerot," ed. Amsterdam, p.
6). The following aie some of the scholars of Mar-
seilles: twelfth century: Simeon b. Antoli or Ana-
tole and his brother Jacob, Isaac b. Abba Mari, Moses
b. Samuel ibn Tibbon; thirteenth century: Jacob
b. Machir (called also Profatius Judoeus), Shem-
Tob b. Isaac, Joseph of Marseilles, Solomon Nasi
b. Isaac Cayl, Jonathan, Isaac of Marseilles, Samuel
b. Judah or Meles Bonjudas; fourteenth century:
Solomon b. Joseph, Nissim b. Moses, Shem-Tob
Falcon, and Joseph b. Johanan; fifteenth century:
Judah b. David (called also Maestre Bonjudas Bon-
davi),and Jacob b. David Provengal. Of the modern
rabbis may be noted Jonas Weyl (d. 1903) and his
successor, the present (1904) incumbent, Honel

Bibliography : Aug. Fabre, HUst. de MarseiUe, i. 481-491 ;
idem, Anciennes Rues de Marseille, pp. 99-109; B^darride,
Les Juifs en France, p. 228; Barth6lemy, Les Meilecins d
Marseille Avant et Pendant le Mouen Age, pp. 13-29 ; idem.
La Savonnerie Marseillaise, p. 8; Blancard, Documents
Inedits sur le Commerce de Marseille au Mouen Age, i., 2d
part. No. 55. p. 79, No. 314, p. 392; ii.. No. 518, p. 76, No. 716,
p. 161, Nos. 96:^, 964, p. 274 ; ii., 3d part. No. Zi, p. 423; Beug-
not, Lcs Juifs cVOccident, i. ia5 ; C. Arnaud. Essai sur la
Condition rfe8 Juifs en Provence, pp. 14, 15, 28 et seq.; Dep-
ping, Les Juifs dans le Moyen A(je, pp. 198-200; Gregory of
Tours, Historia Francorum,v. U, vi.l7; Gross, in Mon at s-
schrift, 1878, p. 155; idem, Gallia Judaica, pp. 366-384; Oc-
tave Teissier, Marseille au Moyen Age, PP- 43-155; Papon,

Histoire Generate de la Provence, ill., 61, documents, xv.;
Portal, Un Proct's en liesponsabilite Mediiale, p. 5. Mar-
seilles, 1902; R. E. J. vii. 293; ix. 66; xii. 267; xiv. 310; xvi.
73; xvii. 96; xlvi. 1, 246; xlvii. 62; xlix. 301 ; Ruttl, Hist, de
Marseille xiii. 26, pp. 305-309 ; SheJjet Yehudah, ed. Hano-
ver, p. 114. ■
D. b. K.

MARSHALL, LOUIS : American lawyer and
communal worker; born at Syracuse, N. Y., Dec.
14, 1856; educated at the Syracuse high school and
at the Columbia College Law School. He entered
upon the practise of his profession in Syracuse in
1878, removing to New York city in 1894. As a
member of the bar Marshall has attained a distin-
guished position. He was appointed by Governor
Hill, in 1890, a member of the commission to revise
the judiciary article of the constitution of New
York, and was elected to the New York Constitu-
tional Convention of 1894, serving as vice-chairman
of the judiciary committee and chairman of the
committee on " future amendments. " He has served
also as vice-president of the New York State Bar
Association and has written numerous articles and
essays on professional subjects.

Marshall is active also as a Jewish communal
leader. He is a director and chairman of the execu-
tive committee of the Jewish Theological Seminary
of America, and is a director of the Congregation
Emanu-El, the Educational Alliance, and the Jew-
ish Protection and Aid Society (all of New York),
and of the New York branch of the Alliance Israe-
lite Universelle. Marshall has taken especial inter-
est in the establishment of a Jewish " protectory "
for delinquent Jewish children, and has occasionally
delivered addresses and lectures on Jewish subjects.

Bibliography: Markens, The Hebrews in America, p. 229;
History of the Bench and Bar of New York ; Leslie, His-
tory of New York.


MARTIN, RAYMUND: Spanish Christian
theologian ; born in the first half of the thirteenth
century at Subirats in Catalonia; died after 1284.
In 1250 he was selected by the provincial chapter,
sitting in Toledo, to study Oriental languages at a
Dominican school which had been founded for the
express purpose of preparing its pupils to engage in
polemics against Jews and Moors. Subsequently he
lived for a long time in a monastery at Barcelona.
In March, 1264, he was commissioned, with the
Bishop of Barcelona, Raymund de Penaforte, and
two other Dominicans, Arnoldus de Sagarra and
Petrus Janua, to examine the Hebrew manuscripts
and books Avhich the Jews, by order of the king,
were to submit to them, and to cancel passages
deemed offensive to the Christian religion. This is
the first instance of Dominican censorship of the
Talmud in Spain. Their report Avas not at all
severe, however, since Raymund Martin declared
that many passages were confirmatory of the truth
of Christianity, and that the Talmud should not be
burned entirely ("Pugio Fidei," ii. 14, § 8).

Martin was the author of two anti-Jewish books,
one of which, the " Capistrum Judaeorum," has never
been printed. His cliief work, the "Pugio Fidei,"
mentioned by Victor Salbaticis in 1520, was lost for
a long time, but was finally brought to light by
Justus Scaliger, and edited by Joseph de Voisin,
with many notes, under the title "Pugio Fidei




Raymundi Martini Ordinis Prsedicatorum Adversus
Mauros et Judaeos " (Paris, 1651). Better known
than this edition Is its reprint by J. B. Carpzov
(Leipsic, 1667), with the anti-Jewish preface "'lu-
troductio in Theologiam Judaicam." The work,
treats of God's omniscience, the Creation, immortal-
ity, and the resurrection of the dead, and attempts to
sliow the falsity of the Jewish religion ; the latter
part of the work is valuable on account of its extracts
from the Talmud, the Midrash, and from other
sources. Martin has been accused of forgery because
of his quotations from Genesis Kabbah, which was
not otherwise known ; but Zunz defends him against
thiscliargeC'G. Y." p. 300).

Martin was widel3Mead in Hebrew literature, quo-
ting not only from Talmudic and Midrashic works,
but from Rashi, Ibn Ezra, Maimonides, and Kimhi.
His fundamental views, which he attempts to sub-
stantiate by his citations, are that Jesus is announced
in rabbinical literature as the Messiah and son of
God ; that tlie Jewish laws, although revealed by
God, are abrogated by tlie advent of the Messiah;
that the Talmudists corrupted the text of the Bible,
as is indicated by the "tikkun soferim." Martin's
work was for a long time the chief source for Domin-
ican poleinics.

Bibliography: Antoiae Touron, Jlistoire des Hnmmes Ih
hiMrcg de VOrdre de St. Dominique, i. 489-504, Paris, 1743;
Jacob Qu^tif, Scriptores Ordinis Prcedicatorum. i. 396-398.
it). 1719; Wolf, Bibl. Hebr. 1. 101&-1018, iii. 989-991; Herzog-
Plitt, lieaUEncyc.: Gratz, Gesch. vii. 134, 150.
s. G. We.

MARTINET, ADAM: German Catholic Orien-
talist; born in Hochstadt, near Bamberg, in Jan.,
1800; date of death uncertain. Martinet, who was
a professor in the lyceum of Bamberg, was the au-
thor of "Tif'eret Yisrael," or "Hebraische Chresto-
mathie der Biblischen und Neueren Literatur, mit
Aumerkungen und Glossar" (Bamberg, 1837), in
which are given selections from the writings of
Rapoport, Wessely, Friedlander, and other modern
Hebrew authors.

BfBLiOGRAPHY: Oettinger, Moniteur des Dates; AUgemeine
Deutsche Biogr-aphic.

MARTINEZ, FERRAND : Archdeacon of
Ecijain the fourteenth century, and one of the most
inveterate enemies of the Jewish people; lived at
Seville, where among Christians he was highly re-
spected for his piety and philanthropy. In his ser-
mons and public discourses he continually fanned the
hatred of the Christian population against the Jews,
to whom he ascribed all sorts of vices. As vicar- gen-
eral of Archbishop Barroso of Seville he arrogated to
himself the right of jurisdiction over the Jews in his
diocese, injuring them wherever lie could, and de-
manding tiiat tile magistrates of Alcalii de Guadeyra,
Ecija, and other places no longer suffer the Jews
among tiiem. Tiie Jewish community of Seville, at
that time the richest and most important comnuniity
of the country, was forced to appeal to King Henry
II., who commanded the archdeacon, in a letter
dated Aug. 25, 1378, not to meddle in futuie with
the affairs of liis subjects the Jews; not to incite
the people against them; and to abstain from deci-
ding their lawsuits. Tlie Jews were empowered to
withdraw from the arclideacon's juiisdiclion, and
the royal otHcials of Seville and f)tlMr cities were

summoned to protect the Jews in their rights. But
this made no impression on Ferrand Martinez ; and
the Jews were obliged, four years later, to complain
to King John I. John severely reproved him (March
3, 1382), but to no effect. The king issued a new
edict (Aug. 25, 1383) in whicli he commanded the
archdeacon to de-sist, on pain of heavy punishment.
Nothing, however, could keep Ferrand Martinez
from pursuing his purpose of exterminating the

The community of Seville finally decided to sum-
mon the archdeacon before the iiighest tribunal. On
Feb. 11, 1388, Ferrand Martinez, and the clothier
Judah Aben Abraham, the representative of the
community of Seville, together with their witnesses,
appeared before the "alcaldes maj'ores" Ferrand
Gonzalez and Ruy Perez. Judah, referring to the
two royal edicts, demanded in the name of the
community that the archdeacon should desist once
for all from any arbitrary and unlaw-

Public f ul acts against the community ; other-
Trial, wise the community would imme-
diately bring a complaint before the
king. Ferrand Martinez declared in his written an-
swer, read eight days later before the tribunal, that
he would continue to preach and act as heretofore ;
that all he had done so far had been done on the
advice of the archbishop and for the benefit of the
Church and the welfare of the king. He asserted
also that the Jews had offered him 10,000 doub-
loons for deciding an important case in their favor.
The archiepiscopal chapter now interfered, sending
two of its members to the king to say that the arch-
deacon was setting aside even the authority of the
pope, and that the safety of the Jews was imperiled.
The king, who was entirely ruled by his wife, Leo-
nora, Ferrand Martinez's penitent, replied that mat-
ters should not be precipitated, and that the arch-
deacon's zeal was worthy of all praise; at the same
time he declared that the Jews under his protection
must not be maltreated.

Archbishop Barroso proceeded more energetically.
Summoning a body of theologians and experts in
canonical law, he called upon Martinez to recant.
As Martinez refused to do so, he was forbidden to
perform thenceforth any eccUisiastical functions
whatsoever, or to decide any case, on pain of excom-
munication. When Ferrand Martinez was deposed
from office the Jews of Seville felt relieved, but
their relief was of short duration. The archbishop
Barroso and King John died within three months.
The king was succeeded by Henry III., a child of
eleven years, under the tutelage of his bigoted
mother. The archiepiscopal chapter cho,se the ex-
communicatedarclideacon for vicar-general. Ferrand
Martinez immediately (Dec, 8, 1390)
Appointed called upon the clergy of his diocese

Vicar- to demolisli all synagogues in their

General, parishes, and send to him witiiout de-
lay all lamps, Hebrew books, and
scrolls of tlie Law found tiierein, on pain of excom-
munication. The clergy of Ecija and Alcalii de Gua-
deyra obeyed at once; and the synagogues of Soria
and Siuitillana also came near being torn down.

The Jewish community of Seville turned in its
consternation to the king (about Dec. 15, 1300), who




seven days later sent a letter to the archiepiscopal
chapter, holding it responsible for all damages done
to the Jews, and commanding it to rebuild or to
repair at its own expense all synagogues that had
been torn down or damaged. He gave strict orders
that the archdeacon should be at once deposed from
office and placed where he could do no further harm.
The chapter proceeded to obey the king's command ;
but Martinez declared that an ecclesiastic was sub-
ject to the Church and not to the king, and that the
chapter had no right to depose him from office,
or to demand that he rebuild the demolished syna-

Under Leonora's regency Martinez could defy
even the king, receiving effective support from the
people he had aroused. The first riots broke out in
March, 1391, during which several Jews were killed.
The great massacre occurred at Seville June 6, 1391,
when several thousand Jews were killed and many
forced to accept baptism. The people rose against
the Jews throughout Castile, Aragon, and Majorca,
many thousands being slain or forced into the
Church. Ferrand Martinez was imprisoned at
Seville in 1395 by command of Henry HI., but was
soon released. The people worshiped him as a
saint. Before his death he presented his whole
fortune to the hospital of San Maria at Seville,
which lie had founded.

BinLiOGRAPHY : Zuoiga. ^?iaZe8 de SeviJla, ii. 29 et Keq.; Rios,
Hint. li. 338, 579 et seq.: Henry Ch. Lea, Acta Capitular del
Cabikh) de Sevilla, in American Historical Review, i. 220
et sea.; R. E. J. xxxviii. 260 et neq.
G. M. K.

MARTINI GEESE, See Barnacle-Goose.

MARTINIQ,TJE : Island in the West Indies, now
constituting a French colony. In the beginning of
the seventeenth century a number of Dutch Jews
settled at Martinique and in the neighboring islands,
and were in very prosperous circumstances when
France took possession of the island in 1635. But in
1658 the Jesuits, jealous of the commercial suprem-
acy of the Jews, induced the sovereign council
of Martinique to issue an edict forbidding Jewish
commerce in the islands. At the instance, however,
of the home authorities the council revoked this de-
cision, which menaced the interests of the colony,
and consented to restore the Jews to their commer-
cial rights.

This freedom was of short duration. In 1664
Governor-General Tracy was induced by the Jesuits
to issue a decree forbidding " persons of the Jewish
nation to buy or sell on the Sabbath-day [Sunday]
... on pain of a fine of 300 pounds of petun, of
which one-third shall go to the church, one-third to
the i)()()r, and one-third to the informer." The Jews
thereupon appealed to the new governor, Baas,
who restored to them the free e.xercise of trade
and commerce. Their enemies then approached
the governor, who, yielding to their importunities,
forbade (1669) Jews "toperfoi'm on Saturday any
ceremonies relating to their faith, ... to work on
Sunday, or to appear in public from Maundy Thurs-
day to Easter Sunday." But, like his predecessor,
Baas soon perceived the importance of Jewish com-
merce and industry and sent Colbert a report favor-
able to the Jews, retiucsting certain j^rivileges for
VIII.— 20

them, especially that of the free exercise of their
religion. Colbert pleaded the cause of the Jews so
well before the king that on May 23, 1671, Louis
XIV. decreed that the Jews of Martinique should
thenceforth enjoy not only religious liberty but also
the same privileges as the other inhabitants. During
the life of Colbert all hostile schemes against the
Jews failed, despite the powerful support which their
enemies found in Count de Blenac, who had suc-
ceeded Baas as governor. But with Colbert's death
they lost their protector, and the governor, yielding
to the Jesuits, on Sept. 24, 1683, during a visit to
France, obtained from Louis XIV. an edict ban-
ishing the Jews from Martinique. This order, evi-
dently, was not put into execution at once, since
two years later a new decree was issued, known as
the "Code Noir," which obliged the Jews to leave
the island within three months. No exceptions were
to be made, not even in favor of Benjamin d'Acosta,
who had introduced the cultivation of the sugar-
cane in the island. In 1694 six Jewish families went
to Martinique, but were at once expelled.

In the first half of the eighteenth century some
Jews obtained permission to live in the colony.
Laws were passed granting them a degree of legal
existence, and the " Code Noir " was declared to ap-
ply only to foreign Jews. In 1722 David Gradis
of Bordeaux established an office at St. Pierre. In

Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 86 of 169)