Isidore Singer.

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1764 Count d'Estaing imposed a tax upon the Jews,
who were then numerous in Martinique, some re-
siding there under the protection of " naturalization
papers" and others being merely tolerated. Wish-
ing to have their position clearly defined, they ap-
pealed to their coreligionists of Bordeaux, with
whom they were in family and business relations, to
request Louis XVI. to extend to colonial Jews the
privileges enjoyed by the Jews of Bordeaux. Jacob
Rodrigues Pereire of Bordeaux took up the cause
of the Jews of Martinique, and addressed an elo-
quent memorial to Minister Tartine, who, after in-
vestigating the matter for some months, declared
against any change (1776). All subsequent attempts
made to improve their condition were equally un-
successful, and they continued to live under a
regime of bare toleration down to 1789, when the
French Revolution removed their disabilities.

Bibliography : Ahb^ Gr^golre, Histnire des Sectes RcligU
eui<es, vol. iil., book xi.; Moreau de Saint-Mery, Lois et (Con-
stitutions des CoUmies Frani^aises d' Amerique soiisle Vent,
vols. i. and ii., passim, Paris. 1787; R. E. J. li. 93, iv. 133,
V. 80; Th^ophile Malvezin, Histoiredes Juifs d Bordeaux,

^.^:^^-^- s. K.


to the principle current in rabbinical literature —
"live through them [the laws], but do not die
through them " (Yoma 85b, based on Lev. xviii. 5) —
the Rabbis endeavored to restrain the desire for
martyrdom on the part of the zealous. During the
period of the Iladrianic persecutions such a restraint
was obviously necessary. Akiba is related to have
courted martyrdom rather than give up the teach-
ing of the Law, in spite of the warning given to
him by Papus (Ber. 01b); as did also Hananiali b.
Teradion, in spite of the counsel of Jose ben Kisma
('Ab. Zarah 18a). K. Ishinael, on the other iiaml,
was of the opinion that one may even worship idols




in order to save one's life, althovigli lie admits that
martyrdom should be preferred to a public profes-
sion of idolatry (Sanh. 74a; 'Ab. Zarah 24b). Prob-
ably it was during this period that the following
principle was adopted, at a sitting of rabbis in the
house of a certain Nitzah in Lydia: "All negative
conmiandments of the Bible, except those with re-
gard to idolatry, adultery, and murder, may be
transgressed if there is danger of life" (Sauh. 74a;
Yer. Sanh. iii. 6; Yer. Sheb. iv. 1; comp. Pesik. R.,
ed. Friedmaun, p. 5oa). At the same meeting the
question whether the study of the Law is more im-
portant than the practise of the Law was decided in
the aftirmative, for the reason that study leads to
practise (Kid. 40b; Cant. R. ii. 31; Sifre, Deut. 41).
This question was of practical importance to the
rabbis of that time, and the decision meant that one
must submit to martyrdom rather than forsake the
study and the teaching of the Law (see B. K. 17a).
The later rabbis, while disregarding this last deci-
sion, adopted and developed to meet various cases
the general principle governing submission to mar-
tyrdom for the practise of the Law (comp. Gratz,
"Gesch." 3d ed., iv., note 17, ii. ; Weiss, "Dor," ii.

If the intention of the persecutor is not so much
to benefit himself as to compel the Jew to trans-
gress the laws of Judaism in public
Conditions (N'Oms = Trapprjaia, explained to mean
of Mar- "in the presence of ten Israelites"),
tyrdom. the Jew should rather submit to mar-
tyrdom than commit even the small-
est transgression. In a time of general persecu-
tion of Jews one should prefer martyrdom when
required to transgress a law even in private (Sauh.
74a, b; Maimonides, "Yad," Yesode ha-Torah, v.
1-3 ; Shulhau ' Aruk, Yoreh De'ah, 157, 1). In a case
in which a Jew is permitted to transgress a law
when the alternative is death, he may submit to
martyrdom, if he prefer martyrdom to the trans-
gression ; some authorities, however, forbid this,
regarding it as a forfeiting of life to no avail ("Yad,"
Yesode ha-Torah, v. 4; comp. Mishneh le-Melek
adloc; Yer. Sheb. iv. 2; 'Ab. Zarah 27b; Tos. ib.
s.v. "Yakol"; Yoreh De'ah, ^c). If he can re-
deem himself by giving up all his possessions he
should part with all he has rather than transgress a
negative law of the Bible (R. Nissim on Alfasi to
Suk. iii. 2, s.v. "Dabar"; Lsserles to Yoreh De'ah,
I.e. ; "Pithe Teshubah," ad loc. ; comp. "Sefer Hasi-
dim," ed. Wistinetzki, k^ 1365). One who trans-
gres-ses the Law instead of submitting to martyr-
dom where martyrdom is enjoined, can not be
punished in tlie courts, since the transgression is
committed umler duress, but he must be regarded
as a defiler of God's name; and if he persists in
living in the same place and in continuing the trans-
gression when he can escape, he forfeits his por-
tion in the future world and will be assigned to the
lowest chambers of Gehenna ("Yad," ^r.). At no
time is it permitted to a Jew to commit suicide or to
kill his children in anticipation of religious persecu-
tion ; he must wait until tiie persecutor comes and
submit to the dcatii inflicted upon him (" Be'er ha-
Golah " to Yoreh De'ah, 157, 1, end, quoting the
"Bcdek ha-Bayit").

The same laws that apply to of religious
persecution apply also to other cases which involve
danger to life. At tlie order of a physician a sick
man is permitted to break all the laws of the Bible
except the three mentioned above —
Other idolatry, adultery, and murder— if his
Cases. life depends on the breaking of these
laws (Pes. 25a; "Yad," I.e. v. 6-8).
But, anxious for the chastity of Jewish women, the
rabbis decided that even when adultery is not in-
volved, as when the woman is unmarried, one should
be left to die from the intensity of his passion rather
than that the purity of a Jewish woman should be
defiled. In an instance related in the Talmud con-
versation between the sick man and the object of his
desire was forbidden (Sanh. 75b; "Yad," I.e. v. 9).
Martyrdom is enjoined only when the transgression
of the Law would involve a deliberate act. Thus,
a woman is not obliged to undergo martyrdom if
attacked with an immoral intent (comp. Sanh. 74b;
Tos. ib. s.v. " Weha " ; R. Nissim on Alfasi to Pes. ii.
1, s.v. "Huz"; lsserles to Yoreh De'ah, I.e.).

If a number of Jews are threatened with death if
they do not deliver one among them to be slain, they
all should submit to the alternative of martyrdom.
There is a difference of opinion, however, in a case
where the one demanded is indicated by name. Some
authorities hold the view that in such a case they
may surrender the one thus specified in order to save
themselves from death; while others are of the opin-
ion that they may surrender him only when he is
guilty of some act that involves the death-penalty.
The same is true if one among a number of women
is demanded for immoral purposes (Ter. viii. 12;
Yer. Ter. viii. 4, end; Tosef. ib. vii. 23; comp.
Rashi to Sanh. 72b, s.v. "Yaza"; "Yad," I.e. v. 5;
and "Kesef Mishneh," ad loe.; Yoreh De'ah, Z.c. ;
"Sefer Hasidim," §§ 253. 254).

In times of persecution a Jew may not say that
he is a Gentile in order to save himself from death,
although he may mislead his persecutors into an un-
derstanding that he is not a Jew (ROSh to 'Ab.
Zarah ii. 4; Yoreh De'ah, 157, 2). In such a case it
is permitted to the Jew to put on garments with
"sha'atnez" (wool and flax) in them, or to shave
his beard, and for a woman to attire herself in male
garments, or in those worn by nuns, in order to de-
ceive the persecutors ("Hatam Sofer" to Shulhan
'Aruk,OrahHayyim, 159'; "Sefer Hasidim," §§202-
207, 259-262). Although it is forbidden to a Jew to
be alone with a non-Jew ('Ab. Zarah 22a), in case of
persecution a Jew may seek protection at the house
of a non-Jew (ROSh, Responsa, xix. 17; Yoreh
De'ah, I.e. 3; comp. "Sefer Hasidim," § 251).

Bibliography: HamburKer, R. B. T. 11., s.v. 'Rabbinismus ;
Supplement, 1., s.v. MUrturcr.
s. s. J. H. G.

MARTYBOLOGY : Biography of martyrs.
Early in its existence the Christian Church began to
register the judicial proceedings its martyrs
and saints. These records, called " Acta Sancto-
rum," took the form of calendars, menologies,
"menaea," or "legenda passionalia." Since the an-
niversaries of the deaths of the saints were celebrated
by the sacrifice of the mass, the calendars were
merely lists arranged according to the secular year





aud inteuded only for the use of individual churclios.
The martyrologies, which were introduced in the
seventh century, were an amplification of the calen-
dars, and contained short biographies, and lists of
the festivals of other churches. The arrangement
of these books clearly appears in the present official
"Martyrologium Romanum." The third class of
stories, the "Vita; Sanctorum," had the alternative
name of "legends," as being intended both for pri-
vate and for public reading.

Israellike vvise has its "saints," though the word is
used in an entirely different sense from that em-
ployed by the Christian Church. Only a brief por-
tion of the liturgy is set aside tor corn-
Jewish memorating the martyrs of Israel, and

" Saints" the literature on the Jewish heroes of
or Martyrs, the faith is comparatively small. The
"kedoshim," the saints of Israel, had
merely fulfilled their religious duty when they stead-
fastly endured torture and death. Their widows did
not marry again, since their murdered husbands still
lived in liturgical poems, simple notices, or formal
narratives, and in single lists; in Germany these lists
wei'e read at the Hazkakat Neshamot to the com-
munity, which, on the Sabbaths before Pentecost
and before the anniversary of the destruction of
Jerusalem, as well as on the 9th of Ab, commended
the souls of the martyrs to the mercy of God. The
lists of the places of martyrdom and of the martyrs
contained in the Memor-Books may in a certain
sense be called " martyrologies," although there were
also independent works bearing this name. Schudt
("Jlidische Merkwilrdigkeiten," iv. 1) has the fol-
lowing passage referring to the descendants of the
martyrs persecuted by the Inquisition : " The ' Neu-
ester Staat des Konigreichs Portugall,' by an anon-
ymous author, also shows that the Jews have special
martyrologies and records of coreligionists whom
they honor as martyrs since because of their relig-
ion they were executed by the Inquisition in Spain
and Portugal. ... It is also noteworthy that the
Jews of Amsterdam have their own books of mar-
tyrs, in which they enter the names of those who
were burned for the sake of their faith, and many
Jews are marvelously steadfast when they face the
Inquisition " (comp. also " Unschuldige Nachrichten
auf das Jahr 1740," p. 10; Delitzsch, "Zur Gesch.
der Jadischen Poesie," p. 122).

Among the lists of martyrs made in Germany, the
home of persecutions, are those of Worms of 1096
and 1349, preserved in several pieces; the Nurem-
berg list of 1349 ; and the lists in the memor-books
of Sontheim, Heilbronn, Krautheim, Neustadt-on-
the-Aisch, Sindringen, and Widdern (1298), dating
from the time of the persecutions instigated in
Franconia by the nobleman Rindfleisch. A de-
tailed martyrology, however, is found in the mem-
or-book of the famous old community of Nurem-
berg, which was composed in 1296 by
The Isaac b. Samuel of Meiningen ; by re-

Nviremberg quest of the Historische Commission

Martyrol- it was edited by Salfeld, under the title

ogy- "Das Martyrologium des Nilrnberger

Memorbuches," and published in 1898

as the third volume of the "Quellen zur Gesch. der

Juden in Deutschland. " The compiler drew his

material not only from ancient accounts of the
persecutions, but also, in all probability, from lists
which were kept in the Jewish communal archives
of Nuremberg. In lapidary style he gives an elo-
quent account of the victims slain in Germany
during the Crusades; during the persecution caused
by a false accusation of profanating a host in Fran-
conia; in 1298, during various local massacres; and
at the time of the burning of the Jews in 1349.
The account referring to this incident mentions only
the victims at Nuremberg, while references to for-
mer persecutions are apparently complete. For the
years 1298, 1338-39 (see Armleder Peusecutioks),
and 1349, also, the manuscript contains lists of those
who died as martyrs for their faith. In addition
to the accounts of the persecutions in Germany,
there are lists of those at Blois (1171) and Troyes
(1288), while the persecutions in England and in
France are merely mentioned, with the exception of
that at Corbeil, which is especially emphasized. The
manuscript contains also notes on the sufferings and
martyrdoms of converts to Judaism (Salfeld, "Mar-
tyrologium, "p. 149)in the midst of the other martyrs;
and these are followed by a list of places where mar-
tj^rdoms occurred during the persecutions under
Rindfleisch in 1298. The statements in the lists of
martyrs are supported by contemporary accounts,
especially by the historical elegies, of which eleven,
taken from manuscripts and old editions, have been
added to the work.

Bibliography : Wetzer and Welte, Kirchenlexicnn, i. 173 et
seq., s.v. Acta SancUn~iim ; Krauss. Real-KiiciicJnpUdie der
Chr-iMiclien Altej-tUmer, ii. 380. Freiburg-im-Breisgau, 1882;
Salfeld, MartyrnlngUtm, pp. xvili., note 1. and xx., note 1 ;
Neubatier, Le Memofhiich de Maiience, In R. E. J. iv. let
fteq.\ Idem, Letterhode, viii. 89 ft seq.; Jellinek. Wnrws
und Wien, pp. Set !<eq. (coiup. Neubauer In Igr. Letterixidc,
vi. 677, vlli. 891); Jellinek, Mdrtiirer- xmd Meinorhiich ; Ja-
raczewsky, Goch. der Juden in Erfurt ; Kroner, Festschrift
zur Einweiliung der Ncuen Sjinnpnge in Erfurt, p. 16;
Berliner, in Kohez al-Yad. 1887, ii. 27 (containing the list of
martyrs at Erfurt in 1221); Stem, in Zeitschr. fllr die Gesch.
derjudenin Deutschland, ii. 19,5; Grotefend, Die Frankfur-
ter Judenschlacht von ISUl, in Mittheilungeii des Vereins
fflr Gesch. und Altertumskunde in Frankfurt-am-Main, vi.
63; Borovitz, Frankfurter Rahhi7ien; Carmoly, An nuaire
Israelite. 18r).j-56, p. 1(X); Darmesteter, Deux Elegies du Vati-
can, in Romania, 1874, pp. 443-486; UAidndafe de Troyes,
in R. E. J. ii. 199 et seq.; Stern and Salfeld, NUrnlierg im
Mittelalter, pp. 172 et seq.; Lowe, The Memorbook of NUrn-
herg (German transl. by Rahmer), in Litteraturblatt, vol. x.,
Nos. 31-32.
J. S. Sa.

MARTYRS, THE TEN : Among the numer-
ous victims of the persecutions of Hadrian, tradition
names ten great teachers who suffered martyrdom
for having, in defiance of an edict of the Roman
emperor, instructed their pupils in the Law. They
are referred to in haggadic literature as the *Asa-
rah Haruge Malkut. Popular imagination seized
upon this episode in Jewish history and embellished
it with various legends relating the virtues of the
martyrs and the fortitude shown by them during
their execution. These legends became in the ge-
onic period the subject of a special midrash — the
Midrash 'Asarah Haruge Malkut, or Midrash Eleh
Ezkerah, of which there exist four versions, each
differing from the others in various points of detail
(see Jellinek, " B. H. " i. 64, vi. 19). Contrary to the
accounts given in the Talmud and in Midrash Rab
bah ('Ab. Zarah 17b, 18a; Ber. 61b; Sanh. 14a;
Lam. R. ii. 2; Prov. R. i. 13), which clearly state
that there were intervals between the executions




of the ten teachers, the Midrash 'Asarah Haruge
Malkut, probably in order to produce a greater ef-
fect upon the mind of the reader, describes their
martyrdom as occurring on the same day.

This midrash differs from the older sources in re-
gard also to the accusation upon which they were
condemned. It says that when a certain Roman
emperor wiio had been instructed in the Law came to
the Biblical passage, "And he that stealeth a man,
and selleth him, or if lie be found in his hand, he
shall surely be put to death " (E.x. xxi. 16), he con-
ceived tiie following mischievous device: lie sum-
moned Ishmael ben Elisha (perhaps the propounder
of the " Thirteen Rules " ; see Ab. R. N., ed. Schech-
ter, p. 54b; comp. Ned. i.x. 10), Simeon (certainly not
Simeon ben Gamaliel II; see Ta'an. 29b), Ishmael,
Akiba ben Joseph, Hananiah ben Teradion, Huzpit
(tlie interpreter [*' meturgeman "] of the
Their Sanhedrin of Jamnia), Yeshebab (the

Names, secretary of the Sanhedrin), Eliezer
ben Shammua' (in iVIidr. R. I.e. "R.
Eliezer Hersanah," or " R. Tryphon"), Hananiah ben
Hakinai (in Midr. R. I.e. "Judah ha-Nehetam"), and
Judah ben Baba, and demanded of them what was
the punishment prescribed by the Law for stealing a
man. They answered, "Death"; whereupon the
emperor said, "Then prepare to die, for your an-
cestors [alluding to the history of Joseph and his
brethren] committed such a crime, and you, as the
representatives of the Jewish nation, must answer
for it." The rabbis asked for a delay of three days
that they might ascertain, by invoking the Ineffable
Name, whether the punishment pronounced against
them was ordained by Heaven. Ishmael ben Elisha,
in his capacity as high priest, or as the son of a
high priest, was chosen to make the inquiry, and
after having ascertained that it was decreed by
Heaven, the rabbis submitted to their fate.

Ishmael and Simeon were the first to be taken to
the place of execution, where a dispute arose be-
tween them as to which should be executed first,
each desiring to juecede the other in order that he
should be spared the sight of the martyrdom of his
colleague. Thereupon the emperor ordered lots to
be cast, and the lot fell on Simeon, whose head was
stricken from his body with a sword. Islunaol was
flayed ; he suffered with great fortitude, and began
to weep only when his executioners leached the
place of the i)liylacleries. The third victim was
Akiba, whose fiesh was torn off with a carding-
implement. While undergoing the torture he re-
cited tlie Sheum' with a peaceful smile on his face.
Astonished at his extraordinary courage, his execu-
tioner asked him if he was a sorcerer that he could
BO easily overcome the pain he was suffering, to
wliich Akiba replied, " I am no sorcerer, but I re-
joice that I am permitted to love Go<l with my life."
He died at the last words of the Shcma' — "Goil is
One." The fourth martyr was Hananiah ben Tera-
dion, who was wrapped in a scroll of the Law and
placed on a pyre of green brushwood; to prolong
his agony wet wool was placed on his chest. "Wo
is me," cried ids daughter, "that I should see thee
under such terrible circumstances I " "I. should in-
deed despair," replied tiie martyr, "were I alone
burned; but since the scroll of the Torah is burning

with me the Power that will avenge the offense
against the Law will avenge me also." His disci-
ples then asked: "Master, what seest thouV" He
answered: "I see the parchment burning while the
letters of the Law soar upward." His disciples then
ndvi.sed him to open his mouth that the fire might
enter and the sooner put an end to his sufferings ;
but he refused to do so, saying, " It is best that He
who hath given the soul should also take it away:
no man may hasten his death." Thereupon the
executioner removed the wool, fanned the flame,
thus accelerating the end, and then himself plunged
into the fire.

The martyrdom of the remaining rabbis is noted
without details, with the exception of Judah ben
Baba, who is said to have been pierced by lances.
He was the last of the martyrs; according to the
Talmud (Sanh. 14a), he was surprised by the Romans
in the valley between Usha and Shefar'am, where lie
was secretly investing the seven remaining pupils of
Akiba with the authority to continue the teaching
of the Law. The martyrdom of the "Ten Teacli-
ers" is commemorated in a selihah recited in the
Musaf service of the Day of Atonement. It is
entitled "Eleh Ezkerah," and is based upon the ac-
count given in the Midrash 'Asarah Haruge Malkut.
With some difference in names it is treated also in
the dirge for the Ninth of Ab entitled "Arze ha-

Bibliography : Gratz, Gesch. iv. 161 et seq.; 3. Derenbourg,
Essai mir VHistnire et la Geoyraphie de la Palestine, pp.
427 (note), 430 (note), 436, Paris, 1867.
s. I- Bu.

musical writer; born at Halle May 15, 1799; died at
Berlin May 17, 1866. He had studied music for
some time with D. S. Turk when his father, who
had destined him for the law, sent him to the Uni-
versity of Halle, where he matriculated. Shortly
afterward, however, he rejected the offer of a legal
appointment at Naumburg in order to devote him-
self entirely to music, and proceeded to Berlin, where
he became a pupil of Zelter, while gaining a liveli-
hood by teaching. In conjunction with the well-
known publisher Schlesinger, he founded (1824) the
"Berliner Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung," which
he conducted until 1830. In 1827 the University of
Marburg conferred on him the title of doctor of
philosophy ; and in this capacity he lectured on the
pedagogics of music at the University of Berlin,
wliich institution in 1830 appointed him musical
director of its student choir.

With KuUakand Stern. Marx founded in 1850 the
Berliner Musikschule, now the Stern Musik Con-
servatorium, one of the most prominent musical
institutes of Berlin. Here he taught until 1856,
when he resigned in order to devote himself entirely
to literary and university work and to the teaching
of comjiosition. His long and intimate friendship
with Mendelssohn was ultimately severed because
of the latter's strictures upon Marx's compositions,
which, indeed, have not withstood tli-; test of time.
His musical writings, however, are far mon; valu-
able, and include: "UeberMalerei in d<r Tonkunsl "
(1828); " Die Lehre von der ^Mu'iikalischcn Koniposi-
tion " (Berlin, 1837-1847, 4 vi)ls. ; several times re-




priuted); " Allgeineine Musiklelire " (1839; 9th ed.,
1875 ; translated into English) ; " Die ]Musik dcs I9ten
Jahrhunderts und Ihie Prtegc " (1855) ; " Ludwig van
Beethoven's Lebeu und SehalTen " (1858; 3d ed.,
1875); "GluckunddieOper"(l863, 2 vols.); "Erin-
nerungen aus ]SIeineni Lebon " (1865, 3 vols.); and
several other writings of an analytical nature.

Bibliography : Mendel, Mu,'^ilcalixches Konversationti-Lcri-
liiiu; Riemann, .Vi(.'<i/f-i,e.ii7f())i.
S. J. bo.

MARX, BERTHE: French pianist; born at
Paris July 28, 1859. She began to study the piano-
forte at the age of four, receiving her first instruc-
tion from her father, who for forty years was a vio-
loncello-player in the Conservatoire and GrandOpera
onrliestras. ' In 1868 she entered the Conservatoire,
where she became a pupil of Henri llerz, in whose
class at the age of fifteen she gained the first prize.
Upon completing her studies she undertook a series
of concert tours through France and Belgium, every-
where meeting with a cordial reception. At Brus-
sels she met Sarasate, who, recognizing her great
talent, engaged her as soloist and accompanist, in
which capacities she accompanied him on his tours
through Europe and America, extending even to
Mexico and California; she played in all in about
600 concerts. She has composed .several " Rhapsodies
Espaguoles," and has arranged Sarasate's Spanish
dances for the piano.

BiBLiooRAPiiY: A. Ehrlich, Ccldirated Pianists of the Past
and Present Time. ^ ^

s. J. So.

MARX, DAVID : Chief rabbi of Bordeaux,
France; born at Landau,' Bavaria, in 1807; died
Feb., 1864. On his graduation from the Ecolc Cen-
trale Kabbiuique at Metz he assumed charge of the
Ecole Keligieuse Israelite at Nancy ; and in June,
1837, before he had attained the age reijuircd for
the office, he was elected by die consistory of Bor-
deaux to succeed Chief Rabbi Abraham Andrade.
In 1841 he proposed the introduction of confirma-
tion at Bordeaux, a rite then regarded as a danger-
ous innovation. j\Iarx organized numerous institu-
tions in the community of Bordeaux, including a
"salle d'asile" and an iutirmary; and under his
guidance the children of the community founded
the Societe de la Jeunesse Israelite de Bordeaux, for
the relief of less fortunate children. At various
times during his term of office he interfered in be-
half of minors who had been kidnaped from their
parents by Catholic prosely tizers. In 1852 he w^as
decorated by Napoleon III., then prince- president,

Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 87 of 169)