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The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) online

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with the cross of the Legion of Honor. On the day
of his funeral Dounet, Cardinal Archbishop of Bor-
deaux, ordered the bells of all the churches in the
city to be tolled. 3[arx, who was a remarkable
preacher, published the following sermons: "Ser-
mon sur le Culte Public" (Bordeaux, 1853); "Dis-
cours lors de I'lnauguration de la Synagogue de
Clermont-Ferrand" (1^862) ; " Sermon sur le Dogme et
la Morale " (jh. 1863).

BiBi.iofiRAPiiY : Ari.stide Astruc, Oraison Fxinrlirc fir D.
Mar.i\ I'aris, 1804.
s. J. Ka.

MARX, JACOB: German physician; born in
Bonn 1743; died in Hanover Jan. 24, 1789; studied

medicine in Halle (M.D. 1765). He traveled for
scientific in Holland and England, in the
latter country making the acquaintance of Dr.
John Folhergill. He finally settled in Hanover,
where he made himself greatly beloved. He has
been reproached with inability to free himself from
the prejudices of his time when he opposed Herz
for attacking the Jewish burial customs of the
period. 3Iarx wrote: " Dissertatio de Spasmis et
Motibus Convulsivis Optimaque lisdem ^ledendi
Ratione" (Halle, 1765); " Observata Quajdam Medi-
ca" (Berlin, 1772); " Observationes ]\[edic:e " (Han-
over, 1774-87), in three parts: part one was trans-
lated into German by Bohm (Berlin and Hanover,
1786), parts two and three by Marx him.self (Han-
over, 1787); " Abhandlung liberdie Lungenschwind-
sucht" (Hanover, 1784); "Gesch. der Eichelu und
Erfahrungen liber die Diiit und ^Medizinisehcn Ge-
brauch Dcrselben " (1784); "Bestiltigte Krilfte der
Eicheln " (1787) ; " Ueber die Beerdiguug der Toten "
(Hanover, 1787); etc.

BiBLiOfiRAPMY: Alia. Dnitsche Bioy.; Ally. Zcitsclirifl des
Judenthums, 1840, p. 711.
s. N. D.

MARX, KARL : German socialistic leader and
political economist; born at Treves May 5, 1818;
died in London March 14, 1883. His father, a prac-
tising attorney at the Landgericht, adopted Chris-
tianity in 1824. Marx attended the gymnasium at
Treves and the universities of Bonn and Berlin,
graduated as doctor of iihilosophy, and then turned
to journalism, becoming in 1842 editor of the
"Rheinische Zeitung fiir Politik, Handel und Ge-
werbe," which was founded by the Liberal party at
Cologne. It was the most radical journal of the
time in Germany. Marx became involved in a num-
ber of controversies, particularly with the " Oberpril-
sident " of the Rhine province, concerning the condi-
tion of the peasantry of the Moselle district; and
in 1843 he resigned his editorial position to study
political economy. In that year also lie married
Jenny, daughter of Baron von Westphal.

Shortly after the marriage Marx, on the invitation
of Arnold Ruge, went to Paris to aid in the publica-
tion of the "Deutsch-Franzosische Jahrblicher," of
which, however, only one (double) number wasi.ssued
(1844). It contained, besides other matter, the cele-
brated "Lobgesauge auf den Konig von Bayern,"
by Heine, and two articles by Marx himself, "Zur
Kritik der Ilegel'sclien Rechtsphilosophie " and " Zur

After the publication of the " Jahrbucher," Marx
became associated with the "Vorwiirts," also pub-
lished in Paris. The Prussian government intimated
to that of France its displeasure at certain utter-
ances of the "Vorwiirts"; and Guizot ordered those
of its editors who were not French citizens to leave
the country. An interpellation in the French Cham-
ber led to a revocaticm of the order; but Marx de-
cideil to leave Paris, and in 1845 he went to Brussels.

In Paris Marx had become intimately connected
with the Bund der Gerechten, which had been
foundetl in Paris in 1836, and which afterward
became the Kommunistenbund. Its leaders in
London corresponded with him; and they formed a
branch in Brussels from which to send representa-

Diary land.



tives to the congress to be held in Loiulon iu the
summer and fall of 1847. Marx attended in Novem-
ber, and after expounding his ideas in a number of
addresses, the " Komniunistische Manifest," prepared
by himself and Eugels, was liually adopted, its con-
cluding words, " ProleUrier allcr Lander, vereiniget
Euch ! " becoming the battle-cry of the laboring
classes throughout the world. Upon the outbreak
of the Paris revolution, in Feb., 1848, Marx pre-
pared to go to the scene of contlici, but was arrested
and forced to return to Germany. From June 1,
1848, he edited the "Neue Hheinische Zeituug."
As leader of the left wing of the democratic move-
ment of the Rhine province he was an important
factor in the revolution.
He was a member of
tile Rheinische Kreisaus-
schuss der Demokraten.
and with Schaller and
Schneider, as a commit-
tee of the organization,
signed a proclamation
(Nov., 1848) in which
the members of the
Democratic Association
were advised to resist
the collection of all taxes
and to oigaui/e a mili-
tary force. Marx and
his associates were ar-
rested and placed on
trial for incitement to
rebellion; but a jury
acquitted them. In 1849
the government felt it-
self strong enough to
order his banisiunent
(May 16); and he Avent
once more to France.

When Marx arrived
in Paris a number of
petty revolutions were
ripe, in which he un-
doubtedly took part,
although his share in
them docs not seem
clear. When the dem-
onstration of June 13
came to an end he was
directe<l to leave France;
refuge in England.

Freed from agitation and revolution, Marx had
now about fourteen years of peaceful literary activ-
ity. He fre(iuently contributed to the Anglo-Anwr-
ican press. On Sej)!. 24, 18()4. a great meeting was
lield in London, at which Professor Beesly, the posi-
tivist, presided, and it was finally determined to es-
tiblish a i)ermanent organization of the working
people of the civilized world. TIk; International
Working Men's As.sociation was thus founded.
Mazzini and Marx were entrusted with the task of
prepiiring theaddress and the constitution ; and at the
congress held in Geneva in ISfiG the report of ]\Iarx
wasadopted. Until 1872 Marx dominated the organ-
ization at the congresses and iu the executive com-
mittee. His purpose was that of propaganda alone :

)(ojJl UUa/3<^.

and he then sought

but the mistake of the leaders was that the influence
of the association was not exerted to hinder the
Paris Commune in 1871. Marx himself was guilty
of an even worse mistake: he actually approved
the Comnuine's operations, in his pamphlet "Der
Biirgerkrieg in Frankreich," published in 1871 and
reissued in 1876. In order to dissolve the Interna-
tionale without giving his opponents a chance to
reorganize it, he in 1872 transferred the seat of the
general council to New York, in care of his faithful
follower F. A. Sorge; and so the association came
to an end.

The great work of Marx's life, and that with which
his fame is most cnduringly identified, is "Das Ka-

pital," of which the first
volume was published
in 1873; the second,
edited by Engels, in
1885; and the third, in
1894. Of the first (4th
ed., 1892) an English
translation by Moore and
Aveling was issued in
London in 1886.

Birliograpiiy: Gustav Gross,
Kaii Marx, Leipsk-, 1885;
Eugen von Botim-Bawerk.
Karl Mar.r, transl. by Alice
M. MacDonald, London,
1893; (ieorg Adler, Die
Gnindlaocn der Karl
Marx^schcn Kritik der
Bestehemleti VolUswirth-
sc}iaft, Tubingen, 1887 (con-
tains a bibliography of
Marx's writings); E. Ave-
ling, 27(6 StitdciiVs Marx,
London, 1892 ; Slonimski.
Karl Marx' NatUmainico-
mimische Irrlehren, transl.
from the Russian, Berlin,

s. M. Co.


French art critic; born
in Nancy Aug 28, 1859.
In 1878 he went to Paris,
where he wrote for vari-
ous theater and art jour-
nals. In 1883 he be-
came art, and afterward
literary, critic of the
"Voltaire." He was later
appointeil secretary of
the Academy of Fine Arts, which position he re-
signed on the death of the director, I^I. Castag-
nary, though he continued to act as inspector of
the Academ3\ In 1886 the government sent him
on a mission to Spain to study the methods of in-
struction followed in the schools of industrial art
and of design. In 1889 he was appointed as.sistant
inspector-general of museums and organized the
centennial section of French art at the Exposition
Univer.selle in 1900, when, on the occasion of the
opening of the fine arts exhibits, he was made au
oflicer of the Legion of Honor. Asa writer he isau

Marx has published: " Les Jouets" and " Les
Dimanclies de Pari^," two works of fiction; "Etude
d'Art Lorrain" (1882): "L'Art A Nancy en 1882"
(Nancy, 18^3) ; "Henri Regnault " (1886): "La De-




coration et I'Art Industriel a I'Expositiou Universelle
tie 1889" (Paris, 1890); "Histoire de la Medaille
FraiiQaise Depuis Cent Ans" (1890); "Tlie Painter
Albert Besnard " (/6. 1893); "J. K. Huysmans " (/i.
1894); "La Collection des Goncourt" (1897); "Die
Frauzosischen Medailleure Unserer Zeit," a col-
lection of 442 medals and plaquettes (Stuttgart,
1898); "Les Medailleurs Fran(;ais del789" (Paris,
1898); "La Decoration et les Industries d 'Art " (¬Ђ6.
1901); "Les Medailleurs Modernes en France et a
I'Etranger " (i6. 1901); "Handbucii fur Leihbiblio-

Bibliography: Larousse, Diet. 2d Supplement; Arch. Isr.
July 4, 1889; Univ. Jsr. May 4, 1900.

s. N. D.

MARX, SAMUEL: Chief rabbi of Bayonne,
France; born in 1817 at Diirkheim, Bavaria; died in
1887; cousin of David Makx. On completing bis
studies at the Ecole Centrale Rabbinique at Metz,
he became director of the Ecole Religieuse Israelite
at Nancy and assistant to the chief rabbi of that city.
In 1843 he was appointed rabbi of Saint-Esprit and
Bayonne, becoming chief rabbi three years later.
Marx published the following sermons: "Sermon
Prononce a la Synagogue de Nancy, le 16 Avril,
1843"; "Discours de I'lnstallation, 18 Deccmbre,
1846 " (Bayonne) ; " Sermon sur la Mesousa " (ib.
1866); "Le Centenaire de Sir Moses Montefiore " (ib.

BmLioGRAPHT : Henry L^on, Histoire des Juifs de Bauonnc,
Paris, 1893.
S. J. Ka.

MARYLAND : One of the thirteen original
States of the American Union. The history of the
Jews in Maryland may be divided into three periods:
the first extends from shortly after the establishment
of the provincial government at St. Mary's, in 1634,
to the expansion of trade and commerce in the
middle of the eighteenth century ; the second begins
a decade before the Revolution and ends with the
practical removal of political disabilities in 1826; the
third covers the following seventy years of German
immigration, congregational development, and com-
munal growth.

The characteristic of the first, or provincial,
period is the apparent absence of any single influx
of Jews corresponding to those which occurred in
New York, Newport, Savannah, and Charleston.
Record is found of one Mathias de Sousa as early as
1639. fifteen years before the arrival of "David
Israel and the other Jews " at New Amsterdam. If,
indeed, credence is to be given to the distinctiveness
of such names as Matthias de Costa, Isaac de Bar-
rette, Hester Cordea, David Fereira, and Jacob Leah,
it seems probable that Jews were resident in Mary-
land in appreciable numbers from the earliest days
of the palatinate. Yet percolation rather than in-
flux, and quiet exercise rather than open profession
of faith, seem to distinguish the period.

From among the hazy forms which thus constitute
the history of the Jews in provincial Jlaryland the
figure of Jacob or John Lumciiozo stands forth in
bold prominence. He is the first, indeed the only,
Jew of whose faith there is documentary evidence.
Subsequent data gather about him as a nucleus, and
it is largely in his experience that the diflSculties of

the period must be solved. He is one of the earliest
medical practitioners in Maryland ; his arrival forma
a distinct event in the life of tlie province, and for

nearly a decade he continues an im-

Jacob portant figure in its economic activ-

Lumbrozo. ity. Names of a distinctively Jewish

character appear at intervals in the
accessible records from 1660 to the overthrow of the
proprietary government in 1692, always without
mention of any communal organization, without
even a bare indication of the bearers' faith. Among
these are the names of David Fereira, Francis
Hyems, Abraham Hart, Daniel Mathena, Jacob Leah,
Solimon Barbarah, Sarah Ha3^es, Philip Salomon,
Joseph Lazear, Matthias de Costa, Isaac de Barrette,
Hester Cordea, and Isaack Bedlo. Whatever such
evidence may suggest, the positive conclusion to
which it leads is that while the Jew in proprietary
Maryland was, de jure, without civil rights, was de-
nied freedom of residence, and was liable to punish-
ment by death for the bare profession of his faith, he
was, de facto, permitted undisturbed domicil and
was gradually allowed the exercise of certain unde-
fined rights.

The reduction of the palatinate to^ crown colony
in 1692 led naturally to a Protestant church estab-
lishment, and ecclesiastical organization, it seems,
tended to identify citizenship with church member-
ship and to disfranchise the professed Jew in the
province at large. The broader organization of the
cities, whither the Jew would naturally gravitate,
permitted some political recognition. Thus the
charter of Annapolis, granted in 1708, conferred the
sufl'rage upon any person possessing a freehold or a
visible estate of twenty pounds sterling, and those
of other cities and towns gradually followed with
similar privileges. But even there the Jew could
hold no office. The act of 1715 reorganizing the
Protestant Church establishment provided that the
oath of abjuration, terminating with the words,
"upon the true faith of a Christian," should be ad-
ministered to "all persons that already have, or

shall hereafter be admitted to have or

Excluded, enjoy, any office or place of trust with-

from in this province." The exclusion wai

Office. perfected in the following year by the

addition of the oaths of allegiance and
abhorrency, and the test ; to the last two no con-
scientious Jew could subscribe. No essential modi-
fication was made in this requirement until sixty
years later, when it was embodied in the fundamen-
tal law of the state.

Whatever recognition the Jew could obtain, it is
necessary to remember, was accorded entirely upon
sufferance. Legally, profession of Judaism still re-
mained punishable by death. In 1723 the spirit of
the Toleration Act of 1649 was revived by an act
(repealing an apparently similar measure of 1715)
"to punish blaspheuiers, swearers, drunkards." It
did much more than this, however, in the opening
enactment, whicli declared that "if any person shall
hereafter within this province . . . deny our Savior
Jesus Christ to be t he Son of God, or shall deny the
Holy Trinity " he shall, for the first offense, be fined
and have his tongue bored; for the second, fined and
have his head burned ; for the third, put to death.




This act also reniainerl unrepealed until after llie
adoption of the state constitution.

From the restoration of tlic " lord proprietor " in
1715 until the outbreak of the Revolution, Jewish
names are rarely mentioned. The Jewish settle-
ments at Schaefersville and Lancaster seem to have
contributed little to the stream of German immigra-
tion which flowed steadily from southeastern Penn-
sylvania into Frederick county, Md. Similarly, the
Jewish communities of Philadelphia and New York
do not appear to have yielded to the commercial in-
ducements offered by the more southerly colony.
The absence of such contact suggests either a delib-
erate avoidance of the province or the absence of
public avowal of Jewish faith during residence
therein. Church establishment terminated with the
fall of proprietary rule and with the emergence of
Maryland into statehood. With it fell, too, the
force of the legislation which for a century and a
half had declared profession of the Jewish faith a
capital offense. The practical identification in men 's
minds of citizenship and church membership and tlie
subscription to doctrinal oaths as a necessary pre-
liminary to political office could not, however, be
swept away so easily.

In Sept., 1776, a declaration of rights and a formal
constitution were submitted to the Provisional Con-
vention by a committee of five members appointed a
month before. As adopted, thcthirty-
The Con- fifth article of the declaration of rights

stitution provided : " That no other test or qual-

of 1776. ification ought to be required on ad-
mission to any office of trust or profit
than such oath of support and fidelity to this state,
and such oath of office, as shall be directed by this
convention or the legislature of this state, and a
declaration of belief in the Christian religion." The
text of the oath of fidelity was given in the fifty-
fiflh article of the constitution, and the requirement
that the person so appointed " shall also subscribe a
declaration of his belief in the Christian religion "
was repeated. Henceforth the Jew in Maryland
was secure in his religious profession and vested
with certain political privileges. But the largest
civic recognition was still withheld, and not until
half a century later, after a persistent struggle ex-
tending over more than half this interval, was the
fullest e(}uality in the eye of the law accorded him.

The gradual influx of Jews into Maryland during
and immediately after the Revolutionary war must
undoubtedly be attributed to the commercial and
industrial advanUiges of Baltimore. There is hardly
any detailed information concerning the number,
time of arrival, or personal history of these early
settlers; a considerable part of them seems to have
come from Philadelphia, and almost all appear to
have been persons in moderate circumstances.

The first formal legislative effort to effect the
removal of the existing di.sability was made in 1797.
On Dec. 13 in that year a petition signed by Solo-
mon Etting, Bernard Gratz, and otliers was pre-
sented to the General A.sseiiiljly at Annapolis; the
petitioners averred "tiiat they are a sect of people
called Jews, and thereb)' deprived of many of the
valuable rights of cilizenshiii, and jiray to be placed
upon the same footing with other good citizens."

The petition was read and referred to a committee
of three persons, who upon the same day reported
that they "have taken the same into
Beginnings consideration and conceive the prayer
of Civic of the petition is reasonable, but as it
Emanci- involves a constitutional question of
pation. considerable importance they submit
to the House the propriety of taking
the same into consideration at this advanced stage
of the session." This summary disposition of the
petition put a quietus upon further agitation for
the next five years. On Nov. 26, 1802, a petition
"from the sect of people called Jews" specifically
stating their grievance, namely, " that they are de-
prived of holding any office of profit and trust under
the constitution and laws of this state," was referred
to the General Assembly, which read it and referred
it to a special committee of five delegates, including
the two Baltimore representatives, with instructions
to consider and report upon the prayer of the peti-
tioners for relief. A month later the petition was
refused by a vote of thirty-eight to seventeen. The
attempt to secure the desired relief was repeated at
the legislative session of 1803; again proving unsuc-
cessful, it was renewed in the following year.

There is much similarity in these successive at-
tempts as disclosed in the bare outline of formal
records. In 1803 and in 1804, as in 1802, petitions
for legislative relief were presented to the House of
Delegates, read, and referred to special committees.
As in 1802, bills to the desired etfect were reported
back from these committees and shelved at the sec-
ond reading; in 1803 the further consideration of the
bill at this stage was postponed till the following
session of the assembly; in 1804 the bill was defeated
by a decisive vote of thirty-nine to twenty-four.
Four successive attempts had now been made to
secure full civic recognition, and four successive de-
feats had been suttered. Some favorable advance
in public sentiment becomes evident upon a compar-
ison of the votes of 1804 and 1802, but general opin-
ion still continued so pronouncedly hostile to the
grant of relief that to the few determined spirits
upon whom the brunt of the struggle had thus far
fallen any further agitation seemed absolutely hope-
less if not actually unwise. Accordingly with the
legislative defeat of 1804 further formal agitation
ceased until fourteen years later.

Witliin this period (1804-18) occurred three cir-
cumstances of prime importance with respect to
further efforts to secure legislative relief: (1) the
rise in material importance and communal influence
of the Jews of Baltimore; (2) the actual hardship,
as distinct from merely possible inconvenience, suf-
fered from the operation of civil disabilities; (3) the
enlistment of the keen sympathy and persistent ef-
forts of certain distinguished men active in public
affairs in Maryland in behalf of the struggle for the
removal of civil disabilities of the Jews.

The first circumstance is largely connected with
the arrival in Baltimore from Richmond, Va., in the
year 1803, of the Cohen family, consisting of the
widow and six sons of Israel J. Coiien. The eldest
son, Jacob 1. Cohen, Jr.. became at an early age a
successful bu.siness man, and the founder of the
banking-house of Jacob I. Cohen, Jr., & Brothers,




widely and honorably known in commercial circles.
With Solomon Totting he was early recognized as a
leader and representative tigure in the
The Cohen localJewish community. Hisinterest
Family. in public affairswas keen and sustained,
his intercourse and friendship with
persons engaged in public life large and intimate,
and his concern for the full emancipation of Jews
in Maryland intense. He was the author of tiie suc-
cessive petitions for relief and the proposed consti-
tutional amendments that besieged every session of
the General Assembly from 1816 to 1826. He was
the moving spirit of the sharp legislative struggle
that followed each effort, and it was his personal
friends, largely out of regard for him, who led in
the successive contests.

The second circumstance, the actual as distinct
from the possible inconvenience entailed by civil
disabilities, is closely associated with the rise in
material importance of members of the Jewish com-
munity. The elder Cohen had in Richmond been
"conspicuous in all municipal movements, being
chosen a magistrate and a member of the city coun-
cil " ; Ills sons found that so humble an office as that
of wood-corder in Baltimore required a preliminary
declaration of belief in the Christian religion. Ueu-
ben Etting was deemed by Thomas Jefferson worthy
of appointment as United States marshal for Mary-
land, but for the office of constable or justice of the
peace his religious persuasion was an absolute dis-
qualification. Others who had served with distinc-
tion in the defense of Baltimore in 1812 and in sub-
sequent military engagements were disqualified
from rising from the ranks, and while personal
bravery and the esteem and admiration of associates
catised the letter of the law to be ignored, the offi-
cer's commission was held nevertheless by tacit
consent and upon bare sufferance. These two
conditions, the larger influence and wider intercourse
of leading Jewish families of Baltimore and the
actual hardship suffered by the operation of civil
disabilities, combined to enlist the sympathy and
aid of a group of men active in public life in Mary-
land, and these conducted the legislative struggle
for full emancipation in the General
Struggle Assembly in the years from 1816 to
in Legis- 1826. The most prominent figure in
lature. this group, which included Thomas
Brackenridge, E. S. Thomas, General
Winder, Col. W. G. D. Worthington, and John V.
L. MacJIuhon, was Thomas Kennedy of Washing-
ton county.

The history of the legislative struggle for the re-
moval of the obnoxious restriction can be indicated
here only in the barest outline. Beginning with the
legislative session of 1818, and continuing until the
desired end was attained in 1826, a deliberate and

Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 88 of 169)