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sustained attempt was made at each successive ses-
sion of the General Assembly to secure legislation
relieving the Jewish appointee to political or civil
oflice in j\laryland of the necessity of subscribing to
a declaration of belief in the Christian religion. The
legislative struggle attracted wide-spread attention
throughout the United States. The important ncAvs-
papers of tliccotuitry characterized the test as a dis-
graceful survival of religious intolerance and urged



its prompt repeal. The Jew Bill became a clearly
defined issue in Maryland politics. In the debate in
the legislative session of 1819-20, a detailed account
of which has been preserved in notes taken by
Thomas Kennedy and communicated to Jacob I.
Colien, it was openly charged that certain members
had failed of reelection because they had voted for
the repeal of Jewish disabilities. On the other hand,
a disposition favorable to Jewish emancipation be-
came at an early date a sine qua non of election
from Baltimore. In 1822 a bill to the desired effect
passed both houses of the General Assembly ; but
the constitution of Maryland recjuired that any act
amendatory thereto must be passed at one session of
the General Assembly and published and confirmed
at the succeeding session of the legislature. Ac-
cordingly recourse was necessary to the legislative
session of 1823-24, in which a confirmatory bill was
introduced, accompanied by a petition, marked by
singular loftiness of sentiment and dignity of tone,
from the Jews in Maryland. The bill was con-
firmed by the Senate, but in the House of Delegates,
after a stirring debate, the important speeches in
which have been preserved, it was defeated, and all
formal legislation hitherto enacted was rendered
nugatory.

But the end was nearer, perhaps, than even the
friends of emancipation dared hope. On the very
last day of the following session of the legislature
(Feb. 26, 1825) an act " for the relief of the Jews in
Maryland," which had already received the sanction
of the Senate, was passed by the House of Delegates
by a vote of twenty-six to twenty-five, only fifty-
one out of eighty members being present. The bill
provided that "every citizen of this state professing
the Jewish religion " who shall be ap-

Act of pointed to any office of profit or trust

1825. shall, in addition to the required oaths,
make and subscribe a declaration of
his belief in a future state of rewards and punish-
ments instead of the declaration now required by
the government of the state. A year later the brief
but effective statute was enacted " that an act passed
at December session, 1824, entitled an 'act for the
relief of the Jews in Maryland,' shall be, and the
same is hereby, confirmed."

An epilogue to the history of the struggle thus
sketched were the repeal in 1847, at the instance of
Dr. Joshua I. Cohen and through the efforts of John
P. Kennedy, of a curious surviving discrimination
against the Jews in the existing laws of evidence,
and the efforts made, also at the instance of Dr.
Joshua I. Cohen, in the constitutional conventions
of 1850 and 1867 to eliminate entirely the religious
test. The removal of the civil disabilities of the
Jews in Maryland was gracefully signalized by the
prompt election in Baltimore (Oct., 1826), as mem-
bers of the city council, of Solomon Etting and
Jacob I. Cohen, both of whom had been throughout
the moving spirits of the legislative struggle.
Cohen was made president of the "First Branch,"
and subsequently was elected for a long series of
years as a municipal representative of his ward.

Since 1825 the Jew in Maryland has suffered no
formal disability with respect to political office, and
he has been frequently appointed to positions of



Marzroth
Mashiah



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



362



trust and iutliience. The liiter history of tlic Jews
in Maryland has been in the main tlie history of the
Jewish eommunity of Baltimohk. Small bodies of
Jews are to be found in Cumberland (165 in 1901),
Hai^erstown (209 in 1902), and in many loealities
throughout the state. The Jewish poi)ulatii)n of
Baltimore in 1902 was estimated at 25,000, and that
of the twenty-three eounties (iiuluding towns) out-
side of Baltimore, at 1,500, making the total Jew-
ish population of the state 26,500.

Bibliography: Hollander, Sonic U)ii)i(hU.'i)inl Material Re-
laliiifi ti> Dr. Jain}) LumhriizD of 3/(r/i//'OH(, In I'ulilica-
tioiis Am. Jew. Hist. Soc. ISWi No. 1. pp. .T) ^9 ; idem. Cil-il
Statna of the Jews in Marnlamt, 1(m!,-I77(1, ib. 1894, No. 2,
pp. *W4 (see also referencps therein cited); Sketch of Pro-
cceiliimsiii the Leuixlalure of Marjiland, Devenilicr Session,
181S. (in niiat Is L'on\mo)ihi Called the Jciv BUU HaltiiPore,
1819; Ad'tress to tlic Cliililren of Jsi-acl in Mnritland, \U.
1820; SiJeeeli of Tlionias Kennedji, Esq., in tlie Legislature
of Mar>ila)i(l i)ii the liiU Eespect inn Cioil Rights and Re-
ligiints Privileaes, Annapolis. 1823; Memorial of Jeivish
Iuh<il)ita)its of Marijliunl to tlic General Asscwhljj, 1824
(n.p.); (iover)ii>r \\'ortliinaton''.'i Speech on the Manjland
Te»t Act. 132!,, Baltimore, 1824 ; Sprcr/;c,s o/i tite Jew Bill in
the House of Delegates in Marulnnd, hii if. M. Bracken-
ridge, Col. W. (1. D. U'orthinoton, and John S. Tyson,
Esiiitirc. Philadelphia, 1829 ; Win)iing the Battle; or One
Girl in Ten Thi>usand, ib. 1882; G. K. Barnett, in American
Jewish Year Book, 1902-3, pp. 4<)-62; correspondence and
records in the possession of Mr. Mendes Cohen, Baltitnore, Md.
A. J. H. Ho.

MARZROTH (pseudonym of Moritz Barach) :
Austrian author; born in Vienna March 21, 1818;
died at Salzburg in 1888. After leaving the Uni-
versity of Vienna in 1844 lie entered the field of
journalisnj, in which Ins influence helped to es-
tablish a more liberal regime. He founded sev-
eral journals, including "Das Wiener Feuilleton "
(1853; belles-lettres), " Der Komet " (Vienna, 1853;
humor), and " Die Komische Welt, "edited the comic
album " Brausepulver " (Vienna and Leipsic, 1847
and 1848). and wrote for "Fliegende Blatter."
" Ueber Land und Meer" ("Wiener Croquis," a
Iiumorous chronicle of Vienna life), "Bauerle's
Theaterzeitung " (letters of travel from 1855), and
other pui)lications. Most of his poems are in dialect,
of which he was a master, and many of his songs have
been set to music. Toward the end of his life he
left Baden bei Wien, where he had long lived, and
settled at Salzburg.

The following works of Barach may be mentioned :
"Bihier, Liedei-, und Geschichten," in dialect (Berlin,
1854); "Liederbuch ohne Goldschnitt" (Diesden,
1856); "Satans Leier" (Prague, 1800); "Spottviigel
(ib. 1864); "Geistergestalten aus dem Alten Wien"
(Vienna, 1868); "Sdiattcnspiele aus dem Alten und
Neuen Wien " and " Bitt' Gar Schini, Singa Lass'n ! "
poems in the Salzburg dialect (1878); "Lachcnde
Geschichten" (4 vols., 18H0-81) ; "Weltlust: llisto-
rietten. SchwJlnke und Liedcr cincs ncitcin Vagnui-
ten" (Lcip.sic, 1883) ;" Alt- Wien : Bildcr umi Ge-
schichten " (ib. 1885); "EinNeuer Decamcrone " (rt.
1887); and the following comedies: "Fritz NCirn-
berger," "Die F^au Professorin," " Zur Statistik der
Frauen" (ib. 1869. in one act), " Lucretia Borgia"
(with Otto Prechtlfi), " Der Bibi-rhof." "Eiue Million
fl'ir einen Erbcn" (with L. Feldmanu).

BiBi.ior.RAPiiv: VViirzhach. Riof/raph. Lr.r.; Briimmer, Dich-
ter-Lcr.; BommQller, Bingraph. Schriftnlcller-Lcr.

s. N. D.

MASADA : Strong moimtain fortress in Pales-
tine, not far west of the Dead Sea. The fortress was



built by the high priest Jonathan (a statement which
Schlirer upon insvdlicient grounds holds to be false),
who also gave it its name (Josephus, "B. J." vii. 8,
%3). The name is ceitaiuly Hebrew: "Mezadah"
= "mountain fortress." Josephus Avrites Maaa6a
and MaaatSd (variant, Mead6a); Strabo (xvi. 2, §44)
corrupts it to MurtaofSo; while Pliny (" Historia Na-
turalis," v. 17, § 73) writes correctly "Masada"
(conip. "Die Epitome des Solinus," ed. INIommsen,
§ 35). Heli.x, second in command under Cassius, took
the fortress from the llerodians in 42 u.c. (Josephus,
"Ant." xiv. 11, § 7; "B. J."i. 12, § 1). Later Herod
took refuge here ("Ant." xiv. 13, § 8; "B. J." i. 13,
§7); Anligonus, who besieged the fortress, could not
take it, in spite of the fact that the defenders suffered
from a scarcity of water ("Ant." xiv. 14, § 6; 15,
§§ 1-4; "B. J." i. 15, §§ 3-4). When Herod became
king he repaired the fortress, building a wall with
tliirty -seven high turrets around the summit of the
mountain, which was flat. Within the wall were
dwelling-houses and a splendid palace for Herod,
who wished the fortress to be a place of refuge from
every danger. Grain, which was stored there, on
account of the purity of the air did not spoil easily
("B. J." vii. 8, § 3).

Masada attained great importance in the war witii
the Romans. The Sicarii captured it and killed the
Roman garrison ("B. J." ii. 17, § 2); Menahem took
possession of the arms stored there by Herod (ib.
§8); Menahem's relative Eleazar b. Jair governed
the fortress for about six years {ib. % 9) ; and Bar Giora
also took refuge there for some time {ib. 22, § 2).
From here the Sicarii harassed and plundered the
whole vicinity, especially Eugedi (//;. iv. 7, § 2). Not
until three years after the fall of Jerusalem did a
Roman army, under Silva, advance upon Jlasada.
Josephus in this connection gives a detailed account
of the situation of the fortress, which wasalmost in-
accessible and inexpugnable {ib. vii. 8, §3); there
Avas only one spot upon which tlie Romans could place
a battering-ram, and even there only with great difli-
culty. "Wlien, finally, a breach was made in the wall,
the invaders Avere confronted by a newly erected bul-
wark, which, however, they succeeded in destroying
by fire. Eleazar b. Jair persuaded the besieged to
kill themselves, and when the Romans entered they
found alive only two women (ib. 8, §§ 1-7; 9, t; 2).

Willi the fall of Masada the war came to an end
(on the 15tli of Nisan, 73; 72 according to Niese in
"Hermes," xxviii. 211).

Smith and Robinson (" PalUstina," ii. 477) discov-
ered Masada in the cliffs of Al-Sabbah. The account
of Josephus has been completely confirmed by them
and by Ritter(" Erdkunde," xv. 655); and the traces
of the Roman camp may still be seen.

Bini.ior.RAPliY : Tiich, .A/a.-'m/n. Leipsic, 18().T; l\oettf^eT, Topo-
{paiiliisch-lfistorisclics Ijcricnn zii dcii Scliriftcn des hhl-
riUK Josr)i}txis. [). 17.">; Coiidcr and Kitchener, 'I'lir Snrveit of
Western l'iile.-<tinc. ill. 418-421; Scliiirer, G'l'.sc/i. ;jd ed.. i.:i9l,
note (18; (i'W, note 13".
(;. S. Kl{.

MASARJAWAIH or MASARJOYAH or
MASARJIS : One of the oldest Arabic Jewisli
physicians, and tlie oldest translator from the Syriac;
lived in Bas.sora about H83. His name, mutilated in
every possible wa\', lias been transmitted in Euro-
pean .sources; nor has it yet been satisfactorily ex-



363



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Marzroth
Mashiah



plaiued. Neiula (in "Orient, Lit." vi. 132) compares
tlie name "Masarjavvaih " with the Hebrew proper
name " Mesharsheya " ; but the ending "-waih"
points to a Persian origin. The form " Masarjis "
Jias been compared with the Christian proper name
"Mar Serjis"; but it is not known that Masarjis
embraced either Christianity or Islam.

Masarjawaih's sou, who also was a translator,
and was the author of two treatises (on colors and
on foods), was called " 'Isa, " that is, " Jesus " ; wliich
name, of course, points to the fact that this son had
been converted to Christianity.

Masarjawaili translated the pandects of the arch-
deacon or presbyter Aaron from the Syriac into



MASHAL. See Parable.

MASHIAH, HASUN BEN : Karaite scholar ;
flourished in Egypt (or Babylonia) in the first half
of the tenth century. According to Steinschneider,
" Hasun " is a corrupted form of the Arabic name
"Husaiu," the 1 being easily confounded in manu-
script with the '. Hasun, or, as he is generally
quoted by the Karaite authorities, Ben Mashiah,
was a younger contemporary of Saadia Gaon, whom,
according to Sahl ben Mazliah in his "Tokahat
MeguUah," he once challenged to a religious contro-
versy. Hasun was the author of a polemical work,
written probably in Arabic, in which lie refuted one




MolNT MaSAD.A in JL'DKA.
(From a photograph by BonfiU-)



Arabic and added to the thirty chapters of this
translation two of his own. He also wrote in Arabic
two treatises, "The Virtues of Foods, Their Ad-
vantage and Their Disadvantage," and "The Vir-
tues of the Medicinal Plants, Their Advantage and
Their Disadvantage." None of these three writings
has been preserved. Their contents, however, are
known to a certain extent by quotations. How
much Masarjawaili added to the translation of
Aaron's pandects can hardly be decided, as the
works themselves are preserved in fragments only.

Kini.iOGRAPHY : Steinschneider, in Z. D. M. G. liii. 428 cf acq. ;
idem, Die Arabisclie Literatur, § IG, pp. 13 et si'q.

G. M. Sc.



of Saadia's unpublished anti-Karaite writings, which
came into his possession after the death of the author.
Owing to a misunderstanding of a passage (§ 258) in
the"Eshkol ha-Kofer"of Hadassi, Hasun was er-
roneously credited with the authorship of the anon-
ymous chapter, on the theodicy, entitled "Slia'ar
Zedek " (St. Petersburg, Firkovich MSS. Nos. 683,
685), in the religio-phiiosophical work "Zikron
ha-Datot," and of"Kui)pat liaBokelim." Simhah
Isaac Luzki attributes to Hasun also a work on the
precepts ("Sefer ha-Mizwot "). Abraham ibn Ezra,
in his introduction to the commentary on the Penta-
teuch, quotes a Karaite scholar named Ben Mashiah,
who is probably identical with Hasun.



Maskil
Masorah



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



364



Bibliography : Pinsker. Lih:ku{e Kadmonimiot. p. 1 14 ; Furst,
Uesch. de,s KariUrt. ii. 40; Gottlober, Bikkoret le-TnUdol
ha^Kera'im, p. U» ; Steinschneider, Hchr. Bibl. iv. 48 ; idem,
Cati Bndl. p. 21<i9; idem. Cat. Leydeii, p. 390; Idem, Hehr.
Uebers. p. 400; idem, LHe Arabische Literatur der Juden,
8 41. -. „

s. I- Bu.

MASKIL (plural, Maskilim) : 1. A title of
honor used priucipally in Italy. The woid "mas-
kil," with the meaning of "scholar" or "enlight-
ened man," was used by Isaac Israeli, who died
in 1326 ("my colleagues, the maskilim"; " Yesod
'01am," ii. 11, Berlin, 1846). But in some places
"maskil" meant one who held a secondary rabbin-
ical position corresponding to that of dayyau, and
Jehiel Ileiiprin (" 'Erke ha-Kinuuyim," p. 45b, Dy-
hernfurth, 1806) so defines it. In the Orient the
overseers of the poor, or "gabbai zedakot," are
called "maskilim" (Hazan, " Kerub Mimshah," p.
26b, Alexandria, 1893). In Italy, and especially in
Tuscany, the title "maschil" is conferred on rab-
binical students (see Panzieri in "Jewish Comment,"
vol. xiv., No. 18; "II Corrierc Israelitico," 1889, pp.
166-167), though in some parts of Italy the title
given in such cases is "iiaber." It may be said to
correspond to the title "Morenu " among the Ger-
man Jews; it is considered inferior to the rabbinical
title " hakam " (" II Vessillo Israelitico," 1900, p. 244).
Azulai reports in his diary that in 1776 he experi-
enced considerable difficulty in adjusting a trouble
which had arisen in Ancona over the fact that the
title " maskil " had been bestowed on the local hazzan
("Ma'agal Tob," p. 6b, Leghorn, 1879).

2. Among the Jews of the Slavonic countries
"maskil" usually denotes a self-taught Hebrew
scholar with an imperfect knowledge of a living
language (usually German), who represents the love
of learning and the striving for culture awakened
by Mendelssohn and his disciples; i.e., an adherent
or follower of the H.\skalaii movement. He is
"by force of circumstances detained on the ])ath
over which the Jews of western Europe swiftly
passed from rabbinical lore to European culture "
and to emancipation, and "his strivings and short-
comings exemplify the unfulfilled hopes and the
disappointments of Russian civilization."

The Maskilim are mostly teachers and writers;
they taught a itart of the young generation of Rus-
sian Jewry to read Hebrew and have created the
great Neo-IIebrew literature which is the monument
of Ha'^kalali. Although Ilaskalah has now been
flourishing in Ru.ssia for three generations, the class
of Maskilim does not reproduce itself. The Maski-
lim of each gcncrutirju are recruited from the ranks
of tiic Orthodox Talmudists, whih' the eiiildren of
Maskilim very seldom follow in tlif footsteps of
their fatliers. This is probably due to the fact that
the Maskil wiio i)reaks asvay from strictly conserva-
tive Judaism in Russia, but does not succeed in be-
coming tiioroughly assimilated, finds that his mate-
rial conditions havi; not been improved by the
change, and, while continuing to cleave to Ilaska-
lah for its own sake, lie does not permit his children
to share his fate.

The (luarrels between the Maskilim and the Or-
thodox, especially in the smaller communities, are
becoming less freiiuent. In the last few years the
Zionist movement has contributed to bring the Mas-



kilim, who joined it almost to a man, nearer to tlie
other classes of Jews who became interested in that
movement.

The numerous Maskilim who emigrated to the
United States, especially after the great influx of
Russian immigrants, generally continued to follow
their old vocation of teaching and writing Hebrew,
while some contributed to the Yiddish periodicals.
Many of those who went thither in their youth en-
tered the learned professions. See Literature,
Modern Hebrew.

Bibliography: Atlas, Mah le-Fanim u-Mah le-Ahor, pp.56et
seq., Warsaw, 1898; Brainin, In Ha-ShiloaJj,. v\i. 43; Fried-
berg, Zikronot, ii. 27 et seq., Warsaw, 1899; Gersoiii, in Indc-
poident. New Yorli, Jan. 12, 1893; Taviov. in Ha-Meliz,
xxix.. No. 77 ; Wiernik, in New Era Illustrated Magazine.,
Feb., 1904, pp. 34-43.
J. P. Wi.— D.

MASKILEISON, ABRAHAM B. JUDAH

LOB : Russian rabbi and author; born 1788; died
at Minsk 1848. He was a descendant of R. Israel
Jaffe of Shklov, author of " Or Yisrael." Maskilei-
sou ofticiated as rabbi in many cities, and in his late
years went to Minsk, where he remained till his
death. Having no desire to use his cabalistic knowl-
edge for gain, as was done by the miracle-working
rabbis, he devoted his whole life to study. He lived
in comparative poverty, being satisfied with a small
income. He wrote the following works: "Maskil
le-Etan " (Shklov, 1818), novellaj on parts of Mo'ed
and Kodashim, printed with the approbations of
Saul Katzenellenbogen of Wilna and Manasseh
Iliyer; "Be'er Abraham " (Wilna, 1848), novelloe on
the remaining parts of the Talmud. After his death
were published: "NahalEtan " {ib. 1859), novellfe on
the first two parts of Maimonides' Yad ha-Haza-
kah; "]\Iizpeh Etan " (Jitomir, 1858-64; Wilna,
1880-86), notes on the Talmud; "Yad Abraham"
(Wilna, 1888), novelise on Yoreh De'ah; notes on
Sifre, some of which are published at the end of the
Wilna edition (1865).

Bibliography : Fuenn, Keneset YU^rael, p. 41 ; Eisenstadt-
Ben Zion, Rahhane Minsk, pp. 27-43 ; Benlacob, Ozar lia-Sc-
fnrini, pp. 132, 133, 376, 39.5 ; preface (by Maskileison's son) to
Nahal Etan.
II. K. N. T. L.

MASKILEISON, NAPHTALI : Russian He-
brew author and book-dealer; born at Radashko-
vichi, near Minsk, Feb. 20, 1829; died at Minsk Nov.
19, 1897. His father, R. Abraham Maskileison, a
Hebrew scholarof note and the authorof "Maskil le-
Etan," instructed him in Talmud. Study of the
poetical works of Moses Luzzalto and N. Wessely
awakened I^Iaskileison's interest in Neo-IIebrew lit-
erature, tiicn regarded with disfavor by the Ortho-
dox circles in which he grew up. His first poetical
production was the drama "Esther," which was
praised by the poet A. B. Lehensohn. Later he
published, in various Hebrew periodicals, some
poems wiiicli are marketl by beauty of form and
depth of tliouglit. His many prose articles, pub-
lished in tiic Hebrew periodicals during a period of
forty years, are likewise distinguished for tiieir ex-
cellence, as is his "MiUtabim leLammed," a collec-
tion of eighty-eight letters of varied content (Wilna,
1S70). One of Maskileison's most valual)le under-
takings was his revised edition of Jehiel IIkimmux's
"Seder lia-I)orot" (Warsaw, 1878-82). lie system-



366



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Maskil
Masorah



atized the work and corrected tlie errors aud oniis-
sious that had rendered the chronology almost use-
less, and appended a biography of Heilprin. He left
many works in manuscript. Maskileison represents
the best type of the Maskilim.

BIBLIOGRAPHY : Vo^khod, 1897, No. 49, p. 1367 ; Ahiasaf, 1898,
p. 345 ; Sokolow, Sefer Zikkaron, pp. 153 et seq.
H. K. J. G. L.

MASLIANSKY, ZEBI HIRSCH B. HAY-
YIM: Russian preacher; born in Slutsk, govern-
ment of Minsk, June 6, 1856. He received a thor-
ough rabbinical education, spending two years in
the yeshibah of Mir. Later he settled as a teacher
in Pinsk, where he remained about fourteen years,
occasionally preaching. In 1887 he went to Yeka-
terinoslaf, where also he taught and preached. In
1891 he went to Odessa, where his oratorical talent
attracted the attention of the Zionist leader M. L.
Lilienblum and others, who advised him to devote
himself entirely to preaching. For the following
three years he traveled through many parts of Rus-
sia, his Zionist speeches arousing much enthusiasm.
In 1894 he went to England, and in 1895 to the
United States, where he is recognized as a foremost
Yiddish and Hebrew orator. Since 1898 he has lec-
tured every Friday evening in the auditorium of the
Educational Alliance, New York city. The "Yid-
dishe Welt," a daily Yiddish newspaper, was
founded by liim in 1902 in New York. He contrib-
uted also to the Hebrew periodicals "Ha-'Ibri"
and "Ha-Pisgah," in which he described his Russian
travels.

Bibliography : Eisenstadt, Dor Rabbanaw wc-Soferaw, 11.
30, Wllna, 1900 ; idem, Hakme Yisrael be-Amerika, pp. 70-
71, New York, 1903; M.Zablotski and J. Massel, in Ha-Yiz-
hari, Manchester, 1895.
n. n. P. Wi.

MASOBAH : The system of critical notes on
the external form of the Biblical text. This system
of notes represents the literary labors of innumer-
able scholars, of which the beginning falls probably
in pre-Maccabean times and the end reaches to the
year 1425.

The name " Masorah " occurs in many forms, the

etymology, pronunciation, and genetic connection of

which are much-mooted points. The term is taken

from Ezek. xx. 37 and means originally "fetter."

The fixation of the text was correctly considered

to be in the nature of a fetter upon its

Etymology exposition. When, in course of time,

of the the Masorah had become a traditional

Name. discipline, the term became connected

with the verb "iDD ( = " to hand

down "), and was given the meaning of "tradition."

For a full discussion of the meaning and history

of the word see Bacher in "J. Q. R.," iii. 785, and

C. Levias in the " Hebrew Union College Annual "

for 1904.

Tlie entire body of the Masorah goes back to the
Palestinian schools; but recently Dr. P. Kahle dis-
covered a fragment of the Babylonian Masorah
which differs considerably from the received text in
its terminology (comp. Paul Kahle, " Der Masore-
tische Text des Alten Testaments nach der Ueber-
licfcrung der Babylonischen Juden," Leipsic, 1902).
The language of tlie Masoretic notes is partly
Hebrew and partly Palestinian Aramaic. Chronolog-



ically speaking, tlie Aramaic is placed between two
periods of the Hebrew ; the latter appearing in the old-
est, the pre-amoraic period, and in the latest, the Ara-
bic period (which begins here about 800). To the old-
est period belong terms like niN = " let-
Language ter" ; HB'ID. " section" ; piDD, " verse" ;
and Form. DytO, " sense-clause " ; N^O, " plene " ;
-IDR, "defective"; NipD, "Bible";
aUo onSID KipO. DnSID ~l"IDy, yi3n; the verb npj
=: "to punctuate," and certain derivatives; not all
of these terms, however, happen to occur in the
remnants of tannaitic literature which have been
preserved. The Aramaic elements may thus be dated
rouglily from 200 to 800.

The Masoretic annotations are found in various
forms: (c) in separate works, e.^., the "Oklah we-
Oklah " ; (b) in the form of notes written in the
margins and at the end of codices. In rare cases
the notes are written between the lines. The first
word of each Biblical book is also as a rule sur-



Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 89 of 169)