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Strack, C. D. Ginsburg (a Jew by birth), W. Wickes,
Ad. I\Ierx, F. Praetorius, and P. Kahle.

In imitation of the ]\Iasorah to the Hebrew text, a
similar work exists to the text of Targum Onkelos,
tirst edited bj' A. Berliner (Leipsic,
Masorah to 1877), then by S. Landaner (Anister-
Targuni dam, 189G). According to Berliner's
Onkelos. opinion, it must have been compiled
about the end of the ninth or the be-
ginning of the tenth century.

Bibliography: On the name: Paul Ae hagarde, M it thcUiui-
acn, i. ISS-t ; P. Haupt, Proc. Am. Oriental Sdc. xvi., p. cvi.;
S. D. Luzzatto, additamenta to pi>'3-' nN^sn, ii. 119b ; Ed.
Konigr, Lclitfichaude, ii. 358, 491 ; idem, I)it)oducti(»u p. 38;
Ginsburg, Mcuiorctico-Critical Introduction, p. 421, note 1 ;
Blau, in Zcit. fur Hehr. Bnil. iv. 62; especially Baclier, in
J. Q. R. iii. 78.5; idem, Aclteste Terminoliuiic, s. v.; romp.
J. Barliracli, Ishtaddctut 'im Shcdal, i. 20, notes 4, 34, 181.

Editions: In Rat)l>inic Bihle. Venice, l.">24-25, by Ibn Ado-
nijah ; in Basel edition by Buxtorf, 1618-19 (in some respects
an improvement on its predecessor, although it exhil)its many
unwarrantable alterations); Frensdorff, (khlali we-Ochlah,
Hanover, 18(>4; idem, Dir Maiixora Maana, i.. ih. 1876; C. D.
Ginsburg, The .Vrr.s.socfi/f, London, 1880-85. S. Baer's Maso-
rah is still inipublished.

Masoretico-grammatical works: Ben Asher, Dikdukc ha-
Te'amim, ed. Baer and Straclf, Leipsic, 1879; ahonvmous,
Horayot lia-Kore, inedited ; Joseph of Constantinople," Mdat
Dihburim, inedited ; Samson Punctator, Hihhur ha-Koninu
Inedited ; Moses Punctator, Darke ha^Nikhud weha-Ncfiinnt.
ed. Frensdorff, Hanover, 1847 ; Jekuthiel' I'unctator, 'En lia-
Kore, ed. Heidenheim (in his Pentateuch Mc'ar 'Eiiauim,
?oo^*^"^®''"' 181**"21. and in his Seder Ycme ha-Puriw, ib.
1826); anonymous, Manuel du Lecteur, ed. Derenbourg,
Paris, 1870 (reprint from Jmirnal Amatique); anonymous,
Petite Grnmmaire Hehraique, ed. Neuhauer, Leipsic. 1891.

Commentaries: M. A. Angel. Mnsoret ha-Berit, Cracow,
1629; Abraham b. Keuben of OchrUla. SSefer Bet A7>raham,
Constantinople, 1743; David Viterbi, Sefer Em la-Maxnret.
MantUM, 1748 ; Abraham b. Jeremiah of Calvary, Sefer Seder
Ahraham, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1752; Asher Amshel of
Worms, .Sfi/orr^a-Torn?). ib. 1766; Joseph b. David HHlbron
of Eschvveg, Sefer Mehin Hidnt, Amsterdam, 1765 (n pla-
giarism from the preceding work); Solomon Dubno, Tikknn
Snferim. in Mendelssohn's Pentateuch Netihat li(i-Slidh>m,
Berlin, 1783: Phoebus b. Solomon. Mennrnt Shrlnmnh, and
Minhat Kalil, in Pentateuch edited in Dobrowno, 1804: Jo-
seph b. Mordecai, Masorah Berurah, Berdvchev (1820?);
Joseph Kalman b. Solomon, Sha'ar ha-Mas<nah, Wilna, 1870.



Histfliico-crirical works on the Musunili: Jacol) b Havvim
Intniduclitiii, ea. Ginsburg, Lundnn. isti.); E. Leviia, iJias-
siiret ha-Maxsiirel. ed. (iinsburg, ib. ]m~ ; H. L. Strack Pro-



hijnmena Cntica, Leipsic. 1873: Joseph Kalman I). Solomon
Mdiii ha-Ma.-<!<i>rali. Warsaw, lS(i2 (2d cd., ili. Ib90'')- (iei-
ger, Jlid. Zril. iii. 7.S 119; J. H. Weiss, in Gcsih. iter Jli-
diMlnn Traddiiin. iv. and Index ; S. Kosenfeld. introduction




brew 7Ji7;/c, London, 1897; W. Bacher, I>ic Ma.^orali in Win-
ter and Wunsche, Jildischc Literatur, ii. 121 i:f2- Ham-
burger, .l/d-s-socrt, in his R. B. T. Supplement, iv. 52-68.

On special points : Sefer Tauiii, ed. J. Barges, Paris " ]8(;(i •
Miilrash Hasemt n-i-Vctemt. ed. Berliner, in his P,}itat
Soterim, Breslau, 1872 (reedited in a more complete form by
S. Wertheimer, Jerusalem. 1899) ; S. I{o.senfeld, Ma'amar In-
here u-Ketib, Wilna, 18t;6 ; M. Lambert, UneSerie de Qerc-
Ketib, Paris, 1891 ; J. licach. Die Sebirin der Ma.\s,nrteu
von Tiberia.f. Breslau, ]S95; L. Blau, Masi)rcti.-<che I'nltr-
sucliunaoi, Strasburg, 1891: idem, Zur EinlcHunn in die
Ifciliije Schritt, Budapest, 1894; B. Kiiuigsberger, ,1 i(.x l/(t-
sorah unit Tahnndkiitilt. i., Berlin, 1892; A. S. Wei.ssmann
Kedmh'ihat lui-TNK, Vienna, 1887 ; S. R. Edelmatin, Jla-Me-
sillot. Wilna, 1875; L. Bardowicz, Studien zur (iesehiihte
der Oithixjraphie des AUlicbriiiseheri, Frankfort-on-tlie-
Main, 1894; A. Wedell. Dc Eme)i(lati<n)iliUK a Soplierim
(n Libris Sacris Veteriii Tcstamenti Prcrpositia, Breslau




ernture compare the references in Strack's Prciic{i<mie)ia
For special points compare the literature under tlie various
terms in C. hevias, Dictinnarn of Philoliif/ieal TerminoliKji/-
also the bibliographies to Accknts iv Hebrkw; Bibi.k Manu-
scripts; Nakda.nim; Oklah wk-Oklah ; and Vocalization.

T- C. L.

MASSACHUSETTS: A northeastern state in
the American Union. Tlie earliest record of a Jew in
^Massachusetts bears tlie date of May 3, 1649, and
refers to a certain Solomon Franco, for whom an
allowance was made pending his return to Holland;
and recorded among the inhabitants of Boston, in
1695, there are "Samuell, the Jew," and "Raphaell
Abandana" ("Publications Am. Jew. Hist. 8oc."
No. 11, pp. 78-80). On Sept. 13, 1702, Simon the
Jew was baptized at Charlestown, taking the name
of " Barns," and about the same time a certain Jo.seph
Frazon or Frazier lived in Boston. An attempt to
convert him was unsuccessful, and it is recorded
that he died Feb. 4, 1704, and that his body was
sent to Newport, R. I., for burial. In 1722 Jndah
3IoNis was baptized; he was an instructor in
Hebrew at Harvard College from 1723 to 1760.

The first considerable colony in Massachusetts re-
sulted directly from the Revolutionary war. In
1777 Aaron Lopez and Jacob Rivera, with tifty-nine
other Jews, left Newport to find a refuge from its
invasion by the British troops, and established
themselves at Leicester, ]\Iass. Lopez was a man of
great wealth and, according to Ezra Stiles, in the
extent of his commercial dealings was probably
surpa.ssed by no merchant in xVmerica (ib. No. 10,
p. 15). He purchased an estate at Leicester and
erected upon it a substantial house, which since has
become the home of the Leicester Academy. The
colonists rigidlj' observed the customs of their faith.
In spite of the high opinion in which Lopez Avaa
held, it appears that in 1762 the supreme court
of .Massachusetts refused to grant the application
of him.self and Isaac Lezur for naturalization (ib.
No. 6. p. 71).

It is known that other Jews went to Boston dur-
ing the seventeenth century, but owing to the intol-



Massachusetts
Master and Servant



THE JEAYISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



372



ciancc of the Puritans, they either removed or em-
braced Cinistiauity. Tins accounts for the numerous
famines of distinctively Jewish name found in many
of the .Massachusetts towns. Just prior to tiie War
of the Revolution Moses Michael Hays went to Bos-
ton from Newport, taking witli him his own family
and his two nephews, Abraham and Judali Touro.
Hays was a successful insurance underwriter, and
for four years (1788 to 1793) was grand master of
the Grand Lodge of Masons of Massacliusetts; he
died in 1805. It is not known that any of his de-
scendants live there. Abraham Touro became a
very wealthy merchant, and wlien he died in 1822
he bequeatiied $10,000 to the Massachusetts General
Hosiiital, and §5,000 each lo the Asylum for In-
digent Boys, tiic Massachusetts Humane Society,
and the Boston Female Society. His brother Judah
Touro went to New Orleans. Judah Hays, Isaac
Solomon, and Abraham Solis were residents of Bos-
ton between 1780 and 1798.

In 1830 a number of Algerian Jews settled in Bos-
ton and occupied themselves in trading; some of
them went to Newport to live; the others disap-
peared, and no trace of them is left. In 1840 a
number of German and Polish Jews settled in
Boston, and their descendants still live there (for
the liistory of Boston Jews see Boston). After
1880, Russian and Rumanian Jews began to set-

Statistics.

Tl)e following statistics of Massachusetts cities
and towns (exclusive of Boston) were obtained
through inijuir}' of town officials or are based upon
the "American Jewish Year Book" for 5661, and
upon manuscript additions thereto in possession of
the Jewish Publication Society of America:



Name of (Mty
or Town.



Attlfl«)r()

Brwkiiin

Ciimbriflge. ..

riiPlsfa

(■hi<'<)()ef

Dunvers

Fall River....

Viuilkncr

Fitrlilmrg

Gloucester

HttViTliill

Holyoke

I^wience

Lowell

l.vnn

Mulflen

Marlhoro

Medforfl

Millis

New Ketirorrl.

Newton

North AilntTis.
Northniiipton .

rilt.slU'M

Qulncy

Revere

Salem

SprltiKfleUI....

Taunton

Watert«iwn . . .
Worcester



O -B

Oj tn :4






31)0

2",666

TiO
24

ri.iKiu



2(K)
2(l()

:joo

2(i<)

vrjo
aV)

24



1,(HK)

:i2

81)
120



a
o

03

be
be

s



3
bD
O
bo
«s



1

' 3 '

'3"

building
1
1

»>

2

' r



a'lO


2


26


1


300




300


2


301)


4


80




•i->




I.IWO


4



be
■a
o



c

u O

.a =



tie in the towns outside of Boston, and now there
are estimated to be about thirt}' tliousand Jews in
various parts of the stale, e.\clu.sive of those in the
capital. Tlie newcomers have become An)erican-
ized and take an interest in public alTairs; many
work in factories ami mills; it is estimated iliat
IJO i)er cent of them ai'c successfully established
in various branches of business; a few still follow
the old custom of peddling. In Boston there are
40,000 Jews, 21 synagogues, 64 lodges, man}' chari-
table societies, and a large number of social and
literary clubs.

Bibliography : Hiiliner, The Jnis of Keic Eimlaiid. in Puh-
licatiinix Am. Jcv. Ifist. Sac. No. 11, pp. 75 et sec/.; Cyrus
Adler, The Mciiorali, ISSS, v. 2.")t)-26().
A. G. Mo.

MASSARANI (MASSARAN) : Name of an
Italian family which has been known since the latter
part of the lifteenth century. Originally the name of
the family was JX"lDNOO, from Massarano, a small
town near Novara in Piedmont. Subsequently vari-
ous members lived at Mantua, and still later at Milan.
The earliest known bearer of the name was Isaac
Massaran, who copied, in 1255, No. 23 of the Code.x
De Rossi; it is notcertain, however, whether he be-
longed to this family or whether he was a native of
Mazarron, in Spain. Two centuries later the copy-
ist Isaiah b. Jacob b. Isaiah Massaran lived at
Mantua and wrote Nos. 6 and 020 of the Code.x
De Rossi, No. 127 of the Code.x Turin, and No. 45
of the C^odex Montetiore. Azariahdei Rossi's schol-
arly brother-in-law, Hayyim Massaran, who
owned a number of rare Talnuidical works, lived at
Mantua about 1560. At the sam(; time Bezaleel b.
Samson, Levi b. Jacob, Samson b. Jehiel, and
Samson b. Isaiah, all belonging to the JVIassarani
family, were living in this conniuniit}'. Among
these Bezaleel b. Samson Massarani is especially
noteworthy for his energetic efforts to save He-
brew books from the destruction with which the
Inquisition threatened them. He was the chairman
of the deputation of communal directors and rabbis
that decided at Padua upon an anticipatoiy censor-
ship in order to secure permission to reprint the
Talnuid. As the leader of t ins deputation Bezaleel
went to Rome, t ) Po[)e Sixtus V., and obtained
permission to print and own the Talmud after It
had been censored and expurgated and the title
changed. Samson Massarani was one of the dep-
uties cited by the cardinals in 1590 before the Con-
gregation of the Index Expurgatorius. Another
Samson, a son of Bezaleel, was a pupil of R. Closes
Provencal, with whom he corresi)on(led on Tal-
mudic subjects. In 1592 Simon Massarani jiub-
lished at ]\lantua Al Harizi's " Mislile Ilakamim,"
with a rimed Italian translation, under the title " Mot-
tidi DiversiSaggiTradotlidi Lingiui Ilebra'ain Vol-
gare." Abraham b. Isaac Alluf ilescribed, in 1030,
the expulsion of the Jews from Mantua. Ephraim
Massarani was rabbi at Cento in 1676, and in cor-
respondence with Isaac Lampronti. About the same
time Isaac Massarani was rabbi at Salonica.
Among the more recent members of this family may
be mentioned Giacobbe Massarani, lawyer at
Milan about 1850, whose son Tullo, one of the fore-
most writers of Italy, was formerly vice-president



37i



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Massachusetts
Mastei- and Servant



of the Italiiui chainbt'v, aiul lias beeu a nu'iubci-

()!' tliL' Sc'iiali' since 18TSJ.

I'.im loiiK.MMiv : Ziinz, in Kami /rcmed, v. 134; Mortara, /(/-
di(i\ u. :JT ; Stern, UilmmlUclic ncitriloc, i., Nos. i;U ct sec/.

1. -K.
MASSARANI, TULLO : Italian senator, au
tiior, antl i)ainter; born at Mantua in 1826. He
studied law at Pavia and took au active part in the
Italian revolution of 1848, after the failure of which
he. fled to Frankfort-ou-the-Main. From Paris he
went to Switzerland, and a little later to Milan,
where he became a member of Parliament (1860-67),
and was afterward veiy efficient as a member of the
municipal council. He is well known in Italy as a
painter, his best-known painting being "The Warm
Batlis of Alexandria." His essay on Heine in "Cre-
poseolo" (1857) and his translation of the latter's
works have made Heine very popular in Italy.
Massaraniwas president of the international jury of
art at the Paris Exposition of 1878. He is a member
of the Lombard Institute for Arts and Sciences, of
the Academy of Fine Arts, and honorary member of
tlie Academy of San Luca. He is the author of the
following works: " Quelques Mots sur la Defense
de Venise" (Paris, 1849); "L'Idea Italiana Attra-
verso i Tempi" {il>. 1850); " Deutschland und die
Italienische Frage" (Breslau, 1859); "L'Arte a Mo-
naco e a Norimberga " (Florence, 1870) ; " Studii di
Lctteraturae di Arte" {ib. 1873); " Studii di Politica
e di Storia " (i/t. 1875) ; " Domeniche di Agosto " {ib.
1876); "Legnano, Grandi e Piccole Storie " (1876);
"Eugenio Camerini e i Suoi Tempi" (ib. 1877);
"L'Arte a Parigi " (R<mie, 1879); " Sermoni " (Flor-
ence, 1880; 2d ed. 1884); "II Libro di Giuda " {ib.
1882); "Siggi Critici " (2d ed. 1883); "Carlo Tenca
e il Pensiero Civile del Suo Tempo" {ib. 1886);
"Cesare Corrcnti Nella Vita e Nelle Opere" (ib.
1892); "L'Odissea della Donna," prose and verse
(Rome, 1893); "Come la Pensava il Dottore Lor-
renzi" (1894). He lias collected and published the
scattered writings of Cesare Correnti.

Bibliography: Nuova Encldop. Itnliana, 4th Supplement;
lirnckhaioi Koiwersatwvs-Lexikon, xi. and Supplement;
Meyers Konversatiims-Lexiko)i.
s. JN. D.

MASSEKET or MASSEKTA (plural, Massek-
tot, Massektiyyot ; Num. R. xviii. 21 ; Midr. Teh.
civ. 25): Any collection of rabbinic texts affecting
any more or less complex subject. Literally the
term means " a web " (from -)DJ = " to weave '" ;
conip. Latin " textus "). It is applied indifferently to
a treatise of the Mishnah (Sliab. 3b ; B. K. 102a), to a
compilation of baraitot (Shab. 114a), or to a treatise
of the Mishnah wit'.. Glemara (Hor. 10b). The whole
of the Mishnah as i jw known comprises sixty-three
massektot, though ancient authorities speak of sixty
only, reckoning the three Babot (Baba Kanima,
Baba Mezi'a, and Baba Batra) as one and Sanhe-
drin and Makkot as one (Num. P. xviii. 21; see
Straschun ad loc, note 23; Cant. P. vi. 9; see Luria
ad loc). The Babylonian Gemara embraces thirty-
seven massektot, and the Palestinian thirty-nine.
Besides these there are appended to editions of
the Babylonian Talmud many "minor massektot"
("massektot ketannot"), seven of which Raphael
Kirchheim edited (Frankfort - on - the - Main, 1851);



these seven are chiefly of a halakic nature. Latterly
the term '•masseket" was applied to any treatise,
even if of comparativeiy small compass and of caba-
listic type. See T.\i-mui).

Bihliography: Kohut, Anich Com plctum ; Levy, C'/ia/. W6r-
liii). ; idem. Neuhehr. W'i'irterJ). ; Jastrow, Dktionarjj.
s. s. S. M.

MASSEL, JOSEPH: Russian Jewish Hebraist;
born at Ujasin, government of Wilna, 1850. He
emigrated to England in the nineties and settled at
Manchester, where he opened a printing aiuI publish-
ing office. Massel has translated and published the
following works: "Ha-Rokel,"a novel, translated
from the German (Warsaw, 1886); "Sliim.shou ha-
Gibbor," a translation of Milton's "Samson Ago-
nistes" (Manchester, 1895); " Mi-Kenaf ha-'Arez,"
original poems, and translations from the English (ib.
1898); "Dibre Ahikar," translation of "AhiUar the
Wise"(i6. 1898); "Yehudah ha-Makkabi," a trans-
lation of Longfellow's " Judas Maccabeus " (ib. 1900).
He has published also " Ha-iAIakhelah," a collection
of Hebrew poets from 1725 to 1903 (London, 1903).

Bibliography: Zeitlin. BiM. Pnst-Mendcls. p. 233; Lippe,
0»af ha-Mazkir he-Hadmh, p. 36(), Vienna, 1899; Jemsh
Year-Book, 1904.
J. A. S. W.

MASTER AND SERVANT : The Pentateuch
lays down the rule, in favor of the workman, that
" the wages of him that is hired shall not abide with
thee all night until the morning " (Lev. xix. 13) ; the
preceding words of the same verse, "thou shalt not
oppress thy neighbor " (R. V.), are also construed as
forbidding the withholding of the workman's hire (B.
M. 110). Even more strongly is this idea expressed
in Deut. xxiv. 15: "In his day thou shalt give him
his hire; neither shall the sun go down upon it"
(R. v.).

Deut. xxiii. 25, which permits one who goes into
the vineyard or the cornfield of his neighbor to
pluck and eat grapes oi- ears of corn, though he
may not use a vessel for the former nor a sickle for
the latter, is by tradition (B. M. vii. 2-8) interpreted
as applying only to the workmen who enter into the
vineyard or field in the employment of the owner.

(1) What the Mishnah says about the rights and
duties of workmen ("po'alim") applies mainly to
those employed in husbandry ; mechanics and car-
riers are specially treated as such. As in the law of
rural leases (see Landlord and Tenant), local cus-
tom was the principal standard in dealings with
those hired for husbandry. The Mishnah (B. M. vii.
1) says, " He who liires workmen and asks them to
work in early morning or in late evening at a place
where early morning or late evening work is not
customary can not compel them [to do so]. Where
the custom is to feed, he must feed; to provide
sweets, he must provide [them]— all

Board, as according to the custom of the prov-

Wages. ince." This applies also to the qual-
ity of the board, as R. Simeon ben
Gamaliel points out in answer to the saying of R.
Johanau ben Mattai, of whom the following is re-
l)orted: He sent his sou to hire laborers, and the
son agreed to board them. When he returned to
his father, the latter said: "My son, even if you
provide for them a meal equal to the best of Solo-



Master and Servant
Mathematics



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



374



•mon's, you have not discliarged your obligation to
them, for they are the children of Abraham, Isaac,
and Jacob. Before they begin to work, say to them :
' I shall give you bread and beans.'" Though K.
Johanau's view is not correct, it shows the high
regard in which even the lowly Israelite, depciuliug
on hired labor for his daily bread, was held by the
sages (B. M. 83-87).

(2) The passages in Leviticus and Deuteronomy
on the payment of hired laborers, one giving the
entire day and the other the eutiie night in which to
pay, are thus harmonized in the Mishnah (B. M. i.\.
11): "lie tliat is hired by the day receives [his
wages] at anytime in the [following] night; one
hired by the night, at any time in the [following]
day: one hired by the hour, at any time during the
night and day following; one hired by the week,
month, year, "or week of years, if the time ends in
the day, during the remainder of the day ; if during
the night, he receives it during that night or on the
following day." The duty of the hirer to pay
promptly is not confined to wages, but extends to
l)aymeut for the use of cattle or implements (B. M.
ix. 12), probably because these were often furnished
by the workman, as is the case to-day with the
teamster, who sets a price per day for himself and
bis team.

(3) In regard to the right to eat grapes or ears of
corn in the master's field, the Mishnah (B. M. vii.
2-8) says: "The following eat according to Scrip-
ture : He that works on what is affixed to the ground
eats at the time of finishing the work; he that works
on what is separated from the ground eats before
the work is complete [for after that it is subject to
tithe] of those things which grow from the earth
[which excludes esculent roots]." But those engaged
in milking or cheese-making, for instance, do not
eat of the produce they are handling. "He whose
work is among figs has no right to eat from the
grapes, or vice versa; but the man may restrain his
appetite until becomes to the finest fruit." All this
applies to men at ordinary work ; but when the
workmen are engaged in bringing back some of the
master's lost property, they may cat while going
from furrow to furrow, or while returning from the

wine- or oil-press, or from what is on
User of a beast of burden which they are un-
Crop. loading. The workman may cat cu-
cumbers, or dates, or the like, irre-
spective of their market value; but he siiould be
taught not to act greedily and thereby "close the
door upon himself." The workman may, for a sum
of money, surrender his right to eat, either on his
own behalf, or on behalf of his wife, or of his grown
children or slaves, but not on behalf of his infant
children or infant slaves, or of his beasts.

Tiiose that watch the crops are according to
Scripture not permitted to eat, but by custom are,
nevertheless, allowed to do so. When one man
watches the fields of several owners he may satisfy
his hunger from the field of one alone (B. >I. 87-93).
<4) Elsewhere (B. M. vi. 1-2) the Mishnah speaks
of mechanics ("umanin"), ass-drivers, and teamsters,
the hirer being not a master mechanic or master
carrier, but a Jiouseholder ("ba'al ha-i)ayit") who
employs them in his own affairs. If, in the case of



the hirer and the mechanic, one has led the other into
error, the latter has no remedy beyond a "rebuke"
(" tar'umet "). In the Gemara two possible cases of
this sort are mentioned. In one the householder
sends one workman to employ others, and the work-
man so sent engages them either at higher wages
than authorized (which, of course, does uotbindthe
employer), or at lower wages, which, to their loss,
they accept. In the other, after work is begun,
the' master (or the workmen) refuses lo continue.
But where an ass-driver or teamster is hired under
pressing circumstances, as for a wedding or a funeral,
or where workmen are hired to bring in flax from
the tanks, or to do similar tasks involving perish-
able matter, and they refuse to continue (after be-
ginning the work), the hirer may employ others
at the cost of the workmen so refusing, to the extent
of the whole wage or any part thereof.

When the mechanics who have been employed
refuse to continue with the work (after doing part)

they are at a disadvantage; the hirer
Mechanics, may take out of their wages all the

cost of employing others, even though
the rate of wages has risen; but if the househokler
refuses to continue he is at a disadvantage ; that is,
he must pay them for what they have done plus tlie
whole contract-price for the future work, less what
it would cost to hire others, even though the rate of
wages has fallen in the interval. In general, who-
ever recedes from a contract is at a disadvantage
(lit. " his hand is the lower "). These rules naturally
would apply to husbandry also (B. M. 75a ; B. B.
153a).

(5) Whenever a workman in plying his trade has
in his charge any chattel or animal of his employer,
his liability for loss or damage is measured by that of
a "keeper for hire" (B. M. vi. 6). See B.\ilments.

Bibliography : Maimonides, Vad, Sekii-ut, ix.; Caro, Shulljan
'Aruk, Hoshen MUhpat, 311-319.
s. ■ L. N. D.

MAT, MOSES BEN ABRAHAM: Galician
rabbi ; born at Frzemysl about 1550 ; died at Opatow
1G06. After having studied Talmud and rabbinics
under his uncle R. Zebi and Solomon Luria, he be-
came rabbi of Beldza, where he had a large number
of pupils. He retired from this rabbinate and lived
privately for a time at Vladimir. He was then called
to the rabbinate of Przemysl, and, in 1597, to that
of Luboml. Toward the end of his life Mat became
the chief of the community of Opatow and district
rabbi of Cracow.

Mat was the author of the following worksi
"Taryag Mizwot" (Cracow, 1581), a versification of
the 613 commandments; "Matteh Mosheh " (ib.
1590-91), a treatise on the practical ritual laws;



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