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" Ilo'il Mosheh " (Prague, 1611), a simple and homi-

letic commentary on the Pentateuch, in which he

occasionally explains the commentary of Rashi.

Some responsa of hisare to be found in theresponsa

collections of his rabbinical contemporaries.

Bnu.iOGRAPHV : Kohen ?o(iolj. Shcm u-She'crit. p. 40, Cracow,

\m-y; Sielnschnelder, Cat. BncU. col. 1763; Fursr, Bibl. Jud.

it. :Â«1. â€ž

s. s. B. Fii.

MATAH MEHASYA (MAHSEYA) : Town

in soul hern Babylonia, near Sura (see Schechter,

375

THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA

Master and Servant

Mathematics

"Saadyaua," p. 63, note 1). Slieririi Gaou legardcd

the two places as ideutical, for in his accounts of the

geouim of Sura he uses the names of both Matah

Mehasya (or Mehasya) and Sura to indicate the seat

of tlie academy, the former name even being the more

frequent of tlie two. In the passage where he de-

scribes the founding of the Academy of Sura by Rab

he says expressly tlial Rabliad come to "Sura, whicii

is Matah Mehasva" (ed. Neubauer, 1. 29; variant,

"Sura, called 'Matah Mehasya'"). There is no

doubt, however, that these names belonged to two

distinct towns, which came to be regarded as one

when the seat of the academy ^vas mentioned. They

are named together in Ber. 29a, where the dilTerent

modes of speech of the peoples of the two places are

noted. Other Talmudic passages clearly indicate

that these were two dilTerent towns (B. M. G7b;

Yoma 86a). Slierira Gaoa himself says (i. 30) that

in the second half of the third century Huna's school

(by implication the academy founded by Rab) was

in the vicinity of Matah Mehasya; Rab's colleague

Hisda lived at Sura. It seems likely, therefore, that

the school was situated between the two places.

When the academy entered upon a new period of

prosperity, under Aslii, in the second half of the

fourth century, its seat was at Matah Mehasya,

"where Ashi lived, and most of the Talmudic refer-

ences to this place, which, Ashi saj^s (Ket. 4a), maj*

not be called either a city or a borough, date from

his time. He refers to its synagogue, which

strangers visited on his account (Meg. 26a), and he

claims to have saved the town from destruction by

prohibiting the construction of houses higher than

the synagogue (Shab. 11a). Aslii was wont to say

that the non-Jewish inhabitants of ]\Iatali Mehasya

"were hard-hearted, since they beheld the splendor

of the Torah twice a year at the great Kallah assem-

blies, and j'et not one of them was converted to Ju-

daism (Ber. 2Tb).

Halevy assumes that Sura again became the seat

of the academy after Ashi's death ("Dorot ha-Ri-

shonim," ii. 599), and that Mar b. Ashi restored Ma-

tah ^lehasva to the position to which Ashi had raised

it. From his time probably dates the maxim which

the martyr Mashershaya gave his sons, contrasting

the outward poverty of Matah Mehasj^a with the

splendor of Pumbedita : " Live on the dung-heaps of

Matah Mehasya and not in the palaces of Pumbe-

dita ! " (Ker. 6a ; Hor. 12a). There were various

diiferences of opinion between the scholars of Pum-

bedita and Matah ISIehasya regarding questions of

civil law, the opinions being collected in Ket. 5oa.

Rabina, the last amora of the Academj^ of Sura,

lived at Matah iSIehasya (see Yoma 86a; Kid. 33a;

B. K., end). The Talmud refers to the destruction

of ISIatah Mehasya (Shab. 11a), but in post-Talmudic

times the town lent its name to the Academy of

Sura, as stated above.

Bibliography: A. Berliner, Beitriige zur Gengraphie unci

FAlinngraithie liahiilDuicns. p. 4.5, Berlin, 1883; I. H. Hirsch-

ensohn, Sheba^ Hnhnint, pp. 163 et sec?., 177, Lemberg, 1883;

I. Halevy, Do7-ot'ha-Ri><lionim, ii. 543 et seq.

s. s. W. B.

MATALON, JACOB BEN SOLOMON:

Turkish rabbinical scholar; lived at Salonica in the

sixteenth century. According to De Rossi ("Dizio-

nario," i. 135) the name "Matalon"is the Hebrew

equivalent of "one of Toulon," but Zuuz (see Stein-

schneider, "Cat. Bodl." col. 1241) derives it from

"Alataloni," the name of an Italian town. In spite

of his premature death Matalon wrote several works,

two of -which were published (Salonica, 1597):

"She'erit Ya'akob," sermons, and "Toledot Ya'a-

kob," commentary on various haggadot in the Tal-

uuid and Midrashim.

ninr.iOGRAPHY: Conforte, Korc ha-Dorot, p. 38a; Fiirst, Bibl.

Jud. ii. 334.

K. C. M. Sel.

MATALON, MORDECAI : Rabbi of Salonica

in the sixteenth century; uncle of Jacob b. Solomon

3Iatalon. Besides being a prominent Talmudist,

^Vlatalon was, according to his companion Samuel di

Modena, who quotes him frequently in his responsa,

well ver.sed in secular sciences (Responsa on Hoshen

Mishpat, No. 40). He is quoted also by Isaac

Adarbi in his " Dibre Ribot " (Nos. 217, 326)." Mata-

lon was the author of responsa inserted in the

"Mishpete Sherauel" of Samuel Kala'i (Venice,

1599).

BiBijORRAPHY: Conforte, Kore ha-Dorot, pp. 38a, 40a. b;

Furst, BihI. Jud. ii. 334.

s. M. Sel.

MATATRON. See Metategn.

MATER SYNAGOGUE. See Pater Syna-

gogue.

MATHEMATICS : The science that treats of

the measurement of quantities and the ascertain-

ment of their properties and relations. The neces-

sity of studying astronomy for calendric purposes

caused the ancient Hebrews to cultivate various

branches of mathematics, especially arithmetic and

geometiy, applications of which are frequent in the

jMishnah and Talmud. With regard to arithmetic

there occur the four rules, in both whole numbers

and fractions; even the decimal system is alluded

to by Rabba, who says that the Persians called the

number 10 "one" (Ber. 60a). As to geometrj-, the

treatises 'Erubin, Kelim, Ohalot, etc., contain many

applications of planometry and stereometry. The

terms "bigon," "trigou," "tetragon," and "penta-

gon " are found several times in the Talmud, both in

their geometrical sense, signifying a figiue of two,

three, four, or five angles, and in their arithmetical

sense, expressing the numbers 2, 3, 4, and 5. As

early as the forty -ninth " middot " of R. Nathan SI to

1 is given as the relation between the circumference

and the diameter of a circle. The names Avhich oc-

cur often in the Talmud in connection with mathe-

matical propositions are Gamaliel, Joshua, Judah,

and Samuel.

Still, however rapid may have been the spread of

mathematical knowledge among the Jews in the

Talmudic times, no work on that science is known

to have existed in Jewish literature

" Mishnat prior to the Judieo-Arabic period, to

Middot." which belongs probably the "Mish-

nat ]\Iiddot," the oldest mathematical

work in Hebrew known. According to Steinschnei-

der, Avho first published it (Berlin, 1864), it is an

imperfect endeavor to propound the elements of

geometry.

With the expansion of the Greco-Arabic philoso-

phy the Je"ws began to take part in the development

Ilithematics

THE JEAVISH ENCYCLOPEDIA

376

of matlienuitics, which was regarded as a science

introductory to philosopliy. It was divided by the

Arabian school into seven "discipiinic " ; namely,

arithmetic (jn'ii'nn tl). algebra (mu::'nn H). geom-

etry (noun n or mnron n). astronomy (njiDnn 'n).

astrology (|VDJn TI), optics (niXIH PI), and music

(rilOT)- Of these only algebra and geometry are

treated at length in this article, the others being

dealt with under their respective names.

With the exception of the above - mentioned

"Mishnat Middot," no work on algebra or geometry

is known to have been written in Hebrew before the

twelfth century; the few writings composed by

Jews in these branches of mathematics, which in

tiic Middle Ages were neglected in favor of astron-

omy and astrology, were in Arabic. Tlie oldest

Jewish writer on mathematics in its strict sense was

the renowned astrologer Mashallah (more correctly

Ma Sha Allah), who flourished at the end of the

eightli century and at the beginning of the ninth.

A contemporary of his, Abu Othinan

Arabic Sahl ibn Bishr ibn Habib ibn Hani,

Jewish was the autlior of a work on algebia

Mathema- entitled "Al-Jabar wal-Mukabalah."

ticians. Another work on algebra, bearing the

same title, and a commentary on the

"Elements" of Euclid, were written about the

same time by a Jewish convert to Islam, Siud ben

'Ali. To the same period belongs Sahl Rabban ai-

Tabari, who was considered one of the gnuitest

geometers of his time. Among the writers of the

tenth and eleventh centuries mention should be

made of Bishr ben Phinehas ben Shu'aib and Jacob

ben Nissim of Kairwan, tlie latter of whom wrote,

under the title " Hisiib al-Ghubar" (Ilebr. jnKTI

p3Xn), a work on Indian mathematics. In the twelfth

century works on algebra and geometry began to

appear in Hebrew, mainly as translations from tiie

Arabic.

Tlie first known Hebrew writer on geometry was

Abraham bar Hiyya ha-Xasi, wlio expounded its

elements in a work entitled " Hibbur ha-Meshihah

weha-Tishboret." This work, which probably

formed a part of his encyclopedia " Yesode ha-

Tebunah we-Migdal hu Emunah," was edited by

Steinschneider in the publications of the Mekize

Nirdamim Society (1895, vol. xi.). A Latin transla-

tion of Abraham bar Hiyya's work was made about

1186 by Plato of Tivoli. Another prominent wri-

ter on geometry in that century was Samuel ibn

'Abbas, who, at the re(juest of Sultan Abu al-Fath

Shah Ghazzi, composed in Arabic a work on the

difficulties encountered by the geometer. As a

translator of astronomical and mathematical works

from the Arabic into Latin, in the same century, tlu;

Jewish convert known by the name of Johannes

Hispalen-sis was distinguished. An English Jew is

said to liave written in Latin, in 1190. a work on

mathematics \inder the title " .Mathematica Kudi-

menta (^uredam."

The thirteenth century was especially rich in

matiicmatical productions. Tlie writings of the

Greek and Arabian mathematicians were translated

into Hebrew and commented iipon. Judah ben

Samuel Cohen of Toledo (V2W), in his encyclo-

pedia â€” written originally in Arabic and translated

by himself into Hebrew under the title " Midrash

ha-Hokmah" â€” gives extracts from the "Elements"

of Euclid. In 1278 Euclid's entire

In the work was translated from the Arabic,

Thirteenth probably by Moses ibn Tibbon. An-

Century. other translation, entitled "Yesodot,"

or " Shorashim,"and including Hypsi-

cle's books, is supposed to have been made by Jacob

ben Machir. Commentaries upon it by Arabian

mathematicians, suchas Al-Farabi and Ibn Haitham,

were also rendered into Hebrew, probably by Ka-

lonymus ben Kolonymus, who, according to the

commentary of Simplicius, had translated Book xiv.

and Ibn Ilaitham's commentary on the introduction

to Book X. Among the other commentaries on the

"Elements" still extant in manuscript in various

European libraries are those by a pupil of Jacob

ben Machir; by Abba Mari on the introduction to

Book i. ; by Levi ben Gershon on the propositions

of Books i., iii., iv., and v. ; by Abraliam ben Solo-

mon Yarlii; and, according to Joseph Delmedigo,

by I']lijah Mizrahi. Euclid's " Data" was rendered

into Hebrew, from the Arabic version of Hunain

ibn Ishak, by Jacob ben Machir, under the title

" Sefer ha-Mattanah." Three new translations were

made between 1775 and 1875. Euclid's works were

published first by Abraham ben Joseph Minz, with

annotations by Me'ir of Fiirth, under the title

" ReshitLimmudim hu Sefer Iklides " (Berlin, 1795).

Five years later a new translation of the first six

books of the "Elements" was published byBaruch

Schick (The Hague, 1780). In 1875 a new translation

of Books xi. and xii. was published at Jitomir.

Jacob ben Machir, in the thirteenth century,

translated from the Arabic the work on spherical

figures of the Alexandrian mathema-

tician Menelaus. KalonymusbenKa-

lonymus twice translated the works

of Archimedes on conoids and sphe-

roids and on the measure of the circle

under the titles "Be-Kaddur ube-Iztawwonot " and

"Sefer Arkimedes be-Meshihat ha-'Iggulah." He

made the following translations also: "Sefer Me-

shalim be-Tishboret," on algebraic propositions;

"Sefer ha-Temunaliha-Hittukit "; a work on geom-

etry by Thabit ibn Kurra entitled "Al-Shakl al-

Katta'": "Ma'amar be-Iztawwonot webe-Hiddu

dim," a treatise on cylinders and cones bj' Abu

al-Kasim Asbagh or Asba' ben Mohanmied. In

the fifteenth century Jewish literature was eiuiched

with several important works on algebra and geom-

etry. Mordecai Comlino, teacher of the rabbi and

mathematician Elijah Mizrahi, wrote a treatise, in

two parts, on arithmetic and algebra, in which he

followed partly the Greek and Latin authors, partly

the Mohanunedan ; he also annotated the " Ele-

ments." p]lijah Mizrahi wrote on arithmetic, alge

bra, and geometry under the title "Meleket ha-Mis-

l)ar." Mordecai ben Abraham F'iuzi translated frf)m

the Latin, under the title "Tahbulat ha-Mispar," a

work on algebra l)y AbuKamil Sliuja', and a work

on geometry under the title "ITokmat ha-Medidah."

The most prominent representative of mathemat-

ical knowledge among the Jewsiti the sixteenth cen-

tury was the historian David Gans, who wrote three

works on mathematics â€” " Ma'or ha-Katan," " Migdal

Transla-

tions from

the Arabic.

377

THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA

Mathematics

Dawid." aud " Piozdor." Among llic iiKUlii.'iiiiiti-

ciuiis of the Sfventceutli century tlic most renowned

was Joseph Dehnedigo, who in his "'Bosinat Bat

SlieioHioli â– ' gives a surs-ey of geometry and devotes

several cliapters of his " Ma'yan Gannim " to

trigonometry and algebra. In the eighteenth cen

tury file most noted mathematician among tiie Jews

was Elijah Wilua, who wrote a work containing

treatises on trigonometry, geometry,

EHjah and some principles of astronomy and

Wilna. algebra. The following is a list of all

the Hebrew works on algebra, geom-

etry, and arithmetic published up to the last years

of the nineteenth centui-y :

D"i''^pi>s, a new translation of Euclid, by Baruch Schick. The

Hague, 1780.

D-'''''piN, on Books xi. and xii. of the " Elements," b.v David

Friesenhausen. Jitomir, 1875.

s'^'N, containing, among other scientiQc dissertations, treatises

on iirithmetic, algebra, geometry, and trigonometry, by Joseph

Delmedigo. Amsterdam, 1629.

;"TrTJDJJNOJX. arithmetic, in Judaso-German, by Falbus Hur-

witz. Amsterdam, 1791.

riT:ri ^-^m, on the geometrical propositions found in the Tal-

mud, by Tobias Hurwitz. Prague, 1807.

cn-\DN .-i^-\i, arithmetic, according to Elijah Mizrahi and non-

Jewish sources, by Abraham Niederlander. Prague (1609?).

pau'nn '^TT, arithmetic, by Jehiel Michael Epstein. Wilna,

18;;g.

i2Dcn i^'::'2T'\. arithmetic, by Moses Hayyim Eisenstadt. Dy-

hernfurth, 1712.

T-Dcn PDDH, arithmetic and algebra, by Nahman Hirsch Lln-

der of Dubno. Warsaw, 1855.

â–¡'iiyirn PC3n, arithmetic, translated from the French by

Jacob Eichenbaum. Warsaw, 1857.

pa-'nn p>'^-i\ arithmetic, in Judseo-German, by Aryeh Liib

Shames. Amsterdam, 1690.

0<-^^;â€¢â€¢,^'^ pi^""-!', geometry, by Gabriel Judah Llchtenfeld.

Warsaw, 1865.

zs^^y t:D\ containing, among other things, geometrical propo-

sitions, by Baruch Schick. Berlin, 1777.

Ti"U'i"i 'n iTD", on the various branches of mathematics, by

Hayyim Zelig Slonimski. Jitomir, 1865.

p^j'nn '^'''^D, algebra, by David Friesenhausen. Berlin, 1797

(Zolkiev, 1835).

D''^''3)cn pmi'', logarithms, by David Friesenhausen. Ko-

nigsberg, 18.54.

p3"'nn -(nac, arithmetic, by Letableau. Warsaw, 1866 {ih.

187.5).

S3.P nnDi::, proofs on the eleventh proposition of Euclid, by

David Friesenhausen. Vienna, 1830.

pi^'nnPDN/C, arithmetic, by Moses Samuel Neumann. Vi-

enna, 1831.

pyz'nv P3N r, arithmetic and algebra, by Elijah ben Gershon

of Pintschow, Zolkiev, 1740.

p^u'ns pdn'^C, in two volumes: the first, entitled pau'n t>',

deals with arithmetic and the elements of algebra ; the second,

pna "-ni^^, treats of geometry, by Gershon Elias. Berlin, 1765

(Frankforton-the-Oder, 1765; Ostrog, 1806).

Pa:*PO PSN^C, arithmetic, in Judseo-German, by Goldenberg.

Berdychev, 1833 (Sdilkov, 1834).

P3",;'nr PDx'^c, arithmetic and algebra. In Hebrew and Judoeo-

German, by Moses Zerah Eidlitz. Prague, 1775. (In Hebrew

only, Zolkiev, 1837, 1845.)

t'-inn P3"'nD pdnt, on all branches of mathematics, in three

volumes, by Shalom Blenker. Berdychev, 1834.

lODcn PDx'^:^, arithmetic, algebra, and geometry, by Elijah

Mizrahi. Constantinople, 1.534.

nz'^m np::''j^s npar, algebra, by Ashesr Anshel Worms. Of-

fenbach, 1722.

Pncn PUT, on geometry, edited bv Steinschneider. Berlin,

186t. (With a German translation and notes by Hermann Scha-

pira, Leipsic, 1880.)

ii'iip niN], geometry and trigonometry, by Simeon Waltsch.

Berlin. 1786.

â€¢iniDS i3i>\ arithmetic, by Menahem Zion Porto. Venice,

1627.

no^.T p'^i;", on the mathematical propositions found in the

Talmud, by Jacob Kopel. Ci~dcow, 1598 (Amsterdam. 171U).

nrD^n*? pvsib-iij, dissertations on geometry, by Kopel Sha-

cherles. Vienna, 1814.

nr/o PJ3S, criticisms on the mathematical works of Havyim

Zelig Slonimski, by (iabiiel Judah l.iclitenfeld. Warsaw, ]t'74.

nj>''3 PJ3X, arithmetic ami algebra, by Joseph Schliflers.

Wilna-Grodnu, 1827.

n-\::n rup, trigonometry, by Baruch Schick. Prague, 1784.

72^^:2 POS^O lisp, arithmetic. Wilna, 1830.

aâ€” i^""' P-iT'N-i, a coumientary on the "Elements," by Abra-

ham Joseph Minz. Berlin, 1775.

y<P'\'^ â– ''^OJ', on the calendar, and on arithmetic and geome-

try, by Elijah Hechim. Wareaw, 1863.

-tnx T\33 0^->cD â€¢'j:', logarithms, by Rablnowitsch. St. Pe-

tersburg, 1872.

Bibi.iocraphy: Poggendorff, Hnndwiirterh. i. 4.58; Zucker*

mann. Das Matlicinatisclie ini TalnutiU in Jnhrefthcricht

der Frankelsclten StifUiinj, 1878 ; Eduard Mahler, Die Irra-

tinnalitilten der Rahhiiicii. in Zeitsclirift fUrMathematih.

1884; idem, Zvr Talwudischeii MntJiematik, ib. 1886 : Gur-

land. Calendar, vi. 112-118; Steinsctmeider, Jeimsh Litcra-

hire, passim ; idem, in Bit)linthecaMathentntica, 1890 ; idem,

Hehr. Uebcrs.; idem. Die ArahUiclte Literatur der Judcn.

J. I. IJr.

Modern : The number of mathematicians of

Jewish origin in the niu' .eenth century in so great

that a detailed list of all could haiclly be given

here. As there are, moreover, no data regarding

the lives of the French, English, and Russian

mathematicians the biographer frequently would

be obliged to resort to conjecture. For example, it

is believed that Lobatschewski, one of the discov-

erers of absolute geometrj' (pangeometry), was the

son of Jewish parents, since his father, a native of

Poland, is known to have been converted to the

Orthodox Greek Church, and conversion from Ca-

tholicism is not likely. Similarly, the ancestry of

the great astronomer Friedrich Bessel calls for in-

vestigation.

The following German mathematicians may be

mentioned: M. Abraham (inathematical theory of

electricity); Aronhold ; Borchardt (algebra; editor

of Crelles' "Journal fi^r die Reine und Angewaudte

Mathematik ") ; Georg Cantor (author of the theory

of transfinite numbers); Moritz Cantor (history of

mathematics); Eisenstein; Fuchs; Gordan (basal

principles of the theory of invariants); Hensel (con-

tinued Kronecker's investigations); Hurwitz (author

of prominent works in various branches of mathe-

matics) ; Hamburger (differential equations); Hirsch

Meyer (source for all modern collections of elemen-

tary examples; properties of S3Miunetrical functions);

Jacobi ; Jolie8(gâ‚¬ometry); Kiinig (algebra); KOnigs-

berger (transformation of hyperelliptical functions;

biography of Helmholtz); Kronecker; Landau (the-

ory of numbers); Landsberg (algebraic [Abel's]

functions); Lipschitz (prominent in all departments

of pure and applied mathematics); London (geom-

etry); Minkowski (foremost living [190-i] authority

on the theory of numbers); Noether (algebra and

Abel's functions); Pasch (criticiue of the principles

of mathematics; important geometrical investiga-

tions on complexes) ; Pringsheim (modern theory of

functions) ; Rosanes (geometrical transformation and

apolarity); Rosenhain; Saalschiitz (convergence;

applied mathematics); Schlesinger (comprehensive

text-book, and original investigations on differen-

tial ecjuations); SchonHies (geometry); Schwarz-

schild (director of the observatory at G5ttingen;

mathematical astronomy); Wiilscii (theory of in-

Ilathias

Matthias

THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA

378

variauts); Wcingartcn (foremost living autiiority

on the theory of surfaces); AVoIfskehl (theory of

numbers).

Of Italian mathematicians the following arc the

most important, their chief distinction being won

in analytic and synthetic geometry: Castelnuovo,

Enrique/,, Fano, Jung, Beppo Levi, Levi-Civita,

Loria, Segre, Volteria (mathematical pliysics).

The most prominent Russian inatiiematicians are

Schapiro (cof unctions; algebraic icration) and .:io-

nimski (inventor of a well-known counting-machine

and editor of Jewish calendars).

Of the Jewish matliemat icians of France those who

have gained especial prominence are: Hadamard

(Hadamard's theorem); Ilalphen (reduction of linear

equations to integrable form [obtained a prize from

the French Academy]; spatial curves [obtained a

prize from the Berlin Academy] ; compare Stieltjes'

biography of him in Halpher.'s "Traite des Fonc-

tions Elliptiques," vol. iii.); Maurice Levi (mathe-

matical piiysios; president of the Institute).

The most noteworthy English mathematician is

James Joseph Sylvester.

J. S. G.

MATHIAS OF CRACOW, See Calahora.

MATRIARCHY : A system of society in which

descent and property are traced solely through

females. It has been suggested that the promi-

nence given to the mothers of kings in the Books of

Kings and to the wives of the Patriarchs are survi-

vals of this system. The fact that the tribes can be

divided into tribes descended from Rachel and tribes

descended from Leah has also been urged in favor

of this view, especially as the name " Rachel " means

"ewe," and the name '"Leah" has been traced by

Robertson Smith to a Semitic root meaning "ante-

lope." The view is thus dependent upon the theory

that the early Israelites had a totemistic tribal sys-

tem (see Totemis.m).

Bibliography : SV. Robertson Smith, Kinship and Marriage

in Earlii Arahin, especially p. 219, Cambridge, ICSo; Jacobs,

StudicK in Biblical Archceoluny, London, 1891.

A. J.

MATTANIAH. See Zedeki.\h.

MATTATHIAS MACCABEUS: The origi-

nator of tlie Maccabeau lebellion. His genealogy is

given as follows in the First Book of Maccabees, the

most authentic source : " Mattathias, the son of John,

the son of Simeon, a priest of the sons of Joiarib, from

Jeru.salem; and he dwelt at ^lodin " (I Mace. ii. 1).

Joscphus ("Ant." xii. 6. Â§ 1) traces the genealogy

back for one generation further, mentioning Asa-

moneus (= llasmonajus) after Simon. But this Has-

monicus should not be considered as Mattathias'

great-grandfather, but merely as a distant ancestor

of the whole house, since only so is it comprehensible

why both Greek and rabbinical sourcesof the follow-

ing period call the whole house that of the Ilasmone-

ans. The fact, moreover, that the names John and

Simeon recur in the family in the very ne.xt genera-

tion after Mattatiiias, while the name " HasmonaMis"

is not found in historic times, is a proof that the

first bearer of this name belongs to anticiuity.

The rabbinical sources liave a different account.

In the Seder '01am Zuta, which, it is true, is not very

reliable, Mattathias is given as the direct son of

llasmonai; and elsewhere also Hasmouai appears

as a historic person who is very much

Distin- in evidence. Thus, in Soferim x.x.

g-uished 8 occurs the reading: "Mattithiah,

from son of Johanan the high priest, and

Hasmonai. Hasinonai and his sons." The con-

junction "and " must originally have

stood also in the liturgical formula fi.xed for the

Hanukkah feast, so that Mattathias and llasmonai

are to ])e regarded as two independent heroes who

Jived in the same period and who were probably

relatives. In the Talmud, llasmonai is even men-

tioned before Mattathias (Meg. 11a). A midrash to

Deut. xxxiii. 11, quoted by Rashi, mentions the

children of Hasmonai, among them Eleazar ; as does

also Jeilinek " B. H." vi. 2. Hasmonai thus appears

in these passages in the place of Mattathias.

The rabbinical sources never mention all of Mat-

tathias' sons together, but only one at a lime, some-

times Eleazar (who, according to most of the authen-

tic sources, took only a subordinate part), sometimes

John (who also is unimportant in the books of the

]Maccabees and in Joscphus), and sometimes Judas.

letic commentary on the Pentateuch, in which he

occasionally explains the commentary of Rashi.

Some responsa of hisare to be found in theresponsa

collections of his rabbinical contemporaries.

Bnu.iOGRAPHV : Kohen ?o(iolj. Shcm u-She'crit. p. 40, Cracow,

\m-y; Sielnschnelder, Cat. BncU. col. 1763; Fursr, Bibl. Jud.

it. :Â«1. â€ž

s. s. B. Fii.

MATAH MEHASYA (MAHSEYA) : Town

in soul hern Babylonia, near Sura (see Schechter,

375

THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA

Master and Servant

Mathematics

"Saadyaua," p. 63, note 1). Slieririi Gaou legardcd

the two places as ideutical, for in his accounts of the

geouim of Sura he uses the names of both Matah

Mehasya (or Mehasya) and Sura to indicate the seat

of tlie academy, the former name even being the more

frequent of tlie two. In the passage where he de-

scribes the founding of the Academy of Sura by Rab

he says expressly tlial Rabliad come to "Sura, whicii

is Matah Mehasva" (ed. Neubauer, 1. 29; variant,

"Sura, called 'Matah Mehasya'"). There is no

doubt, however, that these names belonged to two

distinct towns, which came to be regarded as one

when the seat of the academy ^vas mentioned. They

are named together in Ber. 29a, where the dilTerent

modes of speech of the peoples of the two places are

noted. Other Talmudic passages clearly indicate

that these were two dilTerent towns (B. M. G7b;

Yoma 86a). Slierira Gaoa himself says (i. 30) that

in the second half of the third century Huna's school

(by implication the academy founded by Rab) was

in the vicinity of Matah Mehasya; Rab's colleague

Hisda lived at Sura. It seems likely, therefore, that

the school was situated between the two places.

When the academy entered upon a new period of

prosperity, under Aslii, in the second half of the

fourth century, its seat was at Matah Mehasya,

"where Ashi lived, and most of the Talmudic refer-

ences to this place, which, Ashi saj^s (Ket. 4a), maj*

not be called either a city or a borough, date from

his time. He refers to its synagogue, which

strangers visited on his account (Meg. 26a), and he

claims to have saved the town from destruction by

prohibiting the construction of houses higher than

the synagogue (Shab. 11a). Aslii was wont to say

that the non-Jewish inhabitants of ]\Iatali Mehasya

"were hard-hearted, since they beheld the splendor

of the Torah twice a year at the great Kallah assem-

blies, and j'et not one of them was converted to Ju-

daism (Ber. 2Tb).

Halevy assumes that Sura again became the seat

of the academy after Ashi's death ("Dorot ha-Ri-

shonim," ii. 599), and that Mar b. Ashi restored Ma-

tah ^lehasva to the position to which Ashi had raised

it. From his time probably dates the maxim which

the martyr Mashershaya gave his sons, contrasting

the outward poverty of Matah Mehasj^a with the

splendor of Pumbedita : " Live on the dung-heaps of

Matah Mehasya and not in the palaces of Pumbe-

dita ! " (Ker. 6a ; Hor. 12a). There were various

diiferences of opinion between the scholars of Pum-

bedita and Matah ISIehasya regarding questions of

civil law, the opinions being collected in Ket. 5oa.

Rabina, the last amora of the Academj^ of Sura,

lived at Matah iSIehasya (see Yoma 86a; Kid. 33a;

B. K., end). The Talmud refers to the destruction

of ISIatah Mehasya (Shab. 11a), but in post-Talmudic

times the town lent its name to the Academy of

Sura, as stated above.

Bibliography: A. Berliner, Beitriige zur Gengraphie unci

FAlinngraithie liahiilDuicns. p. 4.5, Berlin, 1883; I. H. Hirsch-

ensohn, Sheba^ Hnhnint, pp. 163 et sec?., 177, Lemberg, 1883;

I. Halevy, Do7-ot'ha-Ri><lionim, ii. 543 et seq.

s. s. W. B.

MATALON, JACOB BEN SOLOMON:

Turkish rabbinical scholar; lived at Salonica in the

sixteenth century. According to De Rossi ("Dizio-

nario," i. 135) the name "Matalon"is the Hebrew

equivalent of "one of Toulon," but Zuuz (see Stein-

schneider, "Cat. Bodl." col. 1241) derives it from

"Alataloni," the name of an Italian town. In spite

of his premature death Matalon wrote several works,

two of -which were published (Salonica, 1597):

"She'erit Ya'akob," sermons, and "Toledot Ya'a-

kob," commentary on various haggadot in the Tal-

uuid and Midrashim.

ninr.iOGRAPHY: Conforte, Korc ha-Dorot, p. 38a; Fiirst, Bibl.

Jud. ii. 334.

K. C. M. Sel.

MATALON, MORDECAI : Rabbi of Salonica

in the sixteenth century; uncle of Jacob b. Solomon

3Iatalon. Besides being a prominent Talmudist,

^Vlatalon was, according to his companion Samuel di

Modena, who quotes him frequently in his responsa,

well ver.sed in secular sciences (Responsa on Hoshen

Mishpat, No. 40). He is quoted also by Isaac

Adarbi in his " Dibre Ribot " (Nos. 217, 326)." Mata-

lon was the author of responsa inserted in the

"Mishpete Sherauel" of Samuel Kala'i (Venice,

1599).

BiBijORRAPHY: Conforte, Kore ha-Dorot, pp. 38a, 40a. b;

Furst, BihI. Jud. ii. 334.

s. M. Sel.

MATATRON. See Metategn.

MATER SYNAGOGUE. See Pater Syna-

gogue.

MATHEMATICS : The science that treats of

the measurement of quantities and the ascertain-

ment of their properties and relations. The neces-

sity of studying astronomy for calendric purposes

caused the ancient Hebrews to cultivate various

branches of mathematics, especially arithmetic and

geometiy, applications of which are frequent in the

jMishnah and Talmud. With regard to arithmetic

there occur the four rules, in both whole numbers

and fractions; even the decimal system is alluded

to by Rabba, who says that the Persians called the

number 10 "one" (Ber. 60a). As to geometrj-, the

treatises 'Erubin, Kelim, Ohalot, etc., contain many

applications of planometry and stereometry. The

terms "bigon," "trigou," "tetragon," and "penta-

gon " are found several times in the Talmud, both in

their geometrical sense, signifying a figiue of two,

three, four, or five angles, and in their arithmetical

sense, expressing the numbers 2, 3, 4, and 5. As

early as the forty -ninth " middot " of R. Nathan SI to

1 is given as the relation between the circumference

and the diameter of a circle. The names Avhich oc-

cur often in the Talmud in connection with mathe-

matical propositions are Gamaliel, Joshua, Judah,

and Samuel.

Still, however rapid may have been the spread of

mathematical knowledge among the Jews in the

Talmudic times, no work on that science is known

to have existed in Jewish literature

" Mishnat prior to the Judieo-Arabic period, to

Middot." which belongs probably the "Mish-

nat ]\Iiddot," the oldest mathematical

work in Hebrew known. According to Steinschnei-

der, Avho first published it (Berlin, 1864), it is an

imperfect endeavor to propound the elements of

geometry.

With the expansion of the Greco-Arabic philoso-

phy the Je"ws began to take part in the development

Ilithematics

THE JEAVISH ENCYCLOPEDIA

376

of matlienuitics, which was regarded as a science

introductory to philosopliy. It was divided by the

Arabian school into seven "discipiinic " ; namely,

arithmetic (jn'ii'nn tl). algebra (mu::'nn H). geom-

etry (noun n or mnron n). astronomy (njiDnn 'n).

astrology (|VDJn TI), optics (niXIH PI), and music

(rilOT)- Of these only algebra and geometry are

treated at length in this article, the others being

dealt with under their respective names.

With the exception of the above - mentioned

"Mishnat Middot," no work on algebra or geometry

is known to have been written in Hebrew before the

twelfth century; the few writings composed by

Jews in these branches of mathematics, which in

tiic Middle Ages were neglected in favor of astron-

omy and astrology, were in Arabic. Tlie oldest

Jewish writer on mathematics in its strict sense was

the renowned astrologer Mashallah (more correctly

Ma Sha Allah), who flourished at the end of the

eightli century and at the beginning of the ninth.

A contemporary of his, Abu Othinan

Arabic Sahl ibn Bishr ibn Habib ibn Hani,

Jewish was the autlior of a work on algebia

Mathema- entitled "Al-Jabar wal-Mukabalah."

ticians. Another work on algebra, bearing the

same title, and a commentary on the

"Elements" of Euclid, were written about the

same time by a Jewish convert to Islam, Siud ben

'Ali. To the same period belongs Sahl Rabban ai-

Tabari, who was considered one of the gnuitest

geometers of his time. Among the writers of the

tenth and eleventh centuries mention should be

made of Bishr ben Phinehas ben Shu'aib and Jacob

ben Nissim of Kairwan, tlie latter of whom wrote,

under the title " Hisiib al-Ghubar" (Ilebr. jnKTI

p3Xn), a work on Indian mathematics. In the twelfth

century works on algebra and geometry began to

appear in Hebrew, mainly as translations from tiie

Arabic.

Tlie first known Hebrew writer on geometry was

Abraham bar Hiyya ha-Xasi, wlio expounded its

elements in a work entitled " Hibbur ha-Meshihah

weha-Tishboret." This work, which probably

formed a part of his encyclopedia " Yesode ha-

Tebunah we-Migdal hu Emunah," was edited by

Steinschneider in the publications of the Mekize

Nirdamim Society (1895, vol. xi.). A Latin transla-

tion of Abraham bar Hiyya's work was made about

1186 by Plato of Tivoli. Another prominent wri-

ter on geometry in that century was Samuel ibn

'Abbas, who, at the re(juest of Sultan Abu al-Fath

Shah Ghazzi, composed in Arabic a work on the

difficulties encountered by the geometer. As a

translator of astronomical and mathematical works

from the Arabic into Latin, in the same century, tlu;

Jewish convert known by the name of Johannes

Hispalen-sis was distinguished. An English Jew is

said to liave written in Latin, in 1190. a work on

mathematics \inder the title " .Mathematica Kudi-

menta (^uredam."

The thirteenth century was especially rich in

matiicmatical productions. Tlie writings of the

Greek and Arabian mathematicians were translated

into Hebrew and commented iipon. Judah ben

Samuel Cohen of Toledo (V2W), in his encyclo-

pedia â€” written originally in Arabic and translated

by himself into Hebrew under the title " Midrash

ha-Hokmah" â€” gives extracts from the "Elements"

of Euclid. In 1278 Euclid's entire

In the work was translated from the Arabic,

Thirteenth probably by Moses ibn Tibbon. An-

Century. other translation, entitled "Yesodot,"

or " Shorashim,"and including Hypsi-

cle's books, is supposed to have been made by Jacob

ben Machir. Commentaries upon it by Arabian

mathematicians, suchas Al-Farabi and Ibn Haitham,

were also rendered into Hebrew, probably by Ka-

lonymus ben Kolonymus, who, according to the

commentary of Simplicius, had translated Book xiv.

and Ibn Ilaitham's commentary on the introduction

to Book X. Among the other commentaries on the

"Elements" still extant in manuscript in various

European libraries are those by a pupil of Jacob

ben Machir; by Abba Mari on the introduction to

Book i. ; by Levi ben Gershon on the propositions

of Books i., iii., iv., and v. ; by Abraliam ben Solo-

mon Yarlii; and, according to Joseph Delmedigo,

by I']lijah Mizrahi. Euclid's " Data" was rendered

into Hebrew, from the Arabic version of Hunain

ibn Ishak, by Jacob ben Machir, under the title

" Sefer ha-Mattanah." Three new translations were

made between 1775 and 1875. Euclid's works were

published first by Abraham ben Joseph Minz, with

annotations by Me'ir of Fiirth, under the title

" ReshitLimmudim hu Sefer Iklides " (Berlin, 1795).

Five years later a new translation of the first six

books of the "Elements" was published byBaruch

Schick (The Hague, 1780). In 1875 a new translation

of Books xi. and xii. was published at Jitomir.

Jacob ben Machir, in the thirteenth century,

translated from the Arabic the work on spherical

figures of the Alexandrian mathema-

tician Menelaus. KalonymusbenKa-

lonymus twice translated the works

of Archimedes on conoids and sphe-

roids and on the measure of the circle

under the titles "Be-Kaddur ube-Iztawwonot " and

"Sefer Arkimedes be-Meshihat ha-'Iggulah." He

made the following translations also: "Sefer Me-

shalim be-Tishboret," on algebraic propositions;

"Sefer ha-Temunaliha-Hittukit "; a work on geom-

etry by Thabit ibn Kurra entitled "Al-Shakl al-

Katta'": "Ma'amar be-Iztawwonot webe-Hiddu

dim," a treatise on cylinders and cones bj' Abu

al-Kasim Asbagh or Asba' ben Mohanmied. In

the fifteenth century Jewish literature was eiuiched

with several important works on algebra and geom-

etry. Mordecai Comlino, teacher of the rabbi and

mathematician Elijah Mizrahi, wrote a treatise, in

two parts, on arithmetic and algebra, in which he

followed partly the Greek and Latin authors, partly

the Mohanunedan ; he also annotated the " Ele-

ments." p]lijah Mizrahi wrote on arithmetic, alge

bra, and geometry under the title "Meleket ha-Mis-

l)ar." Mordecai ben Abraham F'iuzi translated frf)m

the Latin, under the title "Tahbulat ha-Mispar," a

work on algebra l)y AbuKamil Sliuja', and a work

on geometry under the title "ITokmat ha-Medidah."

The most prominent representative of mathemat-

ical knowledge among the Jewsiti the sixteenth cen-

tury was the historian David Gans, who wrote three

works on mathematics â€” " Ma'or ha-Katan," " Migdal

Transla-

tions from

the Arabic.

377

THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA

Mathematics

Dawid." aud " Piozdor." Among llic iiKUlii.'iiiiiti-

ciuiis of the Sfventceutli century tlic most renowned

was Joseph Dehnedigo, who in his "'Bosinat Bat

SlieioHioli â– ' gives a surs-ey of geometry and devotes

several cliapters of his " Ma'yan Gannim " to

trigonometry and algebra. In the eighteenth cen

tury file most noted mathematician among tiie Jews

was Elijah Wilua, who wrote a work containing

treatises on trigonometry, geometry,

EHjah and some principles of astronomy and

Wilna. algebra. The following is a list of all

the Hebrew works on algebra, geom-

etry, and arithmetic published up to the last years

of the nineteenth centui-y :

D"i''^pi>s, a new translation of Euclid, by Baruch Schick. The

Hague, 1780.

D-'''''piN, on Books xi. and xii. of the " Elements," b.v David

Friesenhausen. Jitomir, 1875.

s'^'N, containing, among other scientiQc dissertations, treatises

on iirithmetic, algebra, geometry, and trigonometry, by Joseph

Delmedigo. Amsterdam, 1629.

;"TrTJDJJNOJX. arithmetic, in Judaso-German, by Falbus Hur-

witz. Amsterdam, 1791.

riT:ri ^-^m, on the geometrical propositions found in the Tal-

mud, by Tobias Hurwitz. Prague, 1807.

cn-\DN .-i^-\i, arithmetic, according to Elijah Mizrahi and non-

Jewish sources, by Abraham Niederlander. Prague (1609?).

pau'nn '^TT, arithmetic, by Jehiel Michael Epstein. Wilna,

18;;g.

i2Dcn i^'::'2T'\. arithmetic, by Moses Hayyim Eisenstadt. Dy-

hernfurth, 1712.

T-Dcn PDDH, arithmetic and algebra, by Nahman Hirsch Lln-

der of Dubno. Warsaw, 1855.

â–¡'iiyirn PC3n, arithmetic, translated from the French by

Jacob Eichenbaum. Warsaw, 1857.

pa-'nn p>'^-i\ arithmetic, in Judseo-German, by Aryeh Liib

Shames. Amsterdam, 1690.

0<-^^;â€¢â€¢,^'^ pi^""-!', geometry, by Gabriel Judah Llchtenfeld.

Warsaw, 1865.

zs^^y t:D\ containing, among other things, geometrical propo-

sitions, by Baruch Schick. Berlin, 1777.

Ti"U'i"i 'n iTD", on the various branches of mathematics, by

Hayyim Zelig Slonimski. Jitomir, 1865.

p^j'nn '^'''^D, algebra, by David Friesenhausen. Berlin, 1797

(Zolkiev, 1835).

D''^''3)cn pmi'', logarithms, by David Friesenhausen. Ko-

nigsberg, 18.54.

p3"'nn -(nac, arithmetic, by Letableau. Warsaw, 1866 {ih.

187.5).

S3.P nnDi::, proofs on the eleventh proposition of Euclid, by

David Friesenhausen. Vienna, 1830.

pi^'nnPDN/C, arithmetic, by Moses Samuel Neumann. Vi-

enna, 1831.

pyz'nv P3N r, arithmetic and algebra, by Elijah ben Gershon

of Pintschow, Zolkiev, 1740.

p^u'ns pdn'^C, in two volumes: the first, entitled pau'n t>',

deals with arithmetic and the elements of algebra ; the second,

pna "-ni^^, treats of geometry, by Gershon Elias. Berlin, 1765

(Frankforton-the-Oder, 1765; Ostrog, 1806).

Pa:*PO PSN^C, arithmetic, in Judseo-German, by Goldenberg.

Berdychev, 1833 (Sdilkov, 1834).

P3",;'nr PDx'^c, arithmetic and algebra. In Hebrew and Judoeo-

German, by Moses Zerah Eidlitz. Prague, 1775. (In Hebrew

only, Zolkiev, 1837, 1845.)

t'-inn P3"'nD pdnt, on all branches of mathematics, in three

volumes, by Shalom Blenker. Berdychev, 1834.

lODcn PDx'^:^, arithmetic, algebra, and geometry, by Elijah

Mizrahi. Constantinople, 1.534.

nz'^m np::''j^s npar, algebra, by Ashesr Anshel Worms. Of-

fenbach, 1722.

Pncn PUT, on geometry, edited bv Steinschneider. Berlin,

186t. (With a German translation and notes by Hermann Scha-

pira, Leipsic, 1880.)

ii'iip niN], geometry and trigonometry, by Simeon Waltsch.

Berlin. 1786.

â€¢iniDS i3i>\ arithmetic, by Menahem Zion Porto. Venice,

1627.

no^.T p'^i;", on the mathematical propositions found in the

Talmud, by Jacob Kopel. Ci~dcow, 1598 (Amsterdam. 171U).

nrD^n*? pvsib-iij, dissertations on geometry, by Kopel Sha-

cherles. Vienna, 1814.

nr/o PJ3S, criticisms on the mathematical works of Havyim

Zelig Slonimski, by (iabiiel Judah l.iclitenfeld. Warsaw, ]t'74.

nj>''3 PJ3X, arithmetic ami algebra, by Joseph Schliflers.

Wilna-Grodnu, 1827.

n-\::n rup, trigonometry, by Baruch Schick. Prague, 1784.

72^^:2 POS^O lisp, arithmetic. Wilna, 1830.

aâ€” i^""' P-iT'N-i, a coumientary on the "Elements," by Abra-

ham Joseph Minz. Berlin, 1775.

y<P'\'^ â– ''^OJ', on the calendar, and on arithmetic and geome-

try, by Elijah Hechim. Wareaw, 1863.

-tnx T\33 0^->cD â€¢'j:', logarithms, by Rablnowitsch. St. Pe-

tersburg, 1872.

Bibi.iocraphy: Poggendorff, Hnndwiirterh. i. 4.58; Zucker*

mann. Das Matlicinatisclie ini TalnutiU in Jnhrefthcricht

der Frankelsclten StifUiinj, 1878 ; Eduard Mahler, Die Irra-

tinnalitilten der Rahhiiicii. in Zeitsclirift fUrMathematih.

1884; idem, Zvr Talwudischeii MntJiematik, ib. 1886 : Gur-

land. Calendar, vi. 112-118; Steinsctmeider, Jeimsh Litcra-

hire, passim ; idem, in Bit)linthecaMathentntica, 1890 ; idem,

Hehr. Uebcrs.; idem. Die ArahUiclte Literatur der Judcn.

J. I. IJr.

Modern : The number of mathematicians of

Jewish origin in the niu' .eenth century in so great

that a detailed list of all could haiclly be given

here. As there are, moreover, no data regarding

the lives of the French, English, and Russian

mathematicians the biographer frequently would

be obliged to resort to conjecture. For example, it

is believed that Lobatschewski, one of the discov-

erers of absolute geometrj' (pangeometry), was the

son of Jewish parents, since his father, a native of

Poland, is known to have been converted to the

Orthodox Greek Church, and conversion from Ca-

tholicism is not likely. Similarly, the ancestry of

the great astronomer Friedrich Bessel calls for in-

vestigation.

The following German mathematicians may be

mentioned: M. Abraham (inathematical theory of

electricity); Aronhold ; Borchardt (algebra; editor

of Crelles' "Journal fi^r die Reine und Angewaudte

Mathematik ") ; Georg Cantor (author of the theory

of transfinite numbers); Moritz Cantor (history of

mathematics); Eisenstein; Fuchs; Gordan (basal

principles of the theory of invariants); Hensel (con-

tinued Kronecker's investigations); Hurwitz (author

of prominent works in various branches of mathe-

matics) ; Hamburger (differential equations); Hirsch

Meyer (source for all modern collections of elemen-

tary examples; properties of S3Miunetrical functions);

Jacobi ; Jolie8(gâ‚¬ometry); Kiinig (algebra); KOnigs-

berger (transformation of hyperelliptical functions;

biography of Helmholtz); Kronecker; Landau (the-

ory of numbers); Landsberg (algebraic [Abel's]

functions); Lipschitz (prominent in all departments

of pure and applied mathematics); London (geom-

etry); Minkowski (foremost living [190-i] authority

on the theory of numbers); Noether (algebra and

Abel's functions); Pasch (criticiue of the principles

of mathematics; important geometrical investiga-

tions on complexes) ; Pringsheim (modern theory of

functions) ; Rosanes (geometrical transformation and

apolarity); Rosenhain; Saalschiitz (convergence;

applied mathematics); Schlesinger (comprehensive

text-book, and original investigations on differen-

tial ecjuations); SchonHies (geometry); Schwarz-

schild (director of the observatory at G5ttingen;

mathematical astronomy); Wiilscii (theory of in-

Ilathias

Matthias

THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA

378

variauts); Wcingartcn (foremost living autiiority

on the theory of surfaces); AVoIfskehl (theory of

numbers).

Of Italian mathematicians the following arc the

most important, their chief distinction being won

in analytic and synthetic geometry: Castelnuovo,

Enrique/,, Fano, Jung, Beppo Levi, Levi-Civita,

Loria, Segre, Volteria (mathematical pliysics).

The most prominent Russian inatiiematicians are

Schapiro (cof unctions; algebraic icration) and .:io-

nimski (inventor of a well-known counting-machine

and editor of Jewish calendars).

Of the Jewish matliemat icians of France those who

have gained especial prominence are: Hadamard

(Hadamard's theorem); Ilalphen (reduction of linear

equations to integrable form [obtained a prize from

the French Academy]; spatial curves [obtained a

prize from the Berlin Academy] ; compare Stieltjes'

biography of him in Halpher.'s "Traite des Fonc-

tions Elliptiques," vol. iii.); Maurice Levi (mathe-

matical piiysios; president of the Institute).

The most noteworthy English mathematician is

James Joseph Sylvester.

J. S. G.

MATHIAS OF CRACOW, See Calahora.

MATRIARCHY : A system of society in which

descent and property are traced solely through

females. It has been suggested that the promi-

nence given to the mothers of kings in the Books of

Kings and to the wives of the Patriarchs are survi-

vals of this system. The fact that the tribes can be

divided into tribes descended from Rachel and tribes

descended from Leah has also been urged in favor

of this view, especially as the name " Rachel " means

"ewe," and the name '"Leah" has been traced by

Robertson Smith to a Semitic root meaning "ante-

lope." The view is thus dependent upon the theory

that the early Israelites had a totemistic tribal sys-

tem (see Totemis.m).

Bibliography : SV. Robertson Smith, Kinship and Marriage

in Earlii Arahin, especially p. 219, Cambridge, ICSo; Jacobs,

StudicK in Biblical Archceoluny, London, 1891.

A. J.

MATTANIAH. See Zedeki.\h.

MATTATHIAS MACCABEUS: The origi-

nator of tlie Maccabeau lebellion. His genealogy is

given as follows in the First Book of Maccabees, the

most authentic source : " Mattathias, the son of John,

the son of Simeon, a priest of the sons of Joiarib, from

Jeru.salem; and he dwelt at ^lodin " (I Mace. ii. 1).

Joscphus ("Ant." xii. 6. Â§ 1) traces the genealogy

back for one generation further, mentioning Asa-

moneus (= llasmonajus) after Simon. But this Has-

monicus should not be considered as Mattathias'

great-grandfather, but merely as a distant ancestor

of the whole house, since only so is it comprehensible

why both Greek and rabbinical sourcesof the follow-

ing period call the whole house that of the Ilasmone-

ans. The fact, moreover, that the names John and

Simeon recur in the family in the very ne.xt genera-

tion after Mattatiiias, while the name " HasmonaMis"

is not found in historic times, is a proof that the

first bearer of this name belongs to anticiuity.

The rabbinical sources liave a different account.

In the Seder '01am Zuta, which, it is true, is not very

reliable, Mattathias is given as the direct son of

llasmonai; and elsewhere also Hasmouai appears

as a historic person who is very much

Distin- in evidence. Thus, in Soferim x.x.

g-uished 8 occurs the reading: "Mattithiah,

from son of Johanan the high priest, and

Hasmonai. Hasinonai and his sons." The con-

junction "and " must originally have

stood also in the liturgical formula fi.xed for the

Hanukkah feast, so that Mattathias and llasmonai

are to ])e regarded as two independent heroes who

Jived in the same period and who were probably

relatives. In the Talmud, llasmonai is even men-

tioned before Mattathias (Meg. 11a). A midrash to

Deut. xxxiii. 11, quoted by Rashi, mentions the

children of Hasmonai, among them Eleazar ; as does

also Jeilinek " B. H." vi. 2. Hasmonai thus appears

in these passages in the place of Mattathias.

The rabbinical sources never mention all of Mat-

tathias' sons together, but only one at a lime, some-

times Eleazar (who, according to most of the authen-

tic sources, took only a subordinate part), sometimes

John (who also is unimportant in the books of the

]Maccabees and in Joscphus), and sometimes Judas.

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