Isidore Singer.

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The First Book of Maccabees, and Joscphus enu-
merate the sons of Mattathias as follows: John
Giuldis or Caddis (Johanan Gadi), Simon Thassi,
Judas Maccabeus, Eleazar Avaran, and Jonathan
Apphus. The Aramaic-sounding cognomens, which
have not been fully explained, were probably given
them by their father, with reference to contemporary
events or to the respective characters of the sons
themselves. The Second Book of ]\Iaccabees men-
tions still another brother, between Simon and Jona-
than, called Joseph; but that is probably only a
corrupt reading for "Johanan."

Mattathias belonged to the priestly tribe of Joia-
rib (comp. I Chron. xxiv. 7) ; the name is badly pre-
bervcd in Joscphus. From the statement that he
was from Jerusalem, but resided in Modin, it is cer-
tain that he actually officiated in Jerusalem. The
rabbinical sources which make him high priest are
mistaken. Mattathias was already old when the
religious persecution under Antiochus Epiphancs
broke out. The king's soldiers under Apelles, who
is mentioned by Joscphus but not
Refuses to in the Book of Maccabees, came to

Sacrifice Modin, a small city in Judea. They set

to Idols, up an altar to the heathen god, and
ordered Mattathias, as the most influ-
ential citizen, whose example would be followed, to
•sacrifice in accordance with the king's command.
But Mattathias said: "Though all the nations that
are under the king's dominion obey him, . . . yet
will I, and my sons, and my brethren, walk in the
covenant of our fathers "(I Mace. ii. 19-20). And
wlien a certain Jew was about to obey the command,
Mattathias, who was filled with holy wrath, killed
the offender and destroyed the altar, while his sons
cut down the king's ofiicer. Thereupon ^Mattathias
called out: "Whoever is zealous for the Law, and
maintaineth the covenant, let him follow me." His
countrymen, abandoning all their poss(!Ssions, fol-
lowed him and hid in the mountains anddesert places.
Otiiers, who had hidden themselves before, joined
them. When Mattathias learned that the pious ones




would rather be cut clown by the king's soldiers
than defend tlieniselves on the iSabbuth he com-
manded them to fight, when necessary, on that day.
This practise, says Josephus, was continued in lat<r
days. It is evident from this that Mattathias had
authority in religious matters also.

From his hiding-place he scoured the neighboring
districts of Judea, drove out small bands of tlie
king's troops, punished the renegade. lews, destroyed
the heathen temples and altars, and brought chil-
(Uen, who through fear had not been circumcised,
into the covenant of Abraham. Josephus, whose
account otherwise agrees with that of 1 Maccabees,
ililfers from it in stating that Mattathias reigned
one year and then became ill. Also in ''B. J." (i. 1,
§3) Josephus speaks of i\lattathiasasa prince chosen
by the peoi)le. According to both authorities, ISlat-
tathias before liis death urged his sons and the i)eo-
ple to continue steadfast in the defense of their an-
cestral religion. Of his sons he designated Simon
as counselor and Judah as general. He died in 146
of the Seleucid era (166 li.c), and was buried in
lilodin, amid the lamentations of all Israel. Niese
lias tried to prove from the fact that iMattathias does
not appear in the Second Book of ]\Iaccabees that
he never existed. This has been refuted by Schi'irer
and Wellhausen. The impryrtance of Mattathias is
attested by the fact that rabbinical tradition men-
tions his name and even puts it in the Hanukkah
prayer. The name Mattathias recurs in the person
of his grandson, a son of Simon (I Mace. xvi. 14).

Bibliography: Griltz, Gesch. ii.^ 323-33.5 : Niese, Kr it ik der
Bciden MnkkahUerhllclter, pp. 44-47 (reprint from Hermes,
1900, vol. XXXV.); Schiirer, Gesch. 3d ed., i. 203; Wellhausen,
I. J. G. 4th ed.. p. 2.57, note 1, Berlin, 1901 ; Krauss, in R. E.
J. XXX. 215. For the sources of Josephus see Biichler, ib.
xxxiv. 69-76.
G. S. Kr.

MATTATHIAS B. SIMON : Son of the Has-

monean prince Simon, whom he accompanied on his
last journey, together with Ins brother Judah and
his mother. Simon, with his sons, was invited by
his son-in-law Ptolemy to a banquet in the fortress of
Docus, near Jericho, where he was murdered, his sons
being first put in fetters and then killed. The ac-
counts in I Maccabees and in Josephus do not agree
as to whether Mattathias was slain at the same time
as his father, or later ; Joseplnis, however, probably
reports the affair more correctly, as he refers also to
other sources.

Bibliography: I Mace. xvi. 16; Josephus, ^?Jt. xiii. 8,81;
idem, B. J. i. 2, § 3; C. Werner, Jnhann Hyrkan, p. 10, note
23, Wernigerode, 1877; Gratz, Gesch. ill. 67 et sea.
G. M. K.


Hungarian rabbi ; died about 1807. Through the
influence of Aaron Chorin, a disciple of liis father,
he became rabbi of Deutschkreuz, near Mattersdorf ,
Hungary. He wrote "Hen Tob" (Zolkiev, 1806),
commentary on a part of the code Eben ha-'Ezer,
to which is added "Zebed Tob," on the same code,
by his son-in-law Isaac (Eisik) ben Lippmann
Friinkel. Joab wrote also: "Sha'are Binali," no-
velise to Isaac ben Reuben Alfasi's "Sha'are She-
bu'ot," Vienna, 1792. Like Joseph Caro, ISIarcus
Benedict, and others, Matter.sdorf mistook this Isaac
ben Reuben for a grandson of Isaac Alfasi (see Jf.w.
Encyc. i. 377, s.T. Alfasi, Is.\ac ben Reuuek).

Bibliography: Benjacob, Ozai- hO'Sefarim, p. 194; Fiirst,
liiht. J ml. ii. 334; LiHv, Gesammclte Sclirifleu, ii. 257;
Steiuschneitler, Cat. iiodf. No. 5824 ; Zunz, in Geiger's Wiss.
Zcit. J'dd. Theol. iii. 57.

I). S. Man.

GEORG : German convert to Christianity ; born at
Flirlh 171o; died at Nuremberg 1779. After having
studied Talmud at Prague under his father, Jaidel,
who was lecturer on Talmud in the bet ha-midrash,
Matthiii, whose name was then Simeon, returned
to his native town. There he was appointed teacher
in the Jewish high school and afterward lecturer in
the bet ha-midrash. In April, 1748, Matthiii an-
nounced to the clergy of Filrth his intention of em-
bracing Christianity, and on their advice he went to
Nuremberg, where he was baptized on Sept. 20 of
the same year, and where he was afterward ap-
pointed sacristan of the Dominican Church.

Maithai wrote several works in German which,
according to his admirers, were a defense of Chris-
tianity against the attacks of the Jews, but in real-
ity were attacks on Judaism. It must be admitted,
however, that lie displayed in his writings a wide
knowledge of rabbinical literature.

The following is a list of his works in their chron-
ological order; Avitli one exception they were pub-
lished at Nuremberg:

Beschreibung des Judischen Sabbats. 1750.

Die Verderbniss des Heutigen Judenthums. 1753.

Beschreibung des Jiidischen Neujahrsfestes. 1755.

Beschreibung des Judischen Purimfestes. 1758.

Beschreibung des Jiidischon Jom Kippur. 1760.

Sammlung Talmudischcr Lrhrsatze. Schwabach, 1763.

Abhandlung von der Verleumdung. 1705.

Sendschreiben an Rabbi Peloni aiis der Stadt Lo-Theda. 1766.

Erneuerung des Taufbundes. 1768.

Kurzrefasste Talmudische Lehrsatze vci der Nothwendigkelt
Sich in den Ehestand zu Begeben. N.d.

Beweis von der Uebereinsti-imung der Allen Israelitischen
Kabbala mit der Lehre des Apostels Paulus. N.d.

Beweisgriinde von der Uebere'astimmung der Altjiidischen
Lehre mit der Lehre der Christen. 1770.

Cbristlich Gesinnte Erklarung der Kabbalisten Ueber das
llohelied. 1776.

Bibliography: De le Roi, Judoi-Missioii, 1. 398; Furst,
Dihl. Jud. ii. 335.
G. M. Sel.

MATTHE"W. See New Testament.

with Judah ben Zippori in the instigation of an up-
rising against Herod the Great (Josephus, "Ant."
xvii. 6, § 2; ide77i, "B. J." i. 33, § 2). See Judah
BEN Zippori.

s. S. Kr.

two high priests. 1. The successor of Simon ben
Boethus, and, unlike the other high priests ap-
]iointed by Herod, who were foreigners, a native of
Jerusalem (Jo.sephus, "Ant." xvii. 4, § 2). On the
eve of a Day of Atonement — for the priest the most
important time in the year — he had become ritually
unclean, and consequently was unable to perform
the duties of his office, which were discharged in-
stead by his kinsman Joseph ben Ellem ("Ant."
xvii. 6, § 4). This occurrence is mentioned in the
Talmud '(Tosef., Yoma, i. 4; Yoma 12b; Yer. Yoma
38d), although the name of Matthias ben Theophilus
is omitted. His deposition, however, was not due
to this cause, but to the fact that he was supposed




toliavebeen iinplicatod in the insurrection wiicn the
goUlen eagle was pulled down from the gate of the
Temple (see Jcdaii ben Zippoui). His tenure of
olliee lasted only one or two years (5-4 B.C.).

2. A descendant, apparently, of the preceding,
and the last high priest but one. He was in office
in 63 C.E., when the war against the Romans broke
out (Josephus, "Ant." xx. 9, § 7). During the troub-
les in Jerusalem which preceded the siege by
Titus ("B. J." iv. 3, ^ 7) he was deposed, since he,
like the other aristocrats, belonged to the peace
party, one of his sons having even sought refuge
with the Romans. Matthias was put to death as a
dangerous character by the very Simon ben Gioras
wliom he had invited to Jerusalem to subdue the
revolutionists ("B. J." vi. 2, § 3). According to
Griltz, it is he who is referred to in a Talmudic
story which relates that once, on a Day of Atone-
ment, a high priest remained in the Holy of Holies
a longer time than usual praying for the Sanc-
tuary, which was in danger of destruction by the
Zealots (To.sef., Yoma, ii. 5; Yoma 53b; Yer.
Yoma 42c).

Bibliography : Derenlwurg, Histnire de la Palestine, p. 160 ;
(i-ratz. in Mimatsftchrift, 1881, pp. 51 et xeq.; Gratz, Gesch.
4th ed.. iii. mJT, 750; Schiirer, Geach. ii. 217-220.
s. S. Kr.

of tlie second century ; born in Judea; probably a
pupil of R. Ishmael, and certainly a contemporary
and friend of his pupils R. Josiah and R. Jonathan.
After his ordination Mattithiah went to Rome, ap-
parently on account of the persecution by Hadrian ;
there he founded a school and a Jewish court which
soon became prominent. Halakic sentences by him
liave been preserved which show his desire to
make the Sabbath laws less rigorous in so far as
their fultilmcnt by the sick was concerned. He
seems, however, to have devoted himself chieflj^
to the Haggadah ; a number of his homiletic sen-
tences, especially to Exodus, are extant. He has a
maxim in the Pirke Abot: "Meet each man with
friendly greeting; be the tail among lions rather
than the headamong foxes" (iv. 15). He associated
with the Palestinian scholars who visited Rome and
sought instruction from them — from R. Simeon b.
Yohai and R. b. Jose, for instance. A later
legend in the Midrash Abkir represents liim as vic-
toriously resisting a temptation placed in his path
by Satan.

Bibliography : Frankel, Darke ha-Mu<huah, pp. 130 etseq.;
(Jriitz, Grxrli. .T<J i^fl., Iv. 285; Bacher, A(i. Tan. 1. ^5 et seq.:
VoKelstfln and UieRer, Gc-nch. derJuilen in Rom, I. 110 et

K. r. I. E.


(U'p) : French scholar of the end of the thirteenth
century. He was a pupil of R. Perez of (Jorbeil and
a contemporary of Mordecai b. Hillel, martyred at
Murembcrg in 129H, He is sometimes wrongly iden-
tified with Mattithiah, the teacher of Eliezcr h. Joel
ha L(!vi, author of the ritual work " Abi Asaf." who
lived at the beginning of the thirteenth century.

Bini.lOfjR >niiv: MrTilcral, yfo'rd KntiDi. No. 9^*5; IdPin, Krtu-
hiit. v., No8. 181, 290; (jr(«8, Galiia'Juilaica, p. 5K1.

E. c. S. K.

VENCAL ("':;Tn'n2) : C'iiicr rabbi of Paris and cf
France from loOU to 1385; son of Joseph b. Johanan
of Treves, rabbi of ]\Iarseilles ; pupil of Perez b.
Isaac ha-Kohen and of Nissiin b. Reuben of Gerona.
In 1360 King Charles V. appointed him chief rabbi of
the comnumity of Paris and of all the newly organ-
ized communities of France, exempting him and
Manecier of Vesoul from wearing the Jewish badge.
Mattithiah founded a rabbinical school at Paris
which soon attracted many pupils, eight of whom
were called to various communities. He is ])rol)a-
bly identical with Mattithiah Treves (t:'n"'nt2. the
author of MS. No. 676, folio 147, containing a re-
sponsum, in the Paris Bibliothetiue Nationale) and
with Mattithiah "the Frank" ("TlQIVn; author of a
methodological treatise on the Talmud). Isaac ben
Sheshet (Responsa, No. 271) applies to him the title
of "Eben Bohan " ("touchstone"), a term which has
been held to imply that he composed a work bearin
this name (Shabbethai Bass, " Sifte Yeshenim," x.,
No. 9). Zunz ("Literaturgesch.") mentions a litur-
gical poet by the name of Mattithiah b. Joseph "the
administrator " (" ha-parnes "), but this latter epithet
can apply neither to Mattithiah b. Joseph nor to
his father.

Bibliography: Briill, JahrbHcher, i.93; Carnioly, in .4 rc/i.

Isr. 1856, p. 261 ; Gross, Gallia Judaica, pp. 532.53:}; Leon

Kahn, Les Juifs a Paris, p. 26 ; (iriitz, Gcsrh. viii. 9 ; Ordoii-

nances des Roys de France, v. 498; Zunz, Z. G. pp. 190, 193.

s. S. K.

MATTITHIAH KARTIN (known also as
Ibn Harmon) : Scholar of the fourteenth century.
He translated into Hebrew verse the " Moreh Nebu-
kim"of Maimonides in 1363 (comp. Wolf, "Bibl.
Hebr. " i., No. 1682). His work seems to have been
lost, unless this Mattithiah is identical with Matti-
thiah b. Shabbethai of Monte Politiano, a work of
whose, in verse, is found in the library of the Vati-
can (No. 258). Steinschneider, after having declared
("Cat. Bodl." col. 1897) that Mattithiah versified the
"Moreh Nebiikim," .says, in his "Jewish Literature"
(p. 147), that his work is a commentary, in Hebrew
verse, on the " Moreh." In the Vatican Library (MS.
No. 298) there is a poem of Mattithiah 's, entitled " Me-
bine 'Am," which is an acrostic containing his name.
Steinschneider thinks that this Mattithiah may be
identified with the Italian liturgist called Mattithiah,
whose three dirges are found in the library of Par-
ma (MS. De Rossi No. 1205). Zunz ("Literatur-
gesch." p. 579) supposes that the latter was a poet
of the sixteenth century.

Bibliography : Steinschneider. Hchr. Uebers. p. 428.
.1. M. Set..

TITHIAH : Spanish Talmudist ; lived toward the
end of the fourteenth century ami at the beginning
of the fifteenth. He was a member of the Yi/.hari
family of Narbonnc. As he himself relates, his an-
cestors on being banished from France (1306) settled
together with other sciiolars in f'atalonia and Ara-
goD. According to Neubauer. Mattithiah is iden-
tical wit]) the rabbi of this name cited as one of
those who took part in the disputation at Tortosa
in 1413.

Mattithiah was the aiitlinr of the following



Maurogoi ato

works: (1) "Dcrasliot," homilies on tiio Ponla-
tc-ucli, no longer extant; (2) a eoinnicntary on Ps.
cxix. (Venice, 1546; partly tiauslaletl into Latin liy
Philippe d'Aquin, Paris, 1029); (3) a conimeutary on
Pirke Ahot, still extant in nianuscri])t ; (4) notes on
Abraham ibn Ezra's eomineutarv on the Pentateuch
(Neubauer, "Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS." No. 236); (5)
a pliilosopliieal eommentary on the Pcntatench. still
extant in maunseript ; (6) " Parashiyyot," homilies;
(7) "Dcrasliot," no longer extant.

Bn!i.iO(;R.\piiY: Loeb, in li. K. ./. vii. 1;V>, ix. 119; Neubauer.
ill. vii. l.Vl; Steinsclineider, i/*. i.\. 118; Renan-Neubauer. Le.s
Kcriraiii^ Juifa Fraur^ai;^, p. m.

(i. I. Bi{.

Tabnudie school of Palis in the eleventh century
and doubtless identical with Mattithiah b. Moses,
one of Kashi's pupils. He is occasionally called
Mattithiah. the Great. He corresponded with
yamuel b. .^lei'r (KaSHliaM), who names him among
the " ancients " of Paris.

BiBi.iOGRAPiiY: Gross, Gallia Jwlaica, pp. 226, .508 ; Mahznr
Vitni, No. 281); Oi- Zanta*, i. 138b ; Shibhole ha-Leket, 11.,
Nos.'lH, 13tj.

E. c. S. K.

MATURITY. See Majority.

MATZEL, ASCHER: Hungarian soldier and
philanthropist: born 1763 at Stampfen, Hungary;
died Nov. 22, 1842. At the age of .seventeen he en-
tered the service of the Jewish hospital in Vienna, of
which he became the su-perintendent in 1799. Em-
peror Joseph II. appointed him during the war
with the Turks superintendent of the hospital in the
fortress of Leopoldstadt, which position he later
exchanged for tliat of director of the hospital of
Semliu. The emperor bestowed on him many tokens
of his appreciation, among others a diamond ring
with the emperor's initials.

After the close of the war Matzel returned to
Vienna to resume charge of the Jewish hospital.
In 1813 he received from Emperor Francis the gold
medal of honor and from the Emperor of Russia the
Order of Merit. In 1814 Matzcl became manager of
the military magazine of munitions, and in 1830,
during the cholera epidemic, he became chief of the
board of health of the Kossau, a suburb of Vienna.

Bibliography : Jlidischci- Plutarch, ii. 194-196.


MAURICE, CHARLES : Theatrical director ;
born at Agen, France, May 29, 1805; died in Ham-
burg Jan. 27, 1896. Maurice, who was of French
descent, was educated in his native city, and until
his twenty-second year, when he accompanied his
father to Hamburg, was totally ignorant of the
German language. Although unfamiliar with theat-
rical matters, Maurice assumed charge of a minor
playhouse in Hamburg in 1831 and proved so suc-
cessful that, when the great tire of 1842 destroyed
the structure, aid came to liim from all quarters, and
he was enabled to replace it with the present Thalia-
theater. In 1847 he a.ssumed the management of the
Stadttheater also, relinquishing it, however, in 1854.
From that time on Maurice's energies were devoted
t') the Thaliatheater. which obtained world-wide
came under his direction. In 1885 he retired from
ictive participation in its affairs, but in 1893 he was

forced, by the death of his son and successor Guslav,
to resume the management. Maurice celebrated in
1881 the tiftieth anniversary of his entry ujion the
theatrical field, and was the lecipieut of a seiies of
remarkable felicitations.

Maurice was not merely a clever manager from
the commercial point of view, but also a student
of human nature remarkable for his discernment of
liistrionic; talent. It was Maurice who developed
the immature talent of Bogumil Dawison and of
Friederike Gossman, and encouraged Emil Thomas,
Marie Barkany, Franz Wallner, and others, when
their fame was still embryonic.

Bini.iofiRAPiiY: Koliut, BcriXhmte IsraeUtuschc MUnnrr und
Fiaiieii, pp. 245-249.

s. E. Ms.

ian legislator; born in Venice Nov. 26, 1817; died
in Rome April 5, 1892. He was a member of a
prominent family of Ferraia. His father, Israel
Pesaro, removed to Venice on his marriage, and the
son took the name of Maurogonato in addition to
the family name in consequence of an inheritance
left him by one of his mother's relatives. He stud-
ied law, and afterward finance and political econ-
omy. Maurogonato took an active part in the or-
ganization of the Venetian revolution of 1848-49; on
its outbreak he was elected to the assembly, and
was later made minister of finance. He succeeded
in supplying an empty treasury with funds for
carrying on the war, and was Manin's and Tom-
maseo's right hand. When the Austrians examined
the municipal accounts after regaining possessir«n of
the city they found them absolutely coritct. Gen-
eral Gorskowski exclaimed in, "I never
could have believed the rascally Republicans were
so honest! " On the collapse of the revolution Mau-
rogonato was one of the forty excepted from the
amnesty; with Manin and Tominaseo he was com-
pelled to leave the country. He went to the Ionian
Islands, but in a few years was allowed to return to
Italy and engage in business at Vicenza.

In 1866 Maurogonato again entered public life as
a member of the chamber. When in 1884 the rec-
ognition of the loans made to the Venetian revolu-
tionary government of 1848-49 was proposed in Par-
liament, Maurogonato — who thought the proposition
a just one. but did not feel that he could consci-
entiously advocate it to his own gain— turned over
his claims, before the discussion began, to the mu-
nicipality of Venice. They brought about 16.000
francs, and that sum became the foundation of a
fund for furnishing annual subsidies to the veterans
of the revolution. He became vice-president of the
chamber and was for a number of years a member
of the general budget commission. The portfolio of
finance was several times offered to him, Victor
Emanuel even personally urging him to accept, but
he steadily refused. On Oct. 27, 1890, King Hum-
bert made him a senator. Both houses of Parlia-
ment, the government, and the municipal councils
of Venice and of Rome took official notice of his
death, and King Humbert sent his condolences to
his family. Imposing public funeral services were
held at Rome and at Venice, in which latter city he




was buried. Throughout his life Maurogonato was
devoted to the interests of liis coreligionists.

bibliography: Arch. /sr. 1892, pp. 156-157; 11 Vessillo Is-
raeliUco, 1892, pp. 123-124.

g N. D.

scholar of the eighteenth century. He was the au-
thor of commentaries on the Pentateuch and the
Earlier Prophets (Olmiitz, 17o7), and on the books
of Chronicles, Ezra, Tobit, Judith, etc. {ib. 1758;
Flirst, "Bibl. Jud."). T.

MAUTHNER, FRITZ : Austrian poet, novel-
ist, aud satirist; born in Horitz, Bohemia, Nov. 22,
1849. He attended the Piarist gymnasium in Prague
and then ostensibly studied law at the university,
though in reality he busied himself almost exclu-
sively with philosophy and the history of art. He
passed only the first state examination in jurispru-
dence, after which he was occupied for a short time
in a lawyer's office in Prague. While there he pub-
lished a collection of sonnets, under the title " Die
Grosse Revolution " (1871), which almost brought
upon him an indictment for treason. This was fol-
lowed by "Anna" and several minor comedies,
which were successfully produced. He then devoted
himself exclusively to literature. After writing for
a time for Prague publications, he removed, in 1876,
to Berlin, where he wrote critical articles for various
journals. Since 1895 he has written the dramatic
articles for the "Berliner Tageblatt." Mauthner's
works include: " Aus dem Marchenbuch der Wahr-
heit," satirical prose poems; "Nach Berlihmten
Mustern," parodies (Stuttgart, 1879); " Der Neue
Ahasver," romance (Bern, 1881); "Dilettanten Spie-
gel, Travestie nach Horaz's Ars Poetica" (ib. 1883);
"Credo" (Berlin, 1886); "DerLetzte Deutsche von
Blatna" {ib. 1886); "Von Keller zu Zola" {ib. 1887);
"Schmock, oder die Literarische Karriere der Ge-
genwart," a satire (<V;. 1888); "Quartett Fanfare"
(1888); "Xantippe" (Dresden, 1889) ; "Der Pegasus,
eine Trago-Komische Geschichte " (Dresden, 1889);
"Der Villenhof"; three romances published col-
lectively under the title of "Berlin W" (1890);
"Bekentuisse einer Spiritistin: Hildegard Nilson "
(Berlin, 1891); "Hypatia," romance (Stuttgart,
1892); " Der Geisterseher," humorous romance (Ber-
lin, 1804): "Kraft," "Die Bunte Reiiic," and "Der
Steinerne Ricse," romances (1896); "Die Bohmische
Handschrift" (1897); "Beitrage zu einer Kritik der
Sprache: Sprache und Psychologic" (Stuttgart,

BiBMOGRAPiiY : Eisenberfr. Das Geislige Berlin ; Nord und
Slid, May, l!K)l.
9. N. I).

born in Vienna Sept. 26, 1852; educated at Vienna
University (M.D. 1879), where he became i)rivat-
docent in experimental medical chemistry (18H1) and
assistant professor (June II 1885). He is a member
of the Leopold and Caroline Academy of Naturalists
and Chemists. He has published a number of
scientific papers in the " Sitzungsberichteder Kaiser-
lichen Akademic; der Wis.senschaften," Liebig's
"Annalen der Chemie," "Berichte der Deutschen
Chemischen Gescllschaft," "Zeitschiift far Biolo-

"•ic " "Wiener Medicinische Blatter," and else-


Bhiliography: Eisenberg, Das Geislige Wien, ii. 328-329;

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