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Israelitischen Proplietentums," Berlin, 1883; " Pre-
digten,"rt. 1892-94; " Jiidische Ilomiletik," z6. 1894;
"Methodik des Jiid. Beligionsuuterrichtes," Breslau,
1895; "Die Anftlnge der Jiid. Predisrt," Berlin, 1901.

s. F. T. II.

MAYENCE : German city in the grand duchy
of Hesse-Darmstadt ; on th(! left bank of the Rhine;
the seat of an archbishop, who was formerly one of
the prince-electors of tlie Holy Roman Em])ire. It
has a population of 84,2.51, of whom 3,200 are Jews.
Although thei-e are no historical documents relating
to Jewish settlements while Mayence was under
Roman rule, it may be assumed that Jews followed
the Roman legions to the Rhine in the first centuries
of the common era. Legend reports that Charle-
magne called Kalonymus of Lucca as rabbi to the



387



THE JEWISH E^X"YCLOPEDIA



May Marriagre
Mayence



fongregatioii of Ma3'ence, butdocuiuentary evidence
of tlie existfuce of Jews in Mayence does not ante-
date the first lialf of the tenth century, when Arch-
bishop Frederick (937-954) made an unsuccessful at-
lemi)t to restrict Jewish commercial activity. In
1012 the peace of the Jews of Mayence was dis-
turbed by a religious persecution instigated by
Henry II., and which led to apostasy or banish-
ment. After a few months, however, the exiles re-
turned to the city, and most of the converts to
Judaism. In the following period of peace the in-
tellectual life of the Jews of Mayence flourished as
never before, under various members of the Kalony-
Mus family and under other Talmudic authorities,
including in i)articular Geissiiom ben Judau.



the Second Crusade claimed more victims, in conse-
quence of the agitations of the monk Kadulph. Per-
secutions which threatened the Jews in 1187 and
1188 were averted by the bishop and the emperor
Frederick Barbarossa. Toward the end of the thir-
teenth century the accusation of ritual murder was
raised at Mayence. In June, 1281, R. Meir b.
Abraham ha-Kolien was slain and the sj-nagogue
desecrated and burned; on April 19, 1283, ten Jews
were slain by the jiopulace. The persecutions
spread throughout the vicinity, and in 1285 the
Jews of Mayence, "Worms, Speyer, Frankfort-on-
the-Main, and the AVettcrau decided to abandon
their property and to emigrate to Palestine under
the leadership of R. MEfn of Rotiienblrg. The




The C'kmktery of thk Jewish C'cmmumty of Mayence.

(From a photograph.)



In 1084 the Jews were accused of having caused
a conflagration Avhieli destroyed a large part of the
city, and many emigj'ated in consequence. These
refugees Avere received by Bishop Rudiger IIuoz-
man of Speyer, who desired to build up his cit}'.
(The charter dated 1090 and supposed to have been
issued by this bishop is a forgery of later times,
based on a document of Henr}^ IV.) Under the
leadership of Emicho of Leinigen the Crusaders at-
tacked the Jews of Mayence May 27, 1096, massa-
cring more than eleven hundred in the
city and fifty-three who had fled to
the neighboring Riidesheim, in spite
of their brave resistance and of tiie
protection of Archbishop Rutliard.
Included by Henry IV. in the "king's peace " of
1103, the community slowly recovered, until in 1147



Massacres

During

Crusades.



leal estate left at Mayence — in the most beautiful
part of the city, the so-called "Judenerbcn" — was
seized by the city in 1286, but was confiscated to the
state by Archbishop Adolf II. in 1462. The Jews of
Mayence escaped the massacres of 1298 under Rind-
FJ.Eiscii and 1338-39 under Ai{.mi>edei{. In Au-
gust, 1349, at the time of the Black Death, nearly
the whole community perished, and tin* ghetto was
set on fire. The community graduall}' revived,
however, and lived in peace for ncarl}' ninety years,
until the Jews were expelled from the city July 25,
1438, in con.sequence of municipal quarrels; their
cemetery and .synagogue were confiscated, and the
tombstones were used for building purposes. When
the old city government was ovei thrown in 1414 the
Jews were iiermitted to return by Archbishop
Diether, who claimed them as his property. Ex-



Mayence



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



888



pelled again in 1462 by Arclibisliop Adolf, though
soon readmitted, they were obliged to leave the city
definitely in 1473, their synagogue being transformed
into a chapel. On March 6, 1492, a Jew named
Isaac was permitted to occupy and manage the
"mikweh" (ritual bath), which had been owned by
the state for twenty years, and to bury in the
"Judensand," mentioned as a cemetery as early as
1286, the Jewish dead brought into the city.

Tlie sufferings of the Jews of the metropolis were
shared by those in various localities in the arch-
bishopric, where Jews had settled since tiie Carlovin-
gian time. This is clear from the following partial



living under the protection of Archbishop Uriel of
Gemmingen, who, on June 2, 1.513, appointed the
"Jews' doctor" Eeyfus to the position of "rabbi,
' Ilochmeister,' corrector, and chief judge " of all the
Jews in the diocese, assigning him the village of
Weiscnau near 3Iayence as his residence. A move-
ment inaugurated by Archbishop Albrecht of Bran-
denburg in 1510 to expel all Jews from western Ger-
many failed through theinters'ention of the emperor
]\Ia.\imilian. The few who found a domicil at
]Mayenee in the sixteenth century were obliged to
leave in 1579, together with those of the district of
the iihiue. Anew connuunity was founded in 15S3,




l.\TKl;IUU OF THK SVNAUOCiCK UV TliK ISK.VKL!Tl.-« II KN KKI.IG10.\S(iESELLSCH.\FT, M.WKXCE.

(From a photograph.)



In the

Arch-
bishopric.



summary of ]iiacc9 which suffered: AschafTenburg,
persecutions in 1147, 1337, 1349; Amorbach, 1349;
IJensheim, 1349; liingen (mentioned in
1160-73). 1349; Diebnrg, 1349; El(-
ville, 1349; Erfurt, 1221, 1260, 1349;
Fritzhu, 1349; Heppenhiim, 1349;
Ileiligenstadt - im - Eichsfeld, 1349;
Klingenburg, 129S; K()nighcim, 1298; Konigshofcn,
1298, 1349; Krautheim, 12.18; Klilsheim, 1337; Lahn-
stcin, 1287, 1349; Lorcli. 1276, 1337; IVIiltenberg,
1349; Neudenau. 129S; Ostheim, 1298; Scligensfadt,
1349; Tauberbi.shofsheim. 1235. 1298, 1337, 1349.

In the beginning of the sixteenth century only
one Jewish family was living at Mayence. In the
diocese of Mayence, outside the city, Jews were



wliich received accessions from Frankfort-ont he-
Main in 1614, after the Fkttmii,( ii insurrection in
that city, and from Worms in 1015,

Commu- on the expulsion of the Jews there,
nity Reor- Elijah Loans, who brought with him

ganized. refugees from Hanau, reorganized the
community of Mayence. A rabbi was
ollicially appointed in 1630, and a new synagogue
was built nine years later. While the French lield
Mayence (1644-48) the communitj' was subjected to
heav)' burdens, and scarcely were these trials jiassed
when the elector Joliaim Phiiipp decreed, Dec. 8,
1662, that only twenty Jews should be protected and
be permitted in the city, this number being reduced
to ten in 1671. These were compelled to move intoa



389



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Mayence



now Jews' street and to submit to the most liumili-
ating restrictions, while the Jews who were per-
mitted to settle in neighboring localities Avere equally
hampered. Although subsetiuent electors permitted
Jews to go to iSIayence, only 101 "protected " Jews
•were allowed there during the electorate.

The government, inspired by the tolerant legisla-
tion of Joseph II. of Austria, endeavored, even be-
fore the outbreak of the French Revolution, to
ameliorate the condition of the Jews in the arch-
bishopric. The tirst steps taken were the inquiiy
of 1782 and the
rescript of July
29, 1783, while
the general re-
script of Feb. 9,
1784, was in-
tended to bring
about acomplete
change. After
determining the
salary of the
rabbi and of the
Jewish provin-
cial board at
Aschaffenburg,
declaring the
German 1 a n -
guage to be ob-
ligator}' in book-
keeping, regu-
lating tlie laws
of dowry and
guardianship,
forbidding hasty
burial, decreeing
that every
teacher must
pass the state ex-
amination, and
enacting the
establishment of
two or three
Jewish schools
in the electorate,
the rescript con-
tinues: "In or-
der to neglect
nothing whicli
may contribute
to the education
and the future
■welfare of the
Jews, we per-
mit, although we do not command, tiie Jewish
youth of both sexes and all ages, like the Chris-
tian, to attend the Christian village and city ("Real
und Normal") schools, especially in the electoral
capital Mayence, and schools of all kinds." Further
legislation beneficial to the Jews was checked by
the outbreak of the French Revolution. From the
capture of the fortress of Mayence on Oct. 21, 1792,
by the French to its restoration to Germany by the
terms of the Peace of Paris Nov. 3, 1814, the Jews
of the city were free French citizens. The gates of
the ghetto were removed on Sept. 12, 1798, by a




Interioc of the Gemeinde Synaprogiie, Mayence.

(troiii a photograph.)



decree of the municipal council. Members of the
^layence conununity were among the delegates sent
to Paris in 1806 from tiie department of Mont Ton-
nerre, of which Mayence Mas the capital; the com-
nuinity sent delegates also to the Great Sanhedrin,
held in the same city.

After civic liberty had been won, work on behalf
of education and progress was undertaken. The
regulation, introduced by Napoleon's decree of May
17, 1808, and providing that Jews nuist hold certifi-
cates of good character before being permitted to

engage in trade,
remained in
force until 1847.
After Mayence
was incorpo-
rated with the
grand duchy of
Hesse June 16,
1816, full citi-
zenship was
guaranteed to
the Jews therein
by the law of
Dec. 17, 1820,
though this pro-
vision was not
entirely kept.
By the decree of
Nov. 2, 1841, the
community of
Mayence, with
the other com-
m u n i t i e s of
Hesse, was i-eor-
ganizcd ; on the
establishment of
the German em-
pire they were
granted full
civic equality.

In spite of oc-
casional o u t -
breaks of mob
violence the
lives and the
property of the
Jews o f M a -
j'ence weie gen-
erall}' protected
bylaw, and they
held ]iroi)erty
under the same
conditions as the



Christians, with whom they lived ]ieaceably. In the
twelfth century they were made Kammekknechtb
of the empire, a status that entailed
Social many hardships. They were op-
Condition. ])ressed by persecutions, forcible con-
versions, the humiliating Jews' oath,
which Archbishop Conrad (1160-1300) exacted, and
other measures. Emperor Otto IV. declared in 1209
that the empire had no claim to the Jews of the arch-
bishopric of Mayence. The archbishops, who acted
as protectors of the Jews of Germany, representing
the emperor by virtue of their office of imperial



Mayence
Mayer



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



390



cliancellors, were not always lenient masters. The
council lield at Mayence in 1233 excomnuinicated
Christians who associated witii Jews, while the pro-
vincial synod held at Fritzlar in 1259 imposed the
badge upon the Jews of Mayence, and issued inim-
ical regulations, which were aggravated by Arch-
bishop Peter in 1310. In 1295 Archbishop Ger-
liard, in consiileration of a yearly payment of 112
Aachen Iieller, assigned his Jews to the city with
the privilege of taxing them at will; Archbishop
Gerlach renewed this agreement on Sept. 3, 1366.
Mayence had its own Jews' law, which was not en-
tirely unfavorable to them; but this did not protect
them under the emperors Wenzel, Rupert, and Sigis-
mund. In 1385 Archbishop Adolf remitted the Jews'
tax and abolished the dice-tax which had been in-
stituted in the Rhine provinces. The following cen-
turies show an unbroken series of oppressive and ex-
clusive measures as well as heavy taxation— the
Jews being compelled to pay imperial, state, and
municipal taxes, protection money, and especially
tiie Lkibzoi.t-, of which the last-mentioned was not
abolished until 1792.

In days of peace as well as in days of oppression
and persecution tlie Jews of Mayence preserved and
cultivated their literature. An academy founded
by the family of K.\].oxy.mus in the tenth century —
which reacheil its zenitli under R. Gershom and his
contemporaries and pupils Judali ha-Kohen, Elie-
zer b. Isaac, Jacob b. Yakar, Isaac ha-Levi, Isaac
b. Judah, and others— competed with that of Worms,
sending its pupils into all countries. The religious,
marital, social, and industrial life of the Jews of the
Middle Ages was regulated by the decrees of the
rabbinical synods held at Mayence in 1150, 1223,
1245, 1307, and 1381, as it had formerly been gov-
erned l)y the decrees of the French synod held at
Troyes in the beginning of tlie twelfth century,
and still earlier by the "regulations" ("takkanot")
of H. Gershom. The affairs of the community were
directed, probably down to the end of the fourteenth
or the beginning of the fifteenth century, by the
"Judenrat," under the presidency of a Bishop of
THE Jews (called in the documents also "Jews'
pope") ai)p()inted by the archbishop. Religious
affairs were conducted by the rabbi and his college.
After the reorganization the Jews of Mayence lived
under .simph^ regulations, rarely being without spir-
itual leaders, a vvellattended yesliibah, and all the
usual institutions of a well-ordered community.

A list of the most prominent scholars and rabbis
down to the midille of the fifteenth century, and a
complete list beginning with 1583, are given below:

Members of the Kalonyrnus fumlly ; Gershom b. Judah, Me'or
ha-(ii'lah (c. 9«'.(^I(rjH, or 1040); Simon b. Isaac ha-Ciadol (b«Rin-
nliiK of the 11th century); EUezer h. Isaac
Scholars ha(;arlol (r. 104O); Judah ba-Kohen (author
and Rabbis, of a legal cDde ; r. 1040); David b. Samuel ha-
Levl (c. lO'iO): .Minihani b. Judah ha-Kohen
(r. 1060); Isaac b. Ju.lali ic. lOHO); Jacob b. Yakar (c. lOHO);
Isaac ha-Kohen ([h. .\bnihani?]; r. lOHO); Isaac b. Eleazar ha-
Kohen (lOflO); martyrs of Uji- First Cru.snde (1096): David, Judali
ha-I,evl, Menahem b. David, Simiuel b. Judah the vounRer, Sam-
uel b. Judah ha-Kotien : Abraham h. Isanc ha-Kohen (c. 1100);
Nathan b. Machlr (c. 1100): EUaklm b. Joseph (r. ll.'KO; Ka-
lonymus b. Judah (f. 1140): Ellezer b. NaUian (c. ILVt); Meshul-
1am b. Kalonymus (r. ll.Vb: Judah h. Kalonyrnus b. Moses (c.
1175); Moses b. Mordechal (f.llT.'i): Moses h. Solomon ha-Kohen
(c. 1175); Solomon b. Mo-<es ha-Kohen (c. laOO): Samuel b. Solo-



mon (13th cent.); Baruch b. Samuel (c. 1~'20); Judah b. Moses
ha-Kohen (c. 1250); Meir b. Baruch of Ilothenburg (1230-93);
Yakar b. Samuel ha-Levi (later in Cologne, 1270); Abraham b.
Meir ha-Kohen (murdered in 1281); Jacob b. Isaac (d. 1318);
Isaac b. David (d. 1329); Samuel b. Yakar (called "Bonfant";
hazziin ; d. Sept. 23, 1345); Joseph b. Isaac of Thann (slain 1349);
Eliezer b. Samuel ha-Kohen (d. 1357); Jacob of Nordhausen (c.
i;j(i.5); Jehiel b. Moses ha-Levl (d. Nov. 14, 1380); Moses b. Jeku-
thiel ha-Levi (1381); Todros (c. 1400); Zalman Runkel (c. 1420);
Jacob b. Moses ha-Levi (Maharil ; c. 1355-1427); Moses Minz
(left Mayence 1455) ; Judah Minz (brother of Moses; left Ma-
yence ; d. Padua 1.508); Joshua Moses b. Solomon Luria (d. 1.591);
Reuben b. Solom(m (d. 1598); Joseph (d. 1(503); David b. Isaac
(d. 1613); Eli Nathan b. Joseph Moses (d. 1031); Judah Lowe of
Frankfort (1(530-33); Lob Rofe (1634-44); Nathan, son of Isaac
Jacob Bonn of Frankfoit (1644-50); Saul Judah b. Moses Naph-
tali (1650-56); Simon Goldisch (1656-62); Jacob Simon (1662 »<);
Jacob of Ostrog (1668-74); Samuel Sanwil of Lublin (1675-78);
David b. Aryeh Lob of Lida (1679-83); Wolf 'lYaub (1683-87);
Judah LiJb b. Simon (1687-1714); Isaac Seckel b. Immanuel
(1715-21); Bernhard Gabriel Eskeles (1721-23); Isaac Seckel Et-
hausen (1723-29); Bernhard Wiener (1730-32); Moses Brandeis
(Moses Harif; 173:3-67); David (Tewele) Scheuer (1768-82);
Noah Hayvim Zebi Berliner (1783-1800); Herz Scheuer (1800-10,
and 1814-22); Samuel Wolf Levi (1810-14); Lob Ellinger (Schna-
dig; 1823-47); Joseph Aub (1853-^6; later in Berlin; d. 18a));
Benedict Cahn (until 1879; d. 1886); Marcus Lehmann (rabbi of
the Religionsgesellschaft ; 1854-90); Julius Fiirsl (until 1881);
Siegmund Salfeld (since 1880): Jonas Bondi (rabbi of the Re-
ligionsgesellschaft since 1890) .

After the French period the conditions for a time
were as they had been under the electorate; but in
1830 the Hes.sian government under-
Recent took to regulate the affairs of the
Develop- Jewish community. The internal de-
ments, velopment of the community pro-
ceeded slowly. In 1836 instruction in
the Jewish religion was made obligatory in the
high schools. In 1853 R. Joseph Aub was called
to the rabbinate, with R. Benedict Cahn as assistant
rabbi and teacher of religion; and in the same year
the new synagogue was dedicated. The reforms in-
troduced in this synagogue caused a number of
the Orthodox members of the community to form a
separate congregation— the Religionsgesellschaft,
which built its own synagogue and organized a
school. It continued to participate in all the af-
fairs of the community, and as few of the members
of this separate congregation left it when the law of

1878 was promulgated, a large part of the communal
taxes is remitted to it annually for its religious ex-
penses. Mayence is the birthplace of Michael Creiz-
enach, Isaac Bernays, Joseph Derenbourg, Ludwig
Bamberger, and other notable men.

Following is a list of the synagogues and other
communal institutions of Mayence: principal syn-
agogue, dedicated in 1853 (see illustration); syna-
gogue of the Religionsgesellschaft, dedicated in

1879 (see illustration); school, founded Nov. 11,
1880; elementary and religious school of the
Religionsgesellschaft, founded in 1859; ritual bath
(mikweh), rebuilt in 1888; the old cemetery— first
mentioned in 1286, closed in 1880 (see illustration);
the new cemetery, opened in 1881 (sec illustration);
hospital and poorhouse, opened in 1904; various
other charitable and religious societies, including a
society for Jewish literature, a Zioni.st society, and
a Bene Berit lodge. In April, 1904, while certain
excavations were being ma(le in the city, a remark-
able building was discovered, which has beea
named the "House of Kalonymus."

The grand-ducal rabbinate of Mayence, in charge



891



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Mayence
Mayer



of Dr. Siegmuud Sal fold, includes the communities
of the following places: Bodenheim, Bretzenlieim-
Finthen, Dalhcim, Dolgesheim, Ebeislieim-Harx-

heim, Esseuheim, Guntersblum, Ilahn-

The lieim, Kastel, Mayence, Mommenheim,

Rabbinate. Niederolm, Olierolm, and Oppenheim-

Nierstein (where Jews have been living
since the middle of the thirteenth century; see Kay-
serling, "Die Juden in Oppenheim," in "Monats-
sclirift," ix. 295 et seq.), Sorgenloch, and Weisenau.

BiBMOOUAPHY : Documents in the Allgemeines Reichsarchiv
at Munich, the Kreisarchiv at Wiirzburjr, the liof- und Staats-
archiv at Darmstadt, the archives of the Jewish community at
Mayence, and in the Mayence city library ; Joannis, Scrip-
tores Rcruin Moijuntiacarum, i. 526; Jaff(5, Monumcnta
Mnouitiina; Gudenus, Coilcx Diplomat icus; Will, Reqexta
Archicpiscop. Mo^wit.; Schunck, Cndcx Diplamatictis;
Aronius, Renesten; Bohmer, Fojitcs, iv. 543; Neubauer-
Stern-.Baer, HchrCiisdie TJericMc Uhcr die Judenverfol-
qunfl'WUhreiid der KreuzzUge, in Quclloi zin- Gcxch. der
Judenin Dcntscldand, u.2ct seq.; Salfeld, Mnrturolonivm ;
Schaab, DiplomatL'iche Gescli. der Juden in Mainz, Ma-
yence,1855 ; Hegel, Stadtechrnnilten, Mainz U.Verfasmno><-
gcsch. pp. I65etse7.; Bodinann, Rhein(jauixclie AUerUiUmcr,
ii. 712 et seq.; 'Wiener, Regesten ; Bresslau, 7ai7- Gcsch. der
Juden in DeutKcfda7id, in Steinschneider, IJelir. Bihl. x. 1(>9
et seq.: Carmoly, Die Juden zu Mainz ini Mittelalter, in Is-
raelit, 1865, 18t5ii ; Stern, QiieUenkunde zur Grcsch. der Deut-
schen Juden, Nos. 857-8(58 ; t'arlebach. Die Reehtlichen und
Soeialen VerhilUnisse der JUdi.schen Gemeinden Speiier,
W(nms und Mainz. Leipsic, 1901 ; Stern, KiUiio R%iprecht
von der I'falz i)i Seinen Jieziehunqen zu den Juden, Kiel,
1898 ; Salfeld, Bilder mts der Verganuenheit der Jltdi>'chen
Gemeindc Mainz, Mayence, 1903; Leopold Rothschild, Die
Judenoemeiudcn in Mainz, Speyer und Viirms von 131,9-
IhSS, Berlin, 1904 ; Bresslau, in Zeit. fUrdie Gefch. der Juden
in Deut»ehland, ii. 82 et .teq.; Gratz, Geseh. vi. 96, 101 ; vii.
186,374; viii. 252 ft Sfq., 273 et, seq.; Stern, Der Hoc /irerrats-
prozejis Geiiendie Deutsehen Juden im Anfange des 17.
Jah7-hunderts, in KCmigsherger MonatshUitter, pp. ;^ et
seq., Berlin, 1890. On the rabbis see Zunz ; Gudemann ;
Kohn, Mordechai hen HUM. Breslau, 1878; Michael, Or ha-
ll inyim : Carmoly, Zur (jesch. der Rabhiner in Mainz, in
Klein's Sc?iul')i7)iio(/ie/f, ii. 156 et seq.; Memorbuch of the
Comniunity of Mayence, 1583-181*7.
D. S. Sa.

MAYER, ABRAHAM : Belgian physician ;
born at Diisscldorf July 10, 1816; died at Antwerp
March 1, 1899. After studying medicine at Bonn
(M.D. 1839) he settled in Antwerp in 1848, Avliere lie
practised as a physician until his death. He took
an active part in public life and in the medical ac-
tivities of his adopted country. For some years he
was assistant surgeon in the Belgian regiment of the
Hussars of the Guard ; and he became a member of
the board of medical inspectors to the schools at
Antwerp, and president and vice-president of vari-
ous medical societies in Belgium. Mayer contrib-
uted many essays to the medical journals of Bel-
gium, including the following: "UnCas de Mort
par Suite de Brtilure (Perforation Duodenale)," 1866 ;
"Un Cas d'Eclampsie Piierperale au Commence-
ment du Neuvieme Mois de la Grossesse: Enfant ne
Vivant k Terme," 1868; "Quelques Observations
sur les Hopitaux de Londres," 1869; " Une Cause
Insolite de I'lntoxication Saturne: par le Tabac
a Priser," 1870; "Deux Cas d 'Intoxication Puerpe-
rale," 1878; "Une Note sur le Traitement du Cho-
lera," 1885. Most of these were published in the
proceedings of the Societe de Medecine and the
Societe Medico-Chirurgicale, both of Antwerp.

Bibliography: Jew. Chron. March 10, 1899; Annates de la
i^ociete Mediro-Chiruryicdle d'Anvers, pp. 89 et seq., Ant-
werp, Feb., 1899.

s. F. T. H.

MAYER, CONSTANT: French painter; born
at Besan^on Oct. 4. 1833. He became a pupil at the



Ecole des Beaux-Arts and of Leon Cogniet in Paris.
In 1857 he went to America and settled in New
York, but later returned to Paris, where he now
(1904) resides. He is an associate of the National
Academy of Design in New York and a member of
the Societe des Artistes Fran^ais of Paris; he be-
came a member of the Legion of Honor in 1869 and
is "llors Concours" at the exiiibitions of the Paris
Salou. His subjects are genre and portraits.
Among his paintings are: "Consolation" (1864);
"Love's Melancholy"; "Maud Muller" (1867);
"Episode in the Cami)aign of 1863" (1869); "Song
of the Shirt " (1875) ; " Song of the Twilight " (1879) ;
"Good News "(1882); "First Grief "(1885). Among
the portraits painted by him are those of General
Grant, General Sherman, and Mme. de Lizardi (ex-
hibited in the Salou of 1903).

A. F. N. L.

MAYER, ELKAN : German army physician ;
born in Frankfort-on-tlie-Main (where his father was
a physician), and took his degree at a German uni-
versity. In 1753 he applied to the council of Frank-
fort for permission to practise, but the petition was
refused. In 1760, however, he was appointed mili-
tarj^ physician of the imperial infantry regiment,
under general master-of-ordnance Count von Mac-
quard, whose regimental commander, Angelo de
Pasquali, commended Mayer highly. Debates on
the subject of the right of Jews to practise medicine
took place for years between the council and tJje
Jewish congregation.

Bibliography: Landau, Oesch. der Jildi^chen Aerzte, 1895,
p. 124.
s. N. D.

MAYER, HENRY : American caricaturist ;

born at Worms July 18, 1868. Mayer is the son of
a Jewish merchant of London, but w-as educated at
Worms. In 1885 he went to Mexico, and subse-
quently to Texas. There he discovered his ability
to draw, and developed his talent without the aid of
a teacher. Mayer next went to Cincinnati and
thence to Chicago, where he began his career as car-
icaturist and illustrator.

He has published most of his sketches, including
the following: "The Autobiography of a Monkey "
(1898); "In Laughland " and "Fantasies in Ha!
Ha!" (1899); "Trip to Toyland " (1900) ; "The Ad-



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