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ventures of a Japanese Doll " (1901). Mayer has con-
tributed to "Fliegende Blatter " (Munich), "Black
and White " and " Pall Mall Magazine " (London),
" Life " and " Puck " (New York), " Le Rire " (Paris),
and to many other publications. His cartoons on the
"Dreyfus affair" in English periodicals attracted
wide-spread attention.

Bibliography : Jew. Chron. Oct. 29, 1899; Brush and Pencil
(Chicago), June, 1901. ^ ,,

A. E. Ms.

MAYER, MORITZ: German rabbi; born at
Durckheim-on-the-Hardt, Germany, Dec. 16, 1821 ;
died at New York Aug. 28, 1867. He studied
law at Munich, and entered on the practise of hia
profession in his native city, when the revolution
of 1848 broke out, and he, being forced to flee,
emigrated to America. Arriving in New York,
he taught at Dr. Lilienthal's institute up to 1851,
when he was called as rabbi to Charleston, S. C,



Mayer
Mazzah



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



392



■where he remained until 1856. Failing health and
differences with his congregation owing to his radi-
cal views compelled him to leave Charleston ; anil
he returned to New York, intending to practise
law. For a short time he officiated as rabbi in Al-
bany, and then, again returning to New York, he
became secretary of the Grand Lodge of the Inde-
pendent Order B'nai B'rith (1863), which office he
held until his death.

Mayer contributed frequently to the Jewish press,
and translated various German works into English ;
e.g., Samuel Adler's catechism; Geiger's lectures on
Jewish history; Ludwig Philipson's pamphlet on
the Crucifixion; and Fanny Neuda's "Hours of
Devotion." •

Bibliography: 27ie ^mer(ca?i Israelite, Sept. 13, 1867; AlUi.
Zeit. (leg Jud. 1867, pp. 800, 842.
A. D.

MAYER, SAMUEL : German rabbi and law-
yer; born at Hechingen Jan. 3, 1807; died theie
Aug. 1, 1875. He studied at the Talmud Torah in
his native town, entered the bet ha-midrash and the
lyceum at Mannheim in 1823, and went to the Uni-
versity of Wlirzburg in 1826, where he attended at
the same time the Talmudic lectures of Chief Rabbi
Abraham Bing. Mayer tiien went to Tubingen,
where he took his degree. In 1830 lie was called
to the rabbinate of Hechingen, which he occupied un-
til his death. He lookup also the study of law and
was admitted to the bar in 1849. He was the only
rabbi in Germany combining the offices of rabbi and
lawyer. Mayer was a prolific writer; his chief
work, the fruit of twelve years of labor, is entitled
"Die Rechte der Israeliten, Athener und Romer, mit
Rilcksicht auf die Neuen Gesetzgebungen " (vol. i.,
"Das Ocffentliche Recht"; vol. ii., "Das Privat-
recht," Leipsic, 1862-66; vol. iii., "Das Straf recht,"
Treves, 1876). He edited the " Israelitisches Sams-
tagsblatt" (1837) and the " Israelitischer Musen-
ahnanach" (Dinkelsbiihl, 1840). He wrote also
"Gesch. der Israeliten in HohenzoUern-Hechingen "
(published in "Orient, Lit." 1844).

Bibliography: Kayserlinp. Bihl.Jlhl. Kanzelredner, li. 166;
Alia. Zeit des Juil. xxxix. 582 ef sea.
P. M. K.

MAYER, SIGMTJND: Austrian physician;
born at Beclitheim. Rliein Hessen, Dec. 27, 1842. He
studied at the universities of Heidelberg, Gicssen,
and Ti'ibingen (M.D. I860) and took a postgraduate
course at the universities of Heidelberg and Vienna,
becoming privat-doccnt in the hitter in 1869. In 1870
he removed to Prague, where he became pri vat-docent
at the German university and assistant at the physi-
ological institute. He was appointed assistant pro-
fessor in 1872; became chief of the histological in-
stitute in 1880; and was appointed professor of
histology in 1884.

Mayer has written many essays (about 60), wliich
have been published in the medical journals of Aus-
tria and Germany, in the reports of the Vienna Im-
perial Academy of Sciences, in Strieker's " Iland-
bucli derLehre von den Geweben,"and in Hermann's
"Handbuch der Physiologic." He is theauthor also
of " Histologische.s Taschenbuch," Prague, 1887.
He was one of tlie first to introduce the use of methy-
lene blue in microscopy and to describe the chro-



maffin cells ill the sympathetic nerve, the degenera-
tion and regeneration of the nervous system, the
sarcolysis, etc.

Bibliography: Pajfel, Bioa. iex.

s. F. T. H.

MAYHEM : In English law, the offense of de-
priving a person of any limb, member, or organ by
violence. The bearings of such an act in the rab-
binical law are fully treated under Assault and
Battery.

.1. L. N. D.

MAYO, RAPHAEL ISAAC BEN AARON :

Talinudical scholar of Smyrna; died in 1810. He
was the author of the following works: "Sefer
Shorashe ha-Yam," commentary on the Yad lia-
Hazakah (3 vols., Salonica, 1806-15); "Darke ha-
Yam," containing homilies and funeral sermons
{ib. 1813); " Sefat ha-Yam," halakic decisions and re-
sponsa {ib. 1818); "Pe'at ha-Yam," a commentary
on Bezali, with a number of halakic rules appended
{ib. 1832).

Bibliography: Steinschncider, Cat. Bndl. col. 2127 (where
the author's name is given as "Maggie"); Zedner, Cat. He-
brew Books Brit, yiiis. p. 515.
E. c. I. Bu.

MAZLIAH BEN ELIJAH IBN AL-
BAZAK : Italian Talmudist of the eleventh cen-
tury. The surname, Ibn al-Bazak, the meaning of
Avhich is unknown, shows that Mazliah came from
a family of Eastern Jews. Mazliah knew Arabic
well. After having been dayyan in Sicily, he went
to Pumbedita, where he attended the lectures of Hai
Gaon; after Hai's death he returned to Europe.
Mazliah at that time gave Samuel ha-Nagid an
Arabic work entitled "Sirat R. Hai Gaon," in which
he had recorded the most noteworthy features of
Hai's life; this work is quoted by Moses ibn Ezra
("Kitab al-Muhadarah wal-Mudhakarah," ch. vii.)
and by Joseph ibn 'Aknin (commentary on Canti-
cles). Mazliah relates in this work that he was par-
ticularly struck at the friendship which existed be-
tween Hai Gaon and the Catholicos, whom Hai did
not hesitate to consult in regard to questions of
exegesis.

A Mazliah was one of the teachers of Nathan b.

Jehiel, who quotes him in his "'Aruk" (particularly

8.1). pyp^DJX) and declares that he studied under

liim. Geigerand Kohut identified this Mazliah with

Mazliah ben Elijah. Kohut even suggested that it

was from his teacher that Nathan learned Hai's

interpretations of Arabic and Persian words.

Bibliography : A. (ieiger, .JUd. Zeit. It. 301-."W4 ; (iraiz, Ge.fch.
3d ed., vl. 3, 70; Kohut, preface to his edition of the Aruch
CompUtum, p. xl.; Mortara, Indice, p. 38; Stelnscbneider,
Die Arabische Literatur der Juden, 8 85.
.1. M. Sel.

MAZLIAH, JUDAH B. ABRAHAM PA-
DOVA : Italian Taliiiudist, cabalist, and poet;
rabbi of Modena, where he died Aug. 10, 1728. He
was the author of two works: "Tokahat Megullali "
and "'Ozerot She]eg"(the latter cabalistic in na-
ture); and of the following poems: D^D^iyn xD P2T
Wk: ^3 ^•'VNO. Tehinah ; nyi ynPH nDNV an acrostic
containing the words 2 V^^' Dti'l ("the name of sev-
enty-two letters"); and "JIDH D?iy. an epigram on hu-
man mortality, an epitaph in the cemetery at Pinale.
Only a few of his many responsa have been printed.



393



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Mayer
Mazzah



Judali liad two sons: Manasseh Joshua of Mo-
dena, brotber-iu-law of Isaiah Bassaui {c. 1750), some
of whose responsa have been preserved ; and Mena-
hem Azariah, rabbi of Florence (c. 1775), an au-
tliority in the Law and a prolific preacher, who also
wrote various poems, many of wliich were liturgical.
The genealogy of the family is traced to Abraham
b. Samuel of Padua, who married in 1530.

BiBMOGRAPHY: Senior Sachs, B'Son, Nos. 12a, 20-32, 47; Zunz,
Litem turgcxch. pp. U7, 562; Landshuth, 'Ammudeha-'AlHi-
dah, pp. 192 et seq.; Nepl-Ghirondi, Tnledot Gedole Yisrael,
pp. 163, 172, 239.

s. 8. ti. a.

MAZOVRA (MASSTJRIA), See Poland.

MAZZAH (plural, Mazzot) : Bread that is free
from leaven or other foreign elements; It is kneaded
with water and without yeast or any other chemical
effervescent substance, and is hastily prepared to
prevent the dough from undergoing the process of
spontaneous fermentation, which would make it
"hamcz" (leavened bread). The word is derived
from the Hebrew root I've ("to compress "or "to
extract "). " Mazzah, " iu the singular form, is found
only in Leviticus (ii. 5, viii. 26) and Numbers (vi.
19); elsewhere it occurs in the plural. The mazzah
was the primitive form of bread. The discovery of
the leavening process not only resulted in an increase
in the mass of the dough, but made tlie bread more
palatable. Mazzah, liowever, still remained the
poor man's bread, as he could not afford to wait
even twenty-four hours for it to leaven; and it
was called therefore "lehem'oni" (the bread of the
poor; Deut. xvi. 3). Mazzah was necessary, also,
when a meal was to be prepared at short notice for
an unexpected guest; for example, at the recep-
tion of the angels by Abraham (Gen. xviii. 6), or
at Sodom by Lot (Gen. xix. 3), or for Saul by the
witch of Endor (I Sam. xxviii. 24). The usual form
of the plain mazzah was that of a round cake
("ugah ") ; this is the usual form of bread eaten to-
day in Syria and Palestine.

The mazzah offered at sacrifices was of various
forms — " iehem " (lit. = "bread"), "hallah" (=
"loaf"), "rakik" (=" wafer"); the
The Use of latter two were mixed or spread with
Mazzah. oil (Ex. xxix. 2). Mazzot were re-
quired to be absolutely pure, as neither
leaven nor honey was permitted in connection with
sacrifices (Lev. ii. 11). The reason assigned is
that mazzah is a symbol of purity, while leaven
represents the evil impulse of the heart (Ber. 17a).
Mazzah was partaken of with the lamb on Passover
eve (Ex. xii. 8) because the lamb was considered an
offering to the Lord. The eating of mazzot during
the seven days of the Passover festival is intended
to recall the liurried departure from Egypt, which
event must be commemorated (Ex. xii. 14, 17, 39;
Deut. xvi. 4) on every anniversary.

The Zohar calls mazzah "nahama 'illa'ah" (heav-
enly bread), an antidote to the Egyp-
A Symbol tian slavery and corruption and a

of Free- symbol of freedom and idealism. Maz-
dom. zah was to cure Israel and prepare
him for the acceptance of the Torah
(Zohar, Tezawweh, p. 183b, Wilna, 1882).

Nevertheless, the eating of mazzah during Pass-



over, unlike the prohibition against eating hamez,
is not imperative; it is a voluntary act ("reshut").
That is, a Jew maj' abstain from eating both hamez
and mazzah, except on the first eve, when the eating
of mazzah is obligatory (" hobah "). This is deduced
from the passage, " Six days thou shalt eat unleav-
ened bread " (Deut. xvi. 8), though the other pas-
sages command that mazzot shall be eaten seven
days (Pes. 120a). In accordance with this distinc-
tion, the mazzah of the first night is called "mazzat
mizwah" (=the "precept mazzah") or "mazzat




MaKing Mazzot.

(From a Passover Haggadah, Amsterdam, 1695.)

shemirah " (= the "observance mazzah," based on
Ex. xii. 7); it must be specially prepared and
preserved for Passover eve (Pes. 38b). The special
care of the " shemirah " consists in watching the
wheat during harvesting, milling, and baking, that
it shall not become leavened, either by rain swelling
the grains or dampening the flour, or by too much
kneading and slow baking. The shemirah is used
principally for the Seder nights, while the more
pious use such mazzot every day of the Passover
festival. The ordinary mazzah is prepared of "kc-
mah min ha-shuk " (flour purchased at the market),
and the bakers are careful only during the process of
kneading and baking. The ordinary mazzah may be
used for the first night's meal, when eating mazzah
is obligatory. Yet even the market flour must
be made only of wheat, barley, spelt, oats, or rye
(Pes. ii. 5), rice and a species of millet being ex-
cepted (Pes. 35a).

On the theory that at night the sun underneath
the earth warms the wells and rivers below and
makes the water tepid (Pes. 94b), R. Judah ordered

that the kneading for mazzah shall be

'<Mayim. done with "mayim she-lanu " (water

She- that has " lodged " overnight at home

Lanu." and has been exposed to the cold night

air). The aim is to have the water
for kneading as cold as possible in order to prevent
the fermentation of the dough (Shulhan 'Aruk, Orah
Hayyim, 455, 2). A.lthough not necessarily against



SEazzah



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



394



the Law, it is the custom to omit salt or seasoning
from the mazzah (I.e. 455, 5).

The size of each mass of dough for mazzah may
not exceed one-tenth of an ephah, equal to 43t
medium-sized hens' eggs, and the time allowed for
preparing it is the time required .for a journey of a
mile (=2,000 cubits), that is, about twenty-seven
minutes {I.e. 456, 1 :459, 2). However, a continuous
kneading and frequent hand-washings in cold water
may extend the time. According to J{. Gamaliel,
the preparation of the mazzah was performed by
three women: one kneaded the dough, another



in a suUsecjuent operation, thus prolonging the
time and causing fermentation ; as a result of their
protest the form of the mazzah was changed to a
square. Still, there arc a great many, perhaps a
majority, who use round, machine-made mazzot,
while tliere are many pious ones who would use no
other than liand-made mazzot. Eisenberg, at Kiev,
Russia, recently invented a mazzah - machine ca-
pable of baking 15 poods (aljout 541 pounds) of
dough in one or two hours (" Der Jud," 1902, No. 9).
The perforation of the mazzah, after being rolled
into shape, and before baking, was for the purpose




Preparation of Mazzot.

(From Kirchncr, " Jiidisches Cifremoniel," 1726.)



formed the mazzah, and the third baked it (Pes.
iii. 4).

The tliickness of the mazzah must not exceed the
size of a closed fist, four fingers or four inches,
wliicli was tlic tliickness of tliesliowbread. A later
custfun was to make mazzali one finger thick ("Bet
Hillel,"Yoreh De'ali, No. 96). In modern times the
mazzah is much thinner, varying from four to five
mazzot to the inch, and is made in round form about
twelve indies in diameter. In about

Size and 1B75 mazzah-baking macliinery was

Shape. invented in England, and soon after

introduced in America. Some rabbis

opposed tlie innovation, claiming tliat the corners

of the machine-made mazzah Avere trimmed round



of keeping it from raising and swelling in baking.
It appears that in the early centuries the perforation
of the mazzah was cpiite artistic. In the house of
K. Gamaliel the perforations of the mazzot repre-
sented figures. Evidently the perforating was done
with an imi)lement that looked like a comb, as the
word "serikin" indicates. The figures Avere those
of animals, flowers, etc. Artistic perforation was
later proiiibited, as it consumed too much time and
caused fermentation. liaytus b. Zonin suggested
stamping the mazzah with ready-made figured
plates, but was opposed on the ground tiiat no dis-
crimination must be made in favor of any particular
kind of perforation (Pes. 37a). H. Isaac b. Gay-
yat says the figures represented Greeks, doves, and



395



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Hazzah



lislics. Maiinonides permits any fancy design if made
by a professional baker, as he does it quickly ("' Yad,"

Ilanu'Z ii-Mazzah, v. 15). In later pe-

The riods the perforating implement was

"Reidel." a wheel, called the "reid(!l," provided

with sharp teeth and attached to a
handle. The perforator, usually a youth, would
run his reidel through the mazzah in lines crossed
at right angles and about one inch apart. The
mazzah-machine has an automatic perforator that
makes lines at intervals of a half inch.

The baking of pudding, fillings, or sponge-cake
out of ordinary tiour is prohibited during Passover
for fear of fermentation in consequence of the delays
in preparation. Rut it is permitted to make all kinds
of pastry out of mazzahflour, as no fermentation is



oven, it was incumbent on the "lord of the house"
to superintend the mazzah-baking for his family
(see "Am. Jew. Hist. Soc." ix. 70).

In America mazzah-baking is an important in-
dustry. In New York city alone, in l'JU4, 10,000
barrel's of flour were used in making about 1,700,000
pounds of mazzah, dislributed among fifteen bakers,
one of them making mazzah by hand, and one small
bakery making mazzah shemirah. The
larger bakeries commence work four
or five months before Passover. New
York supplies many cities in the
United States and Canada with maz-
zah. Other large mazzah-making cen-
ters are Chicago, Pittsburg, Boston, Philadelphia,
and Baltimore. Mazzot have become popular among



Mazzah-

Baking

as an.

Industry.




Prkparing Mazzot.

(From Leusden, " PhiloIoguB Hebreeo-Mixtus," Utrecht, 1657.)



possible after the flour is baked. For baking and
cooking with mazzah-flour see Cookery. Ordinary
flour may be kneaded with pure fruit-juices, with
eggs, or with honey, as no fermentation is possible
with them. This is called "rich mazzah," and may
be eaten on Passover, except on the first night, when
the regular mazzah, or lehem'oni, is obligatory (Pes.
36a). In the early centuries mazzah-baking was done
by the wife daily, for the household's use. In the
Middle Ages preparations were made to bake maz-
zot thirty days before Passover, except the mazzah
shemirah. which was baked in the afternoon of the
14th of Nisan, at the time when the Passover lamb
was formerly sacrificed (Orah Hayyim, 453, 4).
Still later, when the community had a communal



non-Jews, who use them as tea-biscuits. R. Jacob
Moln (d. 1420), in his "Sefer Maharil," mentions the
custom, in baking mazzot, of starting the fire with
the willows used for Hosha'na and for the lidab.
It is forbidden to eat mazzah on the day before
Passover, in order that it may be more palatable on
the evening of Passover. The three mazzahcakes
used at the Seder service on Passover eve are
placed one on the other in a plate or in a threefold
cover specially made for the occasion. The three
mazzah -cakes are distinguished as "Kohen," "Levi,"
and " Israel. " The fourth order of the Seder is Yahaz,
in which the middle mazzah ("Levi ") is broken into
two parts, the larger being put aside as afikomen,
with which the meal is finished; the smaller part is



Mazzebah
Me'aBsefim



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



396



left between ," Kolieu " and "Israel." When the
Haggadah is recited the niazzot are uncovered and
exposed to view. The eiglith order of
At the the Seder is Ma/zah ; in it a piece of
Seder. the " Kohen " and a piece of the
" Levi " are eaten after the benedic-
tions " Ha-Mozi " and "Mazzah." The "Israel"' is
eaten during the tenth order, Korek, with the bitter
herbs, as practised by Hillel.

An ancient custom, which still prevails in some
parts of the Orient and in Europe, is to keep a sin-




Implements for Marking Mazzot.

(From Frauberper.)

gle mazzah hanging on the interior wall of the syna-
gogue all the year in strict observance of the pas-
sage "That thou mayest remember the day when
thou camest out of the land of Egypt all the days
of thy life" (Deut. xvi. 3). See Afikomen; Blood
Accusation: Le.wen; Passover; Seder.

BiBLionuAPHY : Pes. 35a-40a ; Maitnonkies, Yad, Hamez u-
Mnzz i)u V. and vi.; Sliulhan "A ruk, Orah Hainiinu 4.5:^ 462,
471-482; Benzlnger, Arrli. pp. H.'). 432, 4.')1,467; Kodkinson,
Mazznt Mizwah tva-'Alilat hn-Dnm, Vienna, 18a3 ; Stanis-
lawska, Sama tie Hayye, a manual of Mazzot, Berdychev,

J. D. E^
MAZZEBAH. See Stone and Stone-Worship.
McCAUL, ALEXANDER, : English Christian
missionary and author; born at Dublin May 16,
1799; died at London Nov. 13, 1863. He was edu-
cated at Trinity College, Dublin. Becoming inter-
ested in the Jews, lie was sent as a missionary to
Poland in 1821. where he studied Hebrew and Ger-
man at Warsaw. In 1822 he went to interview the
czar in regard to the conversion of the Jews. He
continued to live at Warsaw for ten years, interest-
ing the grand duke Constantine, the crown prince
of Prussia, and Sir Henry Rose in his work. In
1837 he produced an elaborate attack upon Jewish
legalism under the title " Old Patiis " ; it was pub-
lished weekly for over a year. This created consid-
erable interest among Jews, and was translated into
several languages, including Hebrew ("Netibot
'01am "). An answer in Hebrew (•' Netibot Emet "),
was publislied by Judali Middleman in 1847, a trans-
lation by Stanislaz Hoga having appeared in the



Bibliography
JS'at. Biog.



preceding year. ]\IcCaul wrote vigorously against
the blood accusation, and refused the Protestant
bishopric of Jerusalem, on the ground that it should
be held by a Jew by birth, recommending ]\I. S.
Alexander for that post. He became professor of
Hebrew and rabbinical literature at King's College,
London.

The Guardian (London), Nov. 18, 1863 ; Diet.

J.
MEAH, See Hammeah, Tower of.

MEAL-OFFERING : Comprehensive term for
all sacrifices from tlie vegetable world ; to desig-
nate these in the Old Testament the Hebrew woril
"minhali" is used, which, as a probable derivative
of the Arabic verb "manah " = "to give " properly
signifies " gift " or " present. " Tlie desire of offering
to God oblations of vegetables or cereals is presup-
posed in the Bible to be as general a human one as
that of pleasing God by animal sacrifices. The ear-
liest example of a meal-offering is un-
Name and doubtedly the sacrifice that Cain ten-
Early dered from the fruit of his field (Gen.
History, iv. 3-5). Gideon added to a meat-
offering mazzot made of an ephah of
Hour (n^D; Judges vi. 19). Mazzot were probably
also baked from the flour (nnp) that Hannah took
to Shiloh (I Sam. i. 24); for it is not likely that
rtour alone was sacrificed, it being in the unprepared
state not an article of human food. A vegetable
sacrifice is referred to also in the second member of
the phrase nnjOl n3T {ib. ii- 29, iii. 14). Loaves of
bread (nrh HIIDD) were laid before God (tb. x. 3).
Mention is made of their being placed in the sanc-
tuary of Yiiwii at Nob {ib. xxi. 7). In the term
y\V^ nnJO (I Kings xviii. 29, 36) the second mem-
ber (aiyn) is added not as a new distinction quali-
fying this nnjD as different from the others or as a
fixed regular institution, but merely in view of the
preceding fixation of time, "and when midday was
past. " Leavened bread (}Dn) likewise was sacrificed
(Amos iv. 5). Vegetable sacrifice is also designated
as "minhah" when it is connected with a thank-
offering (Amos V. 22), a meat-offering (Isa. xix. 21),
or a burnt offering (Jer. xiv. 12; Ps. xx. 2). The
foregoing shows that cereal oblations are mentioned
only sporadically in the early historical books.

The Law ordains: (rt) as regards the material of
the meal-offering that it must consist, except in the
case of the jealousy -offering (Num. v. 15),*of fine
flour (n^D; Lev. ii. 1), oil (ib.), salt (ib. verse 13),
and incense (ib. verses 1 ei seq., 15 ct seq.), while
leaven and honey must be kept strictly separate {ib.
verse 11), the latter probably because it fermented
easily (comp. the Neo-Hebraic f 3irT

Regula- ="to ferment," in Dalman, "Ara-
tions of the milisch-Neuhebrilisches WOrterb. zu
Law. Targiim, Talmud, und Midrasch,"
1901, p. 86). {b) This material might
be offered in the following forms: («) barley flour
(nop) without oil or incense was brought for the so-
called jealousy -offering (Num. V. 15); (,3) fine flour
(n^D). even in its original state, must have oil poured
over it, and be sprinkled with incense, the last alone
being lighted (Lev. ii. 1-3); (y) the meal-offering
might consist of different kinds of cakes (verses



397



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Ifazzebah
Me'assefim



4_7); (J) the first-fruits of the field were offered in
tlie shape of roasted ears or ground grains of fiesh
corn (verse 14, where "JOI^ K'"lJ is a later addition ;
coMip. Konig, "Syntax," g 333 t). It is an interest-
ing detail that the meal-offering which was baked
on a flat tin pan (n^riD) was broken into small
pieces (DTIS; Lev. ii. 6, vi. 14). (c) The meal-offer-
ings, according to the purposes they served, might be
divided into two groups: (n) those offered alone a;^
a substitute in the case of the poor (Lev. v. 11 et
seq.) for the sin-offering; as the daily meal-offering
("tamid") of the priests (Ex. xl. 29; Lev. vi. 12-16;
comp. I Chron. ix. 31); and as the jealousy-offering
(Num. V. 15 et seq.), which " reminds of sin " (comp.
the sheaf offered in recognition of the beginning of
harvest [Lev. xxiii. 9 et seq.\ the loaves of the Feast
of AVeeks [ih. xxiii. 16 et seq.\, and the showbread
\ib. xxiv. 5 et seq.^j; and {3) meal-offerings added to



Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 96 of 169)