Isidore Singer.

The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) online

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daii Lob was rabbi of Birnbaum, and then of Stock-

The University of Rostock had a famous Orien-
talist in Tychsen, who taught first in Biitzow (1760)
and then in Rostock (from 1779). A. T. Ilartman,
the opponent of the emancipation of the Jews, also
taught in Rostock (1811-38). Among the prominent
Jews who are natives of ^Mecklenburg may be men-
toned : I. Marcus, alternate deputy to the Frankfort
Parliament in 1848; the lexicographer Daniel San-
ders; and the journalist Emil Jonas, translator of
Scandinavian poetry into German. D.





MEDALS : Soon after the revival of the art of
eugruviiii,^ medals, about the middle of the tifteeuth
century, a few Jewish specimens were struck in
Italv, although the number was very small on ac-
count of the general oi^pression of the Jews at that
period. The number gradually increased during
the eighteenth century, keeping i)ace with the im-
provement of Jewish conditions; and in the second
half of the nineteenth ceutur}', when the Jews liad
been cmanciitated in nearly all civilized countries,
medals were struck so frequently that one or more
appeared nearly every year. The following list con-
tains the principal Jewish medals known. Those
issued in honor of comparatively unimportant pri-
vate persons and numerous miscellaneous and cab-
alistic medals are not included. The symbol ■" desig-
nates medals which are described in works mentioned
in the bibliography and * those in the illustrations.

1503. Benjamin b. Elijah Beer: obverse, bust; reverse, in-
scription ; 167 mm.

155:2.* ° Ellas and Rica Delatas : bust on both sides ; 49 nun.

IS-Oe.*" Gracia Nasi : engraved on one side only ; bust ; 66 mm.

1C>59. Baptism of the Jew Michael of Prague : oval ; obverse,
baptism (in the Jordan); reverse, inscription ; 8:i X
69 mm.

1670. Three hundredth anniversary of the alleged desecra-
tion of the host at Brussels : obverse, the Holy Sacra-
ment ; reverse, inscription : 39 mm.

1B70. Idem : obverse, the Holy Sacrament ; reverse, escutch-
eon ; 32 mm.

1686. Participation of the Jews in the defense of Buda : ob-
verse, smelting-furnace ; reverse, inscription ; 2
sizes, 41 and 47 mm. respectively.

1711.*° Conllagration in the ghetto of Frankfort: obverse, the
tire ; reverse, inscription ; inscription about the
edge; 44 mm.

1735.° Eliezer ben Samuel ShmelUa : obverse, bust; reverse,

1738. Siiss Oppenheimer's execution : obverse, bust ; reverse,
gallows; 38 mm.: "Schraub" medal; 42 mm.

1745.*° Edict of e.xiie at Prague : obverse, audience ; reverse,
Solomon's Temple; 64 mm.
c. 1775.* ° Moses Mendelssohn : obverse, bust ; reverse, skull and

butterfly ; 43 mm.
c. 1775. Idem: one-sided cast medallion; bust, skull, etc.;
99 mm.

1781. Edict of Toleration by Emperor Joseph II. : obverse,
bust; reverse, obelisk and genius : 45 mm.

1783* Idem: obverse, bust; reverse, clericals of the three
confessions; 43 mm.

1790.* Medal presented by the Hessian Jews to Landgrave
Ludwig X.: obverse, man sacriflcing; reverse, in-
scription ; 37 mm.

1790.° Medal presented by the Hessian Jews to the Landgra-
vine Caroline Henrietta : obverse, palm-tree ; re-
verse, inscription ; three variants, 34, 34, and 29 mm.

1791.* Wilhelmschule at Breslau : obverse, grafted trunk ; re-
verse, inscription ; two sizes, 18 and 11 mm. re-

1793.* ° Daniel Itzig's seventieth birthday : obverse, bust ; re-
verse, allegorical group ; 52 mm.
1803.° Lippmann Meyer's seventy-third birthday : obverse,
bust ; leverse, Inscription ; 38 mm.
c. 1803.*° Marcus Herz : obverse, bust; reverse, Pallas ; 41 mm.
1&05.* " Emancipation of the Russian Jews : obverse, bust ; re-
verse, man sacrificing; 46 mm.
IfrOe.* ° Napoleon and the Sanhedrin : obverse, bust ; reverse.

Napoleon and a Jev\- ; 41 mm.
lirOS.* ° Emancipation of the Westphalian Jews : obverse,thank-

offering ; reverse, two geniuses ; 42 mm.
1810. Building of the synagogue at Bordeaux : inscriptions
on both sides ; 35 mm.
c. 1816. Gershom Mendes Seixas : obverse, bust and inscription.
1820. Four hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the alleged
desecration of the host at Brus.sels : obverse, the Holy
Sacrament; reverse, inscription; 32mm.
1824. Laying of the corner-stone of the synagogue at Munich :
obverse, bust ; reverse, engraved inscription ; 26 mm.

VIII.— 26



Dedication of the samii synagogue : obverse, the syna-
gogue ; reverse, inscription ; 39 mm.

Court commission of the Dutch Jews: obverse, altar and
symbols: reverse, plain ; 59 mm.

1828. Giuditta Pasta: one-sided medallion; head; 113mm.

1829. Idem: obverse, head; reverse, inscription; two vari-

ants, 43 and 35 nun.
18;!0. Idem : obverse, homage; reverse. Inscription ; 47 nun.

1830. Ludwig Borne: one-sided medallion ; head; 159 mm.
1836.* Gabriel Riesser : obverse, allegorical group ; reverse,

inscription ; 59 nun.

1836. Death of N. M. von Rothschild : obverse, head ; reverse,

inscription; 62 nun.
IKV). Court commission of the Dutch Jews : observe, symlHjIic,
picture; reverse, plain ; 47 mm.

1837. Elias Henschel and the Jews of Breslau : obverse, head ;

reverse, inscription ; 39 mm.

1840. Monteflore and ( remieux at Damascus : obverse, audi-

ence; reverse, inscription; 43mm.

1841. The king in the synagogue at Mastricht : obverse, the

synagogue; reverse, inscription; 41 mm.

1841. Jewish Home for the Aged at The Hague : obverse, the

building; reverse, inscription; 40mm.

1841.* Jewish hospital at Hamburg (Solomon Heine): obverse,
head; reverse, the building; two sizes, 45 and 12
mm. respectively.

1841.* Jewish loan Institute at Hamburg: obverse, beehive;
reverse, inscription ; 45 mm.

1841.* Montetlore and the Jews of Hamburg : obverse, escutch-
eon ; reverse, inscription ; 42 mm.

1842. R. Solomon Herschell : obverse, bust; reverse, Torah

scroll and inscription ; 62 mm.

1843. Hebrew school at Birmingham ; obverse, the building ;

reverse. Inscription; 45mm.

1843. First Jewish confirmation at Warsaw : obverse, seven-

branched candlestick and tables of the Law ; re-
verse, inscription ; 42 mm.

1844. S. M. von Rothschild's seventieth birthday : obverse,

head ; reverse, escutcheon ; 59 mm.
1846.* Isaac Bernays' jubilee: inscriptions on both sides; 51

1846. Rachel (Felix): obverse, head; reverse, inscription;

53 mm.

1847. Medal dedicated to Giacomo Meyerbeer by the Concordia

Society : obverse, bust ; reverse, inscription ; 46 mm.

1848. Destruction of Rothschild's castle, Surenne : inscrip-

tions on both sides ; 69 mm.

1848. Medal given by the Italian Jews to B. d'Azeglio: ob-
verse, bust ; reverse, inscription ; 51 mm.

1848. Daniel Manin : obverse, bust ; reverse, homage of the
people : 57 mm.

1850. Society for the Emancipation of the Oriental Christians
and Jews : obverse, group ; reverse, inscription ; 62

1850. General de Meza : obverse, bust ; reverse, trophy ; 45

1850. August Neander : obverse, bust ; reverse, Inscription ;

45 mm.

1851. Dr. Gruby : obverse, snake of iEsculapius ; reverse, in-

scription ; 50 mm.

1852. Orthodox synagogue at Frankfort : obverse, the syna-

gogue ; reverse, inscription ; 39 mm.

1853. Engraver Samuel Jesi : obverse, head ; reverse. In-

scription ; 68 mm.

1854. Giacomo Meyerbeer: obverse, head; reverse, lyre; 41


1855. Medal presented by the Italian Jews to Albert Cohn:

obverse, temple vessels ; reverse, inscription ; 55 mm.

1855. Similar medal presented to Ludwig Philippson.

1856. Laemmelschule at Jerusalem : obverse, palm-tree ; re-

verse, inscription ; 33 mm.

1858. Death of Rachel (Felix): c>bverse, head; reverse, in-

scription ; 53 mm.; token, 23 mm.
1858 (?) . M. G. Saphir : one-sided medal ; bust ; 47 mm.

1859. R. Henri Loeb's jubilee: obverse, bust; reverse, in-

.scription ; 59 mm.

1860. Right conferred upon the Austrian Jews to possess real

estate: obverse, allegorical picture; reverse, in-
scription ; 73 mm.

(c. 1860). Soci^te J. R. Pereire, prize medal: obverse, Pereire
teaching ; reverse, inscription ; 54 mm.

1861 (?). Historical painter B. Ullmann : one-sided medallion;
bust : 123 mm.

1861. Synagogue at Cologne: obverse, the synagogue; re-

verse, interior view ; 59 mm.

1. Eliiis niiil l{i"ii Dilatas, IXil.
ria(,'ui'. IT 15. 5.


:;. Ciracia Nasi. LkjC. 3. Cnnllai^ratioii at Frankfort-uu-llii'-Main, Kll. 4. F.diit uf K.xilc (ruiu
Edict of Toleratiou Issued by K.iiipvror Joseph II., ITbl. G. Presented by Hessian
Jews to the Landgrave Ludwitj X., 1790.

tin the cuUvili'ii u( Albert \V.,lf, Dn-U'ltii.)


7. Emancipation of Wu.stptialian Jews, 1808. 8. Kinancipation of Russian Jews by Alexander I., 1SU5. !}. Napoleon and Sanhodrin
ISlin. 10. Marcus Herz, 1805. 11. WillielmscUule at Breslau, KOI. ]:i. Daniel Itzig's Seventieth Birthday, 1793.

13. Moses Mendelssohn's "Phaedou," 1775.

(Ill the collection of Albert Wolf, Dresden.)























Numismatist Oberndoerfer's seventieth birthday : ob-
verse, bust; reverse, inscription ; 40 mm.

Preacher Mannheimer's seventietli birthday : obverse,
bust; reverse, inscription; 50 mm.

Moses and Judith Monteflore : obverse, busts of both ;
reverse, inscriptions ; 68 mm.

Jewish orphan asylum for boys at Amsterdam : obverse,
allegorical group ; reverse, building ; 68 mm.

Dr. M. H. Romberg: obverse, head; reverse. Inscrip-
tion ; 62 mm.

Joseph Wertheimer retiiing from oflftce : obverse, bust;
reverse, inscription ; 45 mm.

Cantor Pereles' jubilee of oflBce ; inscriptions on both
sides ; 32 mm.

Deputy Dr. Max Hirsch: octagon; obverse, bust; re-
verse, two hands ; 25 mm.

The astronomer H. Goldschmidt : obverse, three heads ;
reverse, allegorical figure ; 69 mm.

Oppenheimer foundation at Hamburg; obverse, bust;
reverse, building; 44 mm.

Cr^mieux at Tours : obverse, head (on another an es-
cutcheon); reverse, inscription; 46 mm.

Franchetti"s heroic death : two variants ; (1) obverse,
escutcheon; reverse, inscription; 33 mm.; (2) ob-
verse, head; reverse, inscription ; 24 mm.

Synagogue at Pribram (Przibram): obverse, the syna-
gogue ; reverse, shield of David ; 33 mm.

Jubilee of the Portuguese synagogue at Amsterdam :
obverse, escutcheon (pelican) ; reverse, inscription ;
36 mm.

Two hundredth anniversary of the Hebra Kaddisha,
Gallingen : inscriptions on both sides ; 34 mm.

Death of the painter S. L. Verveer : obverse, bust ; re-
verse, easel ; tiO mm.

Portuguese synagogue at Paris : obverse, tables of the
Law ; reverse, inscription ; 28 mm.

Salomon H. von Mosenthal's death : obverse, head ; re-
verse, genius ; 59 mm.

Minister of Justice Godefroi : obverse, bust ; reverse,
insciiption ; 69 mm.

Joseph Pizza's death : obverse, bust ; reverse, masonic
emblems; 42 mm.

Medal presented by the officials of the Jewish commu-
nity of Vienna to Ludwlg August Frankl : obverse,
head ; reverse, escutcheon ; 39 mm.

R. E. A. Astruc's jubilee of office: obverse, bust; re-
verse, inscription ; 55 mm.

N. Monteflore: prize medal for military surgeons ; ob-
verse, fleld-hospital ; reverse, escutcheon ; 60 mm.

Adolphe Cremieux's death :, bust ; reverse, in-
scription ; 68 mm.

Anti-Semitic movement at Berlin: four variants: (1)
obverse, escutcheon ; revense, inscription ; (2) ob-
verse, caricature ; reverse, sticks and hat ; (3 and 4)
Inscriptions on both sides ; 24 inm.

Jubilee of the Edict of Toleration : obverse, bust ; re-
verse, inscription ; 30 mm.

Adolf SonnenthaFs jubilee: obverse, bust; reverse,
theater ; 60 mm.; also in form of a thaler.

Jubilee of the theater director Ch. Maurice : obverse,
bust ; reverse, inscription.

Preacher Jellinek's jubilee of office : inscriptions on
both sides ; 44 mm.

New synagogue at Frankfort : obverse, the synagogue ;
reverse, inscription ; 36 mm.

Prix Osiris : obverse, fencing - weapons ; reverse,

wreath ; 34 mm.
Architect Max Fleischer: obverse, bust ; reverse, syna-
gogue ; 104 mm.
Monteflore's one hundredth birthday; stru(:k three
times (1-ondon, Corfu, and Manchester): obverse,
bust; reverse, inscription ; 42, 41, and V mm.
Ignaz Kuranda : one-sided medallion ; bust; 145 mm.
Medal presented by the Jewish Aid Society at Luxem-
burg to Eugenie Bloch : obverse, allegorical group :
reverse, inscription ; .50 mm.
New synagogue at Munich : obverse, the synagogue :

reveixe, itiscriplion ; lU mm.
Founding of a Frankfort lodge: obverse, shield of

David ; reverse, tables of the Law ; 25 mm.
U. Abraham Alexander Wolf's sixtieth anniversarv
of office : obverse, bust ; reverse. Inscription ; 38
Numismatist Donehauer's death : obverse, bust ; re-
verse, inscription ; 58 mm.
































Gerson von Bleichroder : obverse, bust ; reverse, es-
cutcheon ; 25 mm.
Court choirmaster H. Levi: one-sided medallion;

bust ; 115 nun.
Editors of the " Neue Freie Presse " (Bacher, Benedikt,
and Werthnei): obverse, three busts ; reverse, news-
paper ; 85 mm.
Liquidation of the Deutsch-Israelitlsche Gemeinde of
Hamburg : obverse, Torah cabinet ; reverse, alle-
gorical group ; 42 mm.
Ludwig Barnay's jubilee : obverse, bust ; reverse, in-
scription ; 45 mm.

M. R. von Mises' ninetieth birthday: obverse, bust;
reverse, escutcheon ; 45 mm.

M. R. von Mises' death: obverse, bust; reverse, es-
cutcheon ; 40 mm.

M. von Wilmersdoerffer's jubilee : obverse, bust; re-
verse, escutcheon ; 49 mm.

Prof. E. H. Kisch's flftieth birthday: obverse, bust;
reverse, Hygeia ; 55 mm.

Numismatist Adolph Meyers-Gedanensis : oval; ob-
verse, bust ; reverse, buildings ; 71 X .57 mm.

Prof. Th. Gomperz's sixtieth birthday: obverse, bust;
reverse, allegorical groun ; 40 mm.

Jubilee of the Niichstenliebe Society, Vienna: obverse,
hands; reverse, inscription ; 37 mm.

State councildr T. M. C. Asser : obverse, bust ; reverse,
inscription ; 65 mm.

Preacher Adolf Jellinek's death : obverse, bust ; rc-
veree, inscripticm; 55 mm.

Karl Marx : one-sided medallion ; bust ; 189 mm.

Dr. Adolf Fischhof's death : obverse, bust ; reverse, al-
legorical gnuip ; 55 mm.

Jubilee of the factory of Ludwig I.iJwe : obverse, bust ;
reverse, allegorical figure ; .56 mm.

R. Isaac Eihanan Spektor : obverse, bust; reverse,
chapel ; 29 mm.

Synagogue at Galatz : obverse, the synagogue ; re-
verse, masonic emblems; 40mm.

Prof. Moritz Benedikt's jubilee : square plaque; bust;
60 X 44 mm.

Charlotte Furtado-Heine : horticultural iirize medal,
founded by a will.

Michael Fischhof, founder of "Austria": obverse,
bust; reverse, view of city ; 50 mm.

Prof. Joseph Gruber's seventiefli birthday; plaque;
bust; 60 X 45 mm.

Zionist leader Architect O. Marmorek : plaque; bust;
118 mm.

Second Zionist Congress: obverse, allegorical group;
reverse, lnscrii)tion ; & mm.

Israelitische Ueligionsgesellschaft to Wilhelm Carl
and MatliiUle von Rothschild : obverse, interior view
of synagogue ; reverse, inscription ; 40 mm.

Reunion of the Frankfort Israelitische Realschule: ob-
verse, vii'vv of city : reverse, inscription : 39 nmi.

Choir prize of the Religionsgesellschaft of Frankfort:
obverse, interior view of synagogue ; revei.^ie, mu-
sical instruments; 39 mm.

Prof. James Joseph Sylvester, prize medal for mathe-
matics : obverse, bust ; reverse, inscription ; 56 nun.

Stepney Jewish School: obverse, allegorical figure;
reverse, Inscrlpiion.

Dr. K. Lippe's seventieth birthday: obverse, bust ; re-
verse, flaming shield of David ; 30 mm.

Dr. Ludwig von (iuttmann's death: obverse, bust; re-
verse, mine-inspector : 35 X 31 mm.

Composer Carl Goldmark's seventieth birthday : ob-
verse, bust ; reverse, oak and laurel ; 55 mm.

Idem : plaque ; bust ; 2U) X 15;5 mm.

Fiftieth anniversary of the Stern Conservatorium : ob-
verse, bust; reverse, allegorical figure : 42 mm.

Salo Cohen, director of the Jewi.-h community of Vi-
enna : plaque; bust; 168 X 115 mm.

Enlargement of the synagogue at Frankfort : obverse,
old and new synagogues ; reverse, inscription ; 39

Composer Ignaz Briill : plaque: head ; 200 X 135mm.

Virtuoso Alfred (iriinfi'ld : plaque ; head ; 70 X .50 uim.

Synagogue at Szegedin : obverse and reverse, building ;
29 mm.

Musician Siegfried Ochs : obverse, bust ; reverse, lyre ;
50 mm.

Centenary of the Fmnkfort Phllanthropln : obverse,
sower ; reverse, beehive ; 50 mm.




1904. M. von Wilinersdorffer's death : plaque ; bust ; 100 mm.
1904. Artist Joseph Israels' eightieth birthday.

For the names of Jews prominent as engravers of
medals see Jew. Encyc. v. 175, s.i\ Engraving
AND Engravers.

Bibliography: Mulder, Eene Zeldzamc MedaiUe, Amster-
dam, 1859: Schudt, Jlidischc MerckwUnliukeiten. ii. 82;
Wolf, Einc Unhekannte Jlldische MedaiUe, in Mmiat)^-
schrift, 1894; idem, Eine MedaiUe auf R. Elieser }>.
Samuel SchmeUm, ib. 1898; idem. Das JUdixche Berlin
Qegen Ende des Achtzehnten Jahrhunderts in AbbUdun-
gen itnd Medaillen, in KanfmatDi Gedetikbueh ; idem. Die
Hamburger auf oder van Juden Gepriigten Medaillen. in
MittheUungen filr Jlidi^che Volkskunde. No. xiii.; idem,
Zweiauf Judoitaufen Bczliglfthe Medaillen, in Monats-
KChrift, l900; Zunz, Eine MerkwUrdige MedaiUe, in G. S.
A. A. W.

MEDEBA (modern name Madeba) : A town
east of the Dead Sea and a few miles south of Hesh-
bon. It was wrested from the Moabites by Sihon,
King of the Amorites (Num. xxi. 30); and after the
conquest of Palestine it was assigned, together with
the plain in wliich it lay, to the tribe of Reuben
(Josh. xiii. 9, 16). During the war of the Ammon-
ites against David, the Syrian allies of the former
encamped at Medeba, which seems at that time to
have been imder Ammonite control (I Chron. xix.
6-15). Later it was seized bj^ the Moabites again ;
for, according to the Moabite Stone (line 8),
" Omri annexed [all the land] of Medeba, and Israel
occupied it, his days and half his son's days, fort}'
years." This statement is confirmed by Isa. xv. 2,
which mentions Medeba as a city of Moab, under
whose control it remained until the Moabites were
driven south of the Arnon by Jeroboam II.

During the Maccabean period John, brother of
Jonathan and Simon Maccabeus, was murdered by
a robber clan, led by Jambri or Ambri, who lived
in Medeba, and who in revenge were ambushed and
slain while taking part in a marriage procession near
the town (I Mace. ix. 35-42; Josephus, "Ant." xiii.

I, §§ 2, 4). It "was later taken by John Hyrcanus
after a stubborn siege (^'6. xiii. 9, § 1), and finally was
captured by Alexander Jannoeus, althougli Hyrcanus

II. promised to restore it to Aretas, King of Arabia,
{ib. xiii. 15, | 4; xiv. 1, § 4).

J. L. H. G.

Medeba, after lying desolate for some centuries,
was reoccupied by a colony of Greek Christians
about 1880; to this colony a smaller one of Latin
Christians has since been added. In erecting the
necessary buildings for this new occupation many
beautiful mosaics which belonged to churches and
monasteries of the fourth, fifth, and sixth centuries
have been tmcovered. Many of these may still
be seen in hovels, stables, and farmyards. The
most noteworthy of these is the mosaic map of Pal-
estine, some remains of which may still be seen in
the fioor of the Greek church at Medeba. The dis-
covery of this map was announced in Dec, 1896, but
theie is reason to believe that it had been known to
a small circle of ecclesiastics for some time before
this, and that when it was first discovered it w^as in
a much better state of preservation than at present.
Toward the end of 1896 efforts were made to make
accurate charts of the remains of it and to give to
the world some knowledge of this remarkable pro-

duction. The publications in reference to it will be
found in the bibliographj- at the end of this article.

The artistic and technical difticulties which the
makers of the map had to overcome were very great,
but they surmounted them with surprising success.
Exact proportions and perspective were of course
not attained, but the general relations of the sacred
sites were grapliicaliy pictured; much valuable in-
formation as to the condition of the laud at the time
at which the niosaic was made (fifth or sixth century
c. E.) is given, and the traditions then current con-
cerning tlie location of Biblical sites found expres-
sion. Thus the statements of Eusebius and Jerome
in their onomastica are illustrated and in some cases

Jerusalem is pictured on the map as being bisected
by a long colonnaded street. The wall of Jerusa-
lem did not enclose the southern end of the two hills
on which the city stands. After enclosing the Church
of Mt. Zion on the site of the present
Jerusalem Coenaculum it turned sharpl}- to the
Map. northeast. Traces of another -wall,
approximately on the line of the pres-
ent one, are also visible; this latter wall is, no
doubt, that built by Hadrian, while the exten-
sion which includes the Church of Mt. Zion pictures
a period before the time of Eudoxia, who rebuilt the
wall on the line of that of Nehemiah. This not only
throws light on the topography of Jerusalem for
that period, but helps to date the map. Prominent
buildings like the Church of the Holy Sepulcher are
pictured on the map with sufficient clearness to af-
ford considerable information concerning their archi-
tecture at that tinle.

The makers of the mosaic were especially inter-
ested in Christian themes. They accordingly pic-
tured the Sea of Galilee as bearing a ship containing
the disciples, and Peter endeavoring to walk on the
water (Matt. xiv. 25-31).

One easily recognizes on the map the names of
many sites which are well known, such as Baitin
(Bethel), Jifna, Jibia, Beer-sheba. Sites in southern
Palestine and on the Philistine plain are given with
considerable fulness. Gerar is shown close to Beer-
sheba and to the west of it — a location which conflicts
with the usual identification of Gerar with Umm
Jarar, five miles to the south of Gaza. The Philis-
tine Gath is placed near the site of the modern

On the south the map extends far enough to show
Lower Egypt. "Witnesses quoted as reliable by
Father Cleopas, the librarian of the Convent of the
Holy Sepulcher, said that they saAv the mosaic some
years before it was so badly mutilated and declared
that they recognized Ephesus and Sm^Mua thereon.
It would seem, therefore, that when intact the map
included Asia Minor as well as Egypt.

Tradition in the fourth century was not always
more reliable than it is now, a fact to which this
map sometimes bears witness. For examj)le, the
thrashing-floor of Atad, which Gen. 1. 10 places east
of the Jordan, is on this map identified with Beth-
hogla ("thrashing-floor of Atad, which is now Beth-
hogla "). Beth-hogla, however, is the modern 'Ain
(Kasr) Hajlah in the plain southeast of Jericho, west
of the Jordan, where a Greek monastery is situated.




Bibliography: Cleopas and Laffrange, La Mnsaique Geo-
araphique de Mad<ir)a, in Rev. Bib. April, 1«9T ; Clermont-
Ganneau. RecueiUVArcheoJogie Orientale, ii- 161 etseq;
Pal. Explnr. Fund, Quarterlu Statemeyit, 189., pp. 416
et sea. (Clermont-Ganneau); 1898. p. 251 (idem); 1898 p 85
(Schick); 1898, pp. 177 et setj. (Mommert); S6]ourne, Medeba,
in Revue Biblique, 1892, i. 617-ti44 ; Bacher, in J. Q. «., xin.
E. G. n. G- A. B.

MEDES. See Media.

MEDIA (Latin, Media; Greek, M;7(5/a; Old Per-
sian, Mada; Hebr. HD): Ancient name of a coun-
try which is located south and west of the Cas-
pian Sea, and is associated with events in Jewish
history. The confines of Media anciently embraced
territory corresponding roughly to the present Azer-
baijan, the southern bortlcrs of the Caspian, the
province of 'Irak-'Ajami, and the districts of modern
Persia which adjoin the mountains of Kurdistan and

Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 98 of 169)