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EDLLDu; you



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DONATED BY

I'br, & Mrs. Roy Papermaster



THE



Jewish Encyclopedia



A DESCR.IPTIVE RECORD OF



THE HISTORY, RELIGION, LITERATURE, AND CUS-
TOMS OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE FROM THE

EARLIEST TIMES



Prepared by More than Four Hundred Scholars and Specialists

UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE FOLLOWING EDITORIAL BOARD



Cyrus Adler, Ph.D. {Departments of Post-
Biblical Antiquities ; the Jews of America) .

GOTTHARD Deutsch, Ph.D. (Department
of History from 14^2 to igoi) .

Louis Ginzberg, Ph.D. (Department of
Rabbinical Literature) .

Richard Gottheil, Ph.D. (Departments of
History from. Ezra to I4g2 ; History of
Post-Talmudic Literature) .

Joseph Jacobs, B.A {Departments of the
Jews of England and Anthropology ; Revi-
sing Editor) .



Marcus Jastrow, Ph.D. {Department of the Talmud).

Morris Jastrow, Jr., Ph.D. {Department of the Bible) .

Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D. {Departments of Theology
and Philosophy) .

Frederick de Sola Mendes, Ph.D. {Chief of the
Bureau of Translation ; Revising Editor ) .

Isidore Singer, Ph.D. {Department of Modern
Biography from 17JO to igoi) .

Crawford H. Toy, D.D., LL.D. {Departments of
Hebrew Philology and Hellenistic Literature) .



ISIDORE SINGER. Ph.D.

Protector and Managing Editor

ASSISTED BY AMERICAN AND FOREIGN BOARDS OF CONSULTING EDITORS

(see page v)



VOLUME XI

SAMSON— TALMID HAKAM



KTAV PUBLISHING HOUSE, INC.



KTAV PUBLISHING HOUSE, INC.

N.Y. 2, N.Y.

PRINTED AND BOUND IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA



YRL



LITERARY DIRECTORATE



EDITORIAL BOARD




CYRUS ABLER, Ph.D.

{Departments of Pust-Biblical Antiquities; the Jews of
America.)

President of the American Jewish Historical Society ; Librarian,
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.

/
GOTTHARD DEUTSCH, Ph.D.

(Department of Histon/ from 1U9'^ to 1901.)

Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati,

Ohio ; Editor of " Deborah."

LOUIS GINZBERG, Ph.D.

(Department of Ralilnnical Literature.)
New York ; Author of '* Die Haggada bei den Kirchenvatem."

RICHARD GOTTHEIL, Ph.D.

(Departments of History fjom Ezra to 11*92 ; History of Post-

Talnncdic Literature.)

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York;

Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library;

President of the Federation of American Zionists.

JOSEPH JACOBS, B.A.

(Departments of the Jews of England and A7ithropology ;
Revising Editor.)

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England ;
Author of " Jews of Angevin England," etc.

MARCUS JASTROW, Ph.D.

(Department of the Talmud.)
Rabbi Emeritus of the Congregation Rodef Shalom, Philadel-
phia, Pa. ; Author of " Dictionary of the Talmud."



MORRIS JASTROW, Jr., Ph.D.

(Department of the Bible.)

Professor of SemUic Languages and Librarian in the University
of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. ; Author of " Relig-
ion of the Babylonians and Assyrians," etc.

KAUFMANN KOHLER, Ph.D.

(Departments of Theology and Philosophy.)

Rabbi of Temple Beth-El, New York ; President of the Board of
Jewish Ministers, New York.

FREDERICK DE SOLA MENDES, Ph.D.

(Chief of the Bureau of Translation ; Revising Editor.)

Rabbi of the West End Synagogue, New York ; Vice-President
of Board of Jewish Ministers, New York.

ISIDORE SINGER, Ph.D.

Managing Editor.
(Department of Modern Biography from 1750 to 1901.)

CRAWFORD HOWELL TOY, D.D., LL.D.

(Departments of Hebrew Philology and Hellenistic

Literature.)

Professor of Hebrew in Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. ;

Author of " The Religion of Israel," " Judaism and

Christianity," etc.



AMERICAN BOARD OF CONSULTING EDITORS



BERNARD DRACHMAN, Ph.D.,

Rabbi of the Congregation Zichron Ephraim, Dean of the Jewish
Theological Seminary, New York.

B. FELSENTHAL, Ph.D.,

Rabbi Emeritus of Zion Congregation, Chicago; Author of "A
Practical Grammar of the Hebrew Language."

GUSTAV GOTTHEIL, Ph.D.,

Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Emanu-El, New York.

EMIL G. HIRSCH, Ph.D., LL.D.,

Rabbi of Chicago Sinai Congregation, Chicago, 111.; Professor of

Rabbinical Literature and Philosophy, University of

Chicago ; Editor of the " Reform Advocate."

HENRY HYVERNAT, D.D.,

Head of the Department of Semitic and Egyptian Literatures,
Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C.



., LL.D.,



J. FREDERIC McCURDY, Ph.D.

Professor of Oriental Languages, University College, Toronto,

Canada ; Author of " History, Prophecy, and

the Monuments."



H. PEREIRA MENDES, M.D.,

Rabbi of the Shearith Israel Congregation (Spanish and Portu-
guese), New York ; President of the Advisory Board of
Ministers of the Jewish Theological Seminary.

MOSES MIELZINER, Ph.D., D.D.,

Professor of Talmudic Literature, Hebrew Union College, Cin-
cinnati, Ohio ; Author of " Introduction to the Talmud."

GEORGE F. MOORE, M.A., D.D.,

Professor of Hebrew Language and Literature and President of

Andover Theological Seminary, Andover, Mass. ; Author

of a Commentary on the Book of Judges, etc.

DAVID PHILIPSON, D.D.,

Rabbi of the Congregation Bene Israel ; Professor of Homiletlca,

Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio ; President of

Hebrew Sabbath School Union of America.

IRA MAURICE PRICE, B.D., Ph.D.,

Professor of Semitic Languages and Literature, University of

Chicago, 111. ; Author of " The Monuments and

the Old Testament," etc.



IV



LITERARY DIRECTORATE



HERMAN ROSENTHAL,

Chief or the Russian section of The Jewish Encyclo-
pedia.
In charge of Slavonic Department, New York Public Library.

JOSEPH SILVERMAN, D.D.,

President of Central Conference of American Rabblfl ; Rabbi of
Temple Emanu-EI, New York.



JACOB VOORSANGER, D.D.,

Rabbi of the Congregation Emanu-El, San Francisco, Cal. ; Pro-
fessor of Semitic Languages and Literatures, Uni-
versity of California, Berkeley, Cal.

EDWARD J. WHEELER, M.A.,

Editor of •' The Literary Digest," New York.



FOREIGN BOARD OF CONSULTING EDITORS



ISRAEL ABRAHAMS, M.A.,

Coedltor of the '" Jewish Quarterly Review " ; Author of "Jew-
ish Life In the Middle Ages," etc. ; Senior TuUir
in Jews' College, Loudon, England.

W. BACHER, Ph.D.,

Professor in the Jewish Theological Seminary, Budapest,
Hungary.

M. BRANN, Ph.D.,

Professor In the Jewish Theological Seminary, Breslau, Ger-
many ; Editor of " Monatsschrift fur Geschlchte und
Wlssenschaft des Judeuthums."

H. BRODY, Ph.D.,

RabbL, Nachod, Bohemia, Austria; Coeditor of "Zeltschrlft fur
Hebriiische Bibliographie."

ABRAHAM DANON,

Principal of the Jewish Theological Seminary, Constantinople,

Turkey.

HARTWIG DERENBOURG, Ph.D.,

Professor of Liteiury Arabic at the Special School of Oriental
Languages, Paris, France ; Member of the French Institute.

S. M. DUBNOW,

Author of " Istoriya Yevreyev," Odessa, Russia.

MICHAEL FRIEDLANDER, Ph.D.,

Principal of Jews' College, London, England; Author of "The
Jewish Religion," etc.

IGNAZ GOLDZIHER, Ph.D.,

Professor of Semitic Philology, University of Budapest, Hungary.

M. GUDEMANN, Ph.D.,

Chief Rabbi of Vienna, Austria.

BARON DAVID GXJNZBURG,

St. Petersburg, Russia.

A. HARKAVY, Ph.D.,

Chief of the Hebrew Department of the Imperial Public Library,
St. Petersburg, Russia.

ZADOC KAHN,

Chief Rabbi of France ; H<jnorary President of the Alliance

Israelite Universelle ; Officer of the Legion

of Honor, Paris, France.

M. KAYSERLING, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Budapest, Hungary ; Corresponding Member of the
Royal Academy of History, Madrid, Spain.

MORITZ LAZARUS, Ph.D.,

Professor Emeritus of Psychology, University of Berlin ; Meran,

Austria.



ANATOLE LEROY-BEATJLIETT,

Member of the French Institute ; Professor at the Free School

of Political Science, Paris, France ; Author of

" Israel chez les Nations."

ISRAEL LEVI,

Professor in the Jewish Theological Seminary ; Editor of
" Revue des Etudes Juives," Paris, France.

ETJDE LOLLI, D.D.,

Chief Rabbi of Padua ; Professor of Hebrew at the University,
Padua, Italy.

IMMANUEL LOW, Ph.D.,

Chief Rabbi of Szegedin, Hungary ; Author of " Die Aramaischen
Manzennamen."

S. H. MARGULIES, Ph.D.,

Principal of the Jewish Theological Seminary ; Chief Rabbi of
Florence, Italy.

H. OORT, D.D.,

Professor of Hebrew Language and Archeology at the State
University, Leyden, Holland.

ABBE PIETRO PERREAU,

Formerly Librarian of the Reale Biblioteca Palatina, Parma,

Italy.

MARTIN PHILIPPSON, Ph.D.,

Formerly Professor of History at the Universities of Bonn and

Brussels; President of the Deutsch-Jiidische

Gemeindebund, Berlin, Germany.

SAMUEL POZNANSKI, Ph.D.,

Rabbi in Warsaw, Russia.

SOLOMON SCHECHTER, M.A., Litt.D.,

Professor of Hebrew, University College, London, England;

Reader in Rabbinic, University of Cambridge ;

Author of " Studies in Judaism."

E. SCHWARZFELD, Ph.D.,

Secretary-General of the Jewish Colonization Association, Paris,

France.

LUDWIG STEIN, Ph.D.,

Professor of Philosophy, University of Bern, Switzerland ; Editor
of " Archiv fiir Geschlchte der Philosophic," etc.

HERMANN L. STRACK, Ph.D.,

Profp^or of Old Testament Exegesis and Semitic Languages,
University of Berlin, Germany.

CHARLES TAYLOR, D.D., LL.D.,

Master of St. John's College, Cambridge. England ; Editor of
" Sayings of the Jewish Fathers," etc.



44



CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME XI



A Cyrus Adler, Ph.D.,

President of the American Jewish Historical
Society ; President of the Board of Directors
of the Jewish Theological Seminary of Amer-
ica; Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian
Institution, Washington, D. C.

A. A. B Amy A. Bernhardy ,

Teacher of Italian Literature, Smith College,
Northampton, Mass.

A. Bii Alexander Biichler, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Keszthely, Hungary.

A. Qa Abraham Qalante,

Formerly Editor of " La Buena Esperanza,"
Smyrna; Cairo, Egypt.

A. Kai Alois Kaiser,

Cantor, Temple Oheb Shalom, Baltimore, Md.

A. Ki Alexander Kisch, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Meysel Synagoge, Prague, Bohemia,
Austria.

A. Lew Abraham. Lewinsky, Ph.D.,

Chief Rabbi, Hildesheim, Hanover, Germany.

A. Low Adolf Lowing-er, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Szegedin, Hungary.

A. P A. Porter,

Formerly Associate Editor of "The Forum,"
New York ; Revising Editor of "Standard Cy-
clopedia" ; New York City.

A. Pe A. Peiginsky, Ph.D.,

New York City.

A. S. A A. S. Anspacher,

Rabbi, Anshe Hesed Congregation, Scran-
ton, Pa.

A. S. I Abram S. Isaacs, Ph.D.,

Professor of German Language and Litera-
ture, New York University Graduate Semi-
nary, New York City ; Rabbi, B'nai Jeshurun
Congregation, Paterson, N. J.

A. S. W A. S. Waldstein, B.A.,

New York City.
A. Ta Aaron Tanzer, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Hohenems, Tyrol, Austria.

A. U A. XJry,

Chief Rabbi, Strasburg, Alsace, Germany.

A. W Albert Wolf,

Dresden, Saxony, Germany.

A. W. B A. W. Brunner,

Architect, New York City.

B. Be Bela Bernstein, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Stein-am-Anger, Hungary.

B. Fr Bernhard Priedberg',

Fraiikfort-on-the-Main, Germany.

C. I. de S — Clarence I. de Sola,

President of the Federation of Canadian Zion-
ists ; Belgian Consul, Montreal, Canada.

C. L Caspar Levias, M.A.,

Formerly Instructorin Exegesis and Talraudic
Aramaic, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati,
Ohio.

D Gotthard Deutsch, Ph.D.,

Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union
College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

D. Ot. L David Gordon Lyon, Ph D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis and Sem-
itic Languages ; Curator of the Semitic Mu-
seum, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.



D. I. F D. I. Freedman, B.A.,

Rabbi, Perth, Western Australia.

E. A Edouard Andre,

Paris, France.

E. C Executive Committee of the Editorial

Board.

E. G. H EmilG. Hirsch, Ph.D., LL.D.,

Rabbi, Sinai Congregation ; Professor of Rab-
binical Literature and Philosophy, University
of Chicago ; Chicago, 111.

E. I. N E. L Nathans,

Philadelphia, Pa.

E. J Emil Jelinek,

Vienna. Austria.

E. K Eduard Konig, Ph.D., LL.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, Univer-
sity of Bonn, Germany.

E. Ms E. Mels,

New York City.

E. N Eduard Neumann, Ph.D.,

Chief Rabbi, Nagy-Kanizsa, Hungary.

E. N. A ElkanN. Adler,

Solicitor at Law, London, England.

E. N. S Elvira N. Solis,

New York City.

E. S.-C Emily Solis-Cohen, Jr.,

Philadelphia, Pa.

E. SI E. Slijper, Ph.D.,

Leyden, Holland.

F. C Frank Cramer, B. Sc. ,

New York ('ity.

F. H. V Frank H. Vizetelly, F.S. A.,

Associate Editor of the "Columbian Cyclo-
pedia" and of the Standard Dictioxarv ;
New York City.

F. L. C Francis L. Cohen,

Chief Minister, Sydney, N. S. W., Australia.

F. N. G Felix N. Gerson,

Journalist, Philadelphia, Pa.

F. P Felix Perles, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Konigsberg, East Prussia, Germany.

F. T. H Frederick T. Haneman, M.D.,

Brooklyn, N. Y.

G Richard Gottheil, Ph.D. ,

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia
University, New York ; Chief of the Oriental
Department, New York Public Library ; New
York City.

G. A. B George A. Barton, Ph.D.,

Professor of Biblical Literature and Semitic
Languages, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr,
Pa.

G. A. K George Alexander Kohut,

P'ormerly Rabbi in Dallas, Tex.; .\ssistant
Librarian of the Jewish Theological Seminary
of America, New York City.

G. B. L Gerson B. Levi,

New York City.
G. D. R George D. Rosenthal,

Electrical Engineer, St. Louis, Mo.

G. J Giuseppe Jare,

Chief Rabbi, Ferrara, Raly.

G. L Goodman Lipkind, B.A.,

Rabbi, New York City.



VI



CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME XI



G. Li Qustave Lindner,

Astor Library, New Vork City.

Q. Mo Godfrey Morse,

Counselor at Law, Boston, Mass.

G. S Gabriel Schwarz, Ph.D.,

Agram, Croatia, HiiriKary.

H. B. E Hannah B. Einstein,

President of Emanu-Kl Sisterhood of Personal
Service, New York City.

H. C Henry Cohen,

Rabbi B'uai Israel Congregation, Galveston,
Tex.

H. Ga H. Galandauer,

Rabbi, Soborten, Bohemia, Austria.

H. G-. F H. Q. Friedmann, B.A.,

New York City.

H. Gut H. Guttenstein,

New York City.

H. M Henry Malter, Ph.D.,

Professor of Talmud and Instructor In Judaeo-
Arabic Philosophy, Hebrew Union College,
Cincinnati, Ohio.

H. R Herman Rosenthal,

Chief of the Slavonic Department of the New
York Public Library, New York City.

H. S Henrietta Szold,

Secretary of the Publication Committee of the
Jewish Publication Society of America, New
York City.

I. A. H Isaac A. Hourwich, Ph.D.,

Expert Special Agent of the Bureau of the
Census, Department of Commerce and Labor,
Washington, D. C.

I. Be Immanuel Benzinger, Ph.D.,

Professor of old Testament Exegesis, Uni-
versity of Berlin, Germany ; Jerusalem, Pal-
estine.

I. Br Isaac Broyd^ (Offlce Editor),

Doctor of the University of Paris, France; for-
merly Librarian of the Alliance Israelite Uni-
verselle, Paris, France ; New Y'ork City.

I. Co Israel Cohen,

London, England.

I. D Israel Davidson, Ph.D.,

Instructor in Het)rew Literature. Jewish Theo-
logical Seminary of America, New York City.

I. G. D I. George Dobsevagre,

New York City.

I. H Isidore Harris, A.M.,

Rabbi, West London Synagogue, London,
England.

I. L Israel L6vi,

Rabbi ; Professor in the Jewish Theological
Seminary, Paris; Editor of "Revue des
Etudes Juives," Paris, France.

I. L"6 Immanuel Low, Ph.D.,

Chief Rabbi, Budapest, Hungary.

I. M. C I. M. Casanowicz, Ph.D.,

United States National Museum, Washington,
D. C.

I. M. P Ira Maurice Price, Ph.D., LL.D.,

Professor of Semitic Languages and Litera-
ture, University of Chicago, Chicago, 111.

J Joseph Jacobs, B.A.,

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical
Society of England ; Corresponding Member
of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid;
New York City.

J. C. B J. C. Baer,

Strelit/!, Mecklenburg, Germany.

J. D. E Judah David Eisenstein,

Author, New^ York City.

J. F. McL....J. F. McLaughlin, M.A., B.D.,

Professor of Oriental Languages and Litera-
ture, Victoria College, Toronto, Canada.



J. G. L J. G. Lipman, Ph.D. ,

Assistant Agriculturist, New Jersey State Ex-
periment Station, New Brunswick, N. J.

J. Go Julius Gottlieb, M.A., Ph.D.,

New York City.

J. H J. Hessen,

Counselor at Law, St. Petersburg, Russia.

J. H. G Julius H. Greenstone,

Rabbi. Philadelphia, Pa.

J. H. H. . .Joseph Hermann Hertz,

Rabbi, Witwatersrand Old Hebrew Congrega-
tion, Johannesburg, S. A.

J. Hy J. Hyams,

Bombay, India.

J. Ka Jacques Eahn,

RaVibi, Paris. France.

J. Leb Joseph Lebovich,

Harvanl University, Cambridge, Mass.

J. So Joseph Sohn,

Contributor to " The New International En-
cyclopedia"; formerly Musical Critic on the
New York " American and Journal " ; New
York City.

J. L. S Joseph Loeb Sossnitz,

Rabbi ; Lecturer on Jewish Ethics, Educa-
tional Alliance, New York City.

J. V Jacob Voorsanger , D.D. ,

Professor of Semitic Languages and Litera-
ture, University of California, Berkeley, Cal.;
Rabbi Congregation Emanu-El, San Fran-
cisco, Cal.

J. z. L Jacob Zallel Lauterbach, Ph.D. (Office

Editor),
Rabbi. New York City.

K Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D.,

Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Beth-El, New
York ; President of the Hebrew Union Col-
lege, Cincinnati, Ohio.

L. B Ludwig Blau, Ph.D.,

Professor, Jewish Theological Seminary ; Edi-
tor of " Magyar Zsid(') Szemle '" : Budapest,
Hungary.

L. G Louis Ginzberg, Ph.D.,

Professor of Talmud, Jewish Theological Sem-
inary of America, New York City.

L. Grii Lazarus Griinhut,

Director of Orphan Asylum, Jerusalem, Pales-
tine.

L. H. G Louis H. Gray, Ph.D.,

Assistant Editor of the " Orientallsche Blblio-
graphie" ; formerly on the editorial staff of
"The New International Encyclopedia";
Newark, N. J.

L. H. L Louis H. Levin,

Editor of "Jewish Comment," Baltimore, Md.

L. Hu L. Hiihner, A.M.,LL.B.,

Counselor at Law, New Yoi k City.

L. K Lesser Knoller, Ph.D.,

Rabbi: Principal of the Bildungsanstalt fur
Judische Lehrer; Hanover, Germany.

L. N. D Lewis N. Dembitz, D.H.L.,

Counselor at Law, Louisville. Ky.

L. V Ludwig Venetianer, Ph.D.,

Rabbi. U.ipest, Hungary.

M. Co Max Cohen,

Counselor at Law, New York City.

M. de G .... Meldola de Sola,

Rabbi, Montreal, Canada.

M. F Michael Friedlander, Ph.D.,

Principal, Jews' College. London, England.

M. Fi Maurice Fishberg, M.D.,

Surgeon to the Beth Israel Hospital Dispen-
sary ; Medical Examiner to the United States
Hebrew Charities, New York City.

M. Fr M. Franco,

Principal, Alliance Israelite Unlverselle
School, Demotlca, Rumelia, Turkey.



CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME XI



Vll



M. K Meyer Kayserling-, Ph.D. (deceased).

Late Rabbi, Budapest, Hungary.
M. Lan Max Liandebergr, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Berilli Kodesh Congregation, Roches-
ter, N. Y.

M. Ij. B Moses Lob Bamberger, Ph.D.,

Rabbi ; Lecturer in Rabbinic, Jewish Semi-
nary, Wiirzburg, Bavaria, Germany.

M. LiV Marc Levi,

Schlettstadt, Alsace, Germany.

M.Mr M. Marg-el, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Pozega, Slavonia, Austria.
M. R Max Rosenthal, M.D.,

VisitinR Physician, German Dispensary, New
Yorli City. ,

M. Ri M. Rich tmann, Ph.D. ,

Budapest, Hungary.

M. Sc Max Schloessinger, Ph.D. ,

Librarian and Lecturer on Biblical Exegesis,
Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

M. Sel Max Seligrsohn {Office Editor),

Doctor of the University of Paris, France ;
New York City.

M. W. M....MaryW. Montgromery, Ph.D.,

New York City.

N. D Newell Dunbar, B.D.,

Author, Newark, N. J.
N. E. B. E . .N. E. B. Ezra,

Shanghai, China.

P. Be Philippe Berg-er,

Professor of Hebraic, Chaldalc, and Syriac
Languages and Literature, College de France ;
Member of the Academie des Inscriptions et
Belles Lettres, Paris, France.

P. Wi Peter Wiernik,

Journalist, New York City.
R. N Regina Neisser,

Author, Breslau, Silesia, Germany.
S Isidore Sing-er, Ph.D.,

Managing Editok, New York City.



S. H S. Hecht, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, B'ni B'rith Congregation, Los An-
geles, Cal.

S. Ho S. Horovitz, Ph.D.,

Professor, Jewish Theological Seminary, Bres-
lau, Germany.

S. Hu S. Hurwitz,

.N'ew York City.

S. Kr Samuel Krauss, Ph.D.,

Professor, Normal College, Budapest, Hungary.

S. Man S. Mannheimer, B.L.,

Instructor, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnativ
Ohio.

S. Mun Sig-mund Miinz, Ph.D.,

Vienna, Austria.

S. O Schulim Ochser, Ph.D. (Office Editnr),

Rabbi, New York City.

S. We Samuel Wessel,

Rabbi, Sarajevo, Bosnia.
T Crawford Howell Toy, D.D., LL.D.,

Professor of Hebrew, Harvard University,.
Cambridge, Mass.

T. K Theodor Kroner, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Stuttgart, Wiirtlemberg, Germany.

U. C XJmberto Cassuto,

Editor of " La Rivista Israelltlca," Florence,.
Italy.

V. C Vittore Castig-lione,

Chief Rabbi, Rome, Italy.
V. E Victor Rousseau Emanuel,

New York City.

W. B Wilhelm Bacher, Ph.D.,

Professor, Jewish Theological Seminary, Buda-
pest, Hungary.

W. N Wilhelm Nowack, Ph.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, Uni-
versity of Strasburg, Germany.

W. Wi Wolf Winner, M.A.,

Rabbi, Congregation Beth Israel, Meridian,

Miss.



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN VOLUME XI



N. B. — In the following list subjects likely to be sought for under various headings are repeated
under each heading. Cross-references in this list are to other items in the list, not to articles in
the Encyclopedia.

PAGE

A.lbo, Joseph, Page from the First Edition of the " 'Ikkarim " by, Soucino, 1485 465

Algiers, Interior of the Old Synagogue at 625

Almemar of the Old Synagogue at Casimir, near Cracow 636

America: see Indianapolis; Montreal; New York, Philadelphia; San Francisco; Semitic
Museum.

Amsterdam, Title-Page from a " Tikkun " Printed in 1666 at 221

Antokolski, Mark, Statue of Baruch Spinoza by 518

Archeology: see Cromlechs; Dolmens; KafrBir'im; Mazzebah; Meron; Seals; Siloam; Solo-
mon; Tomb.
Architecture: see Booths; Semitic Museum; Solomon; Synagogues; Tabernacle; Tomb.

Ark of the Law in the Synagogue at Sarajevo 59

Arms of the De Sola Family 430

Art: see Archeology, Architecture; Scroll of the La'sv ; Shofars; Spinoza; Tables of the
Law; Tallit; Typography.

Booths Used During the Feast of Tabernacles, Eighteenth Century 657-659

Breastplates for Scrolls of the Law 130, 133, 135

Breslau, Seal of the Head of the Community of Figs. 35, 36 of plate between 136-137

California : see San Francisco.

Cases for Scrolls of the Law 126, 133

Cemetery, The Old Jewish, at Sarajevo 60

Ceremonial: see Scroll of the Law; Seder; Shofars; StmhatTorah; Slaughtering; Stripes;

Tabernacles, Feast of; Tallit.
Costume: see Shabbethai Zebi ; Smyrna; Susskind of Trimberg ; Tallit.

Cromlechs, Palestinian 556, 557

Cups, Silver, of the Si.xteenth Century Used at the Seder 145

Dolmens, Palestinian 557. 558

Dresden, Communal Seal of Fig. 33 of plate between 136-137

First Editions: Head-Piece Used by the Soncinos in the 1485 Edition of the Earlier Prophets 462

Page from Albo's " 'Ikkarim," Soucino, 1485 465

Title-Page from Meir Schiff's " Hiddushe Halakot," Homburg-vor-der-Holie, 1737 99

Flagellation; Inflicting Stripes. From seventeenth- and eighteenth-century prints 569, 570

Florence, Exterior of the Synagogue at 637

Galicia : see Zolkiev.

Germany : see GoEppiNGEN ; Heidenheim ; Landsberg; Munich; Nikolsburg; Reichenberg; Rot-
terdam ; Strasburg ; Worms.
Goeppingen, Plan of the Synagogue at 634

Haggadah, Page from the Mantua, of 1550, Depicting the Seder Ceremonies .... folder between 142-143

Halberstadt, Communal Seal of. Seventeenth Century Fig. 11 of plate between 136-137

Hamburg, Seal of the Portuguese Community of Fig. 1 of plate between 136-137



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN VOLUME XI



PAGE

Heidenlieiiii. Plan of the Synagoguo at 634

Homburg-vor-der-Hohe, Title-Page from Meir SciiiiT's " Hiddiislie Halnkot," Priuted in 1737 at 99

Incunabula : see Soncino.

Indianapolis, Plan of the S\'nagogue at 635

Inseription, The Siloam, with Transcription in Modern Hebrew Characters 340

see also Seals; Tombstone.

Italy: see Florence; Rome.

Jerusalem, Interior of a Synagogue at 626

Seals of Various Communities at 139

Supposed Stables of Solomon at 437

Johannesburg, South Africa, Synagogue of the Witwatersrand Old Hebrew Congregation at 478

Kafr Bir'im, Palestine, Ruins of an Ancient Synagogue at 621

Karaite Synagogue at Odessa, Russia 638

Ground Plan of a 636

Tallit 677

Knives Used in Slaughtering 256

Landsberg, Plan of Synagogue at 634

Lutomirsk, Russia, Exterior of the Wooden Synagogue at 633

Lutsk, Russia, Exterior of the Synagogue at 633

Manuscripts: see Sckoll op the Law; Selihah; SnETAUiM; Sira, Ben; Siyyum; Slave;
Spinoza; StJssKiND of Trimberg.

Map of Sicily Showing Places Where Jews Resided 326



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