Isidore Singer.

The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 11) online

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gpite of persecution, and soon became the strongest
and best-organized body of Socialist
The working men in Russia. The organ-

Arbeiter- ization and growth of the Bund have
Bund. been among the principal causes of
the recent revulsion of Russian public
sentiment in favor of the Jews. Formerly the indi-
vidual Jewish Socialists counted as Jews only in so
far as they offered another justification for the anti-
Semitic policy of the government; wliile with the
revolutionary Socialists they passed as Russians, and
as such reflected no credit upon the Jewish race. The
Bund made its appearance as a distinctively Jew-
ish organization, and demanded recognition for the
Jewish working clas.s. The newspaper-reading Rus-
sian public outside the Pale had been convinced by
the anti-Semitic press that the Jews were a race of
parasites, and that there was no laboring class
among them ; the existence of the Bund was in itself
the most conclusive refutation of this charge.

The Bund marks a new departure in the progress-
ive movement among the Jews. Heretofore assimi-
lation with the dominant race has been the first
article of faith with all Liberal and Democratic
Jews. The Bund, on tlie contrary, asserts the
claims of the Jewish people as a distinct nationalit}'.
It takes for its model Austria with her polyglot
population, where the principal Slavonic tribes, the
Poles, the Ruthenians, and the Bohemians, are con-
tending, not without success, for linguistic auton-
omy, as distinguished from territorial autonomy.

The advocacy of this principle by the Bund has
brought it into conflict with the cosmopolitan tend-
ency of the Socialist movement. It is contended
by the opponents of the Bund that its i>olicy creates
division within the Socialist ranks. It must be
noted, however, that the Bund addresses itself to
those classes of the Jewish people wiiich under the
existing social conditions rarely, if ever, come into
contact with other races. At the same time all other
Russian and Polish Socialist organizations still con-
tain a large and influential Jewish membership.

The Jewish exodus from Russia drafted to the

United States large numbers of Sociali-sts, mostly

college and university students, who

In must be reckoned among the pioneers

the United of the Socialist parlies in America.

States. Their main field of activity was the
ghetto. But the masses of Jewish
workmen and tradesmen who were educated by this
propaganda scattered throughout the country in
pursuit of employment or business opportunities
and became "the pedlers of socialism" among their
shopmates and neighbors. The city of Haverhill,
Mass., which elected the first Socialist mayor in the
United States, is a notable example of the prosely-
tizing work of Russo-Jewish Socialists. The Rus-
sian Jews themselves have contributed their quota
to the rank and file, as well as to the leaders, of the
American Socialist parties. One of the prominent
national leaders is iMorris Hillquit, a young Russo-
Jewish attorney in New York, author of "The
Historv of Socialism in the United States" (New
York, "l 903).

The Jewish Socialist movement in America lias
created a Socialist literature in the Yiddish language.
The first attempt to present socialism to the Jews in
their own language was ?nade in 1874, when two
young Russian Jews, Aaron Liebeum.^nn (d. 1880)
and ^I. Winchevsky, published in Vienna a small
magazine entitled "Ha-Eniet." It addressed itself
to the intellectual class of the Russian Jews — the
Maskilim — and was printed in Hebrew, their lit-
erary language. This publication, Iiowever, was

Socialist papers in Yiddish were then established
(in the early eighties), first in London, and later
iu New York ; the New York dailj' " Vorwarts " now
has a hirge circulation and has recently moved into
its own building. A monthly magazine, "Die Zu-
kunft," likewise published in New York, is popular-
izing scientific socialism among advanced Yiddish

J. I. A. H.

for the study of Jewish history and literature, and
especially of the history and literature of the Jews
of France; its headquarters are in Paris. It was
founded in 1880, chiefly through the elTortsof Baron
James Edouard de Rothschild, Isidore Loeb, Arsene
Darmesteter, Charles Netter, and especially Chief
Rabbi Zadoc Kalin. In harmony with its purpose,
it jniblislies the quarterly "Revue dcs Etudes
Juives" as well as Avorks bearing on Jewish sub-
jects, grants subventions for books of that character,
and organizes public lectures. The society is com-
jiosed of corporate members, who pay a minimum




annual fee of 25 francs; of life-members, who ]iay a
minimum initiation foe of 400 francs; and of charter
members, tlic minimum entrance-fee for whom is
1,000 francs; both the latter classes being exempt
from all annual clues. The organization received
official recognition in a decree dated Dec. 6, 1896, and
is consequently empowered to accept legacies and
donations. Its annual revenue is about 13,000
francs. Since its foundation Israel Levi lias been
secretary of its editorial board.

The works published by the society are strictly
scientific in character. The list of contributors con-
tains the names of Leon Bardinet, Cagnat, Abraham
Cahen, Arsene and James Darmesteter, Joseph Der-
enbourg, Rubens Duval, II. Gractz, H. Gross, S.
llalberstam, Josepli Halevy, Zadoc Kahn, David
Kaufmann, ^Meyer Kayserling, Alexander Kohut,
Francois Lenormant, Isidore Loeb, Immanuel LOw,
Simeon Luce, Marco Mortara, Adolf Neubauer,
Jules Oppert, Ernest Renan, Ulysse Robert, Moritz
Steinschneider, and Maurice Vernes. The chief
contributors at the present time (1905) are: Elkau
N. Adler, Wilhelm Bacher, Ludwig Blau, A. Blich-
ler, Abraham Epstein, Iguaz Goldziher, Baron David
Giinzburg, A. Harkavy, ]\I. Laudjert, Israel Levi,
S. Poznanski, M. Schwab, and Solomon and Theo-
dore Reinach.

In addition to the "Revue," which has readied its
fiftieth volume, and the " Anuuaires " of the first four
years, the society has published: "Tables du Calen
drier Juif Depuis I'Ere Chretienne Jusqu'au Dix-
Huitieme Siecle avee la Concordance des Dates
Juives et des Dates Chretiennes" ; "La Litterature
des Pauvres dans le Bible," by Isidore Loeb ; "Gallia
Judaica," by H. Gross; "Textes d'Auteurs Grecset
Romains Relatifs au Judaisme," by Theodore Rei-
nach ; and the complete works of Flavins Josephus,
translated into French under the supervision of The-
odore Reinach (vol. i., " Antiquites Judaiques," i.-v.,
by Weill; iii., "Antitjuites Judaiques," xi.-xv., by
Chamonard ; vii., parti., " Contre Apion," by Blum).

The society is preparing a French translation of
the works of Philo, a corpus of inscriptions, another
of laws relating to the Jews, and a register of docu-
ments referring to the Jews in France. For the
series of public lectures which it has organized, it
has secured the cooperation of Anatole Leroy-
Beaulieu, Ernest Renan, Gaston Paris, Maspero,
Dieulafoy, Cagnat, Baron Carra de Vaux, Albert
and Jean Reville, Victor Berard, Guillaume Guizot,
and others.

s. I. L.

SOCIETIES, LEARNED: Nearly every Jew-
ish community possessed, or still possesses, various
societies aiming to propagate Jewish learning.
There have been societies for the study of the Talmud
("hebrah shas"), of the Mishnah ("liebrah misliua-
yot"), and of other works of less importance, such
as "'En Ya'akob," " llayye Adain," etc. To the
hebrah shas belonged those Jews who were versed in
Talmud ; to the hebrah mishnayot, those whose Tal-
mudical training was more limited; and to the other
hobrot, the rest of the people. The members of each
society usually devoted a couple of hours daily to
the study in common of their respective subjects.
In some communities, however, the members of tiie

hebrah shas did not study the Talmud in common,
but each member had one or more Talmudical trea-
tises allotted to him, the study of which he was re-
(juired to complete during the ensuing twelvemonth ;
so that among the members the whole Talmud
might be finished within the year. The eve of Pass-
over was usually fixed for the celebration of the
completion of tlds study.

All these societies, liowever, were mainly of a re-
ligious character; and their scope of activity was
limited to the religious branches of Jewish lit-
erature, excluding all subjects not directly related
to the ceremonial lawsand public worship. Even the
study of the Bible, with the exception of the Penta-
teuch, was neglected. But under Mendelssohn's
influence a learned society properly so-called was
founded in 1783 at Kftnigsberg by Isaac Euchel and
Mendel Bresslau. It was called " Hebrat Dorcshe
Leslion 'Eber," or Me'asskki.m, after the name
of the Hebrew periodical " Ha-Meassef" published
by its meniber.s. This periodical contained Hebrew
lioeiiis, literary compositions, and essays both on rab-
binical and on secular subjects. After a period of
about twenty years the society ceased to exist. Under
the guidance of E. Gans, L. Zunz, and others, a new-
society was founded in 1823 at Berlin having for its

name" Verein filr Cultur uud Wissen-
The Verein scliaft des Judenthums." Its aim was
fur Cultur. to unite modern culture with ancient

Judaism; and for this purpose it pub-
lished a periodical in German, devoted to scientific
essays on various subject.s. Among the members of
this society were Heinrich Heine, Moses Moser, and
many others who subsequently occupied prominent
positions in the German literary and scientific world.
However, the Verein had a very short existence; it
dissolved soon after the publication of the first num-
ber of its " Zeil.schrift," which, although its German,
according to Heinrich Heine, left much to be desired
("Briefe," ed. Karpeles. p. 117), contained many ex-
cellent articles, notably that of Zunz on Rashi.

A much longer existence was enjoyed by a .society
for the promotion of Jewish literature founded in
1855 by Ludwig Philippson at Leipsic under the
name Institut zuk Foudekung ueu Isijaki.iti-
sciiEN LiTEU.\TUR. It existed for eighteen years,
and during this period published, in German, about
eighty works of Jewisb history, science, poetry, fic-
tion, and biography. Here may be mentioned,
thougli not strictly a learned society, an interna-
tional association, founded in Germany in 18(54 un-
der the name"Mekize Nirdamim," for the publica-
tion of old Hebrew books and manuscripts. It was
established firstat Lyck, imder the direction of Rabbi
Nathan Adler, Sir Moses Montefiore, and Joseph
Zedner (London), Albert Colin (Paris), S. D. Luz-
zatto (Padua), M. Sachs (Berlin), Eliezer Lipinan Sil-
bermann (Lyck), and M. Straschun (Wilna). It was
later reorganized at Beilin (1885) under the sujiervi-
sion of Abraham Berliner (Berlin), Moses Ehrenreich

(Rome), J. Derenbourg and David

Mekize Ginsburg (Paris), S. J. Halberstam

Nirdamim. (Bielilz), A. Harkavy (St. Petersburg),

M. Jastrow (Philadelphia), David
Kaufmann (Budapest), and M. Straschun (Wilna).
Up to the present year (1905) this society has




published forty-two ancient works. In 1885 the
Deutsch-Israelitischer Gemeindebuud founded the
HiSTORiscHE Commission for the collection of ma-
terial relating to the history of the Jews in Germany.
This commission, wliich is still in existence, has
published several important works and it like-
wise established the "Zeitsclirift fiir Geschichte
der Juden in Deutschland," which was edited by
Ludwig Geiger (5 vols., Berlin, 1886-92). In 1897
Max Grunwald founded at Hamburg the Gesell-
schaft fiir Jiidisciie Volkskundc;, the aim of which
is to propagate, by periodical publications (entitled
" Mittiieilungen "), the study of ecclesiastical art and
folk-lore. Fifteen issues of these " Mittiieilungen "
have appeared up to the present.

There are very few Jewish learned societies in Aus-
tria. Besides the various academic associations,
which are rather of a national than of a learned
character, only two are of importance; namely, the
Israelitischer Literaturverein Mendelssohn, founded
at Vienna in 1894, the aim of which is to promote
Jewish learning by means of lectures and the publi-
cation of scientific works, and the Gesellschaft flir
Sammlung und Conservirung von Kunst- und His-
torischen Denkmalern des Judenthums, founded at
Vienna in 1893. The results of the activity of the
latter society are given in an annual publication
entitled " Jahresbericht."

Amsterdam in the eighteenth century possessed
many societies for the promotion of Jewish learning.
Among them were : Keter Torali ; Torah Or ; Yesiba
de los Pintos; Meirat 'Enayim, called also Yesiba
Amstelodama; and Tif'eret Bahurim or Yesiba
Quinta. A similar society to that of the Me'assefim
in Germany was founded in the last years of that
century under the name "To'elet."

Austria, Like its German prototype, the To'elet

Holland, enriched Jewish literature with many

and volumes of Hebrew poems and essays.

France. In 1888 the Dutcii teachers united and
formed the Society Achawa, which
publishes under the same title a monthly magazine
devoted chiefly to pedagogy.

An important society tor the promotion of Jewish
learning was founded in France in 1880, the Societe
DES Etudes Juives. Its first president was Baron
James Edouard de Rothschild, who, by a large sub-
vention, placed it on a satisfactory financial footing.
Besides the quarterly publication of the "Revue
des Etudes Juives," which is one of the most valu-
able of the scientific periodicals in the whole of Jew-
ish journalism, the society has given financial assist-
ance to authors in the publication of their works.
It has also published at its own expense many valu-
able contributions to Jewish science, among which
the most important is the "Gallia Judaica" of
Heinrich Gross. The international society known
as " Alliance Israelite Universelle " maj' to a certain
extent be counted among learned societies, the last
item of its program being "the encouragement of
publications contributing to the emancipation or
elevation of the Jews." Besides a certain number
of worksdevoted principally to Jewish statistics and
the defense of Judaism, which the Alliance has pub-
lished at its own expense, it has lent its support to
all learned works of interest to Jews.

In its short existence the Hebrew Literature Soci-
ety of London rendered great service to Jewish learn-
ing. Under the editorship of A. Loewy it published
a certain number of Jewish works, among which
was the first volume of the English translation of
the "Moreh Nebukim," made by M. Friedlander.
From the Anglo-Jewish Historical Exhibition held
in London in 1887 — in connection with which there

were published three volumes bearing
England, on history — grew The

Historical Society of England, founded
in 1893. This .society has issued four volumes of
transactions and has published a work on Manasseh
ben Israel by Lucien Wolf and, conjointly with the
Selden Society, a volume of "Select Pleas from the
Jewish Exchequer." In 1903 a new society, tlie
Union of Jewish Literary Societies, came into ex-
istence. Its objects are: the diffusion of knowl-
edge of Jewish literature, history, and sociologj' ;
the coordination of the work of literary societies in
general ; the formation of new literary societies ; the
encouragement of the literary activity of Jewish
social clubs; the establishment of means by which
the literary efforts of .societies mtiy be organized and
utilized in common; the provision of literary mate-
rial and guidance for members of the society desirous
of preparing lectures; the encouragement of inter-
society meetings and debates; the promotion of
popular Jewish publications; the organization of
summer meetings for Jewish studies; and tiie estab-
lishment of a circulating library containing works
on Jewish history and literature.

An association which exercises a great civilizing
influence is the Society fou the Promotion ok
Culture Among the Jews op Russia, which was
founded in 1863. Its objects are: to spread the

knowledge of the Russian language
Russia. among the Jews; to publish and to

assist others in publishing useful
works and periodicals in Russian as well as in He-
brew ; and to support the young who are devoting
themselves to the study of the sciences. During the
first twenty years of its existence it was regarded by
the public with indifference, and the number of its
members and consequentlj' its income were very
limited; but with the enactment of the restrictive
laws which excluded tiie Jews from educational
establishments, its influence began to grow ; and its
services are now universally recognized.

The first Jewish learned association in the New
World was the American Jewish Publication Soci-
ety, founded at Philadelphia in 1845 b}' Isaac Leeser.
During the six years of its existence it published
under the title " Miscellany" fourteen works
on Jewish matters. In 1851 the building in which
were stored the slates and books belonging to the
societ}' was destroyed by fire, and the society there-
upon ceased to exist. It was succeeded by another
association, l)earing the same name, founded at New
York in 1873. Its publication committee consisted

of Gustav Gottlieil, Moses Mielziner,
America. F. de Sola Mendes. Marcus Jastrow,

and Moritz EUinger. As pub-
lication the society issued in 1873 the fourth volume
of Gratz's "Geschichte der Jiiden," translated into
English by James K. (xutheim of New Orleans. lu





1875 two volumes were issued: (1) "Jewish Family-
Papers; Letters of a Missionary," by " Gustav Meiii-
hardt" (William Herzberg), translated into English
by F. de Sola Mendes; and (2) " Hebrew Character-
istics," miscellaneous papers from the German, trans-
lated by Albert H. Louis. In 1873, owing to the com-
mercial depression which followed the financial panic
of that year, the society was dissolved. A new as-
sociation for the publication and dissemination of
literary, scientific, and religious works was founded
under the name "Jewish Publication Society of
America," at a convention held in Philadelpliia in
1888. Its members now (1905) number about 5,000,
and as a rule it issues four or five publications
yearl}-. Of these the most noteworthy have been :
"History of the Jews" (the English edition of
Gratz's "Geschichte der Juden "); "Studies in Juda-
ism," by Solomon Schechter; "Jewish Life in the
Middle Ages," by Israel Abrahams; and the " Ethics
of Judaism," by Lazarus.

In 1892 was founded the American Jewish His-
torical Society, the objects of which are the collec-
tion and preservation of material bearing upon the
history of the Jews in America. The society meets
annually for the transaction of business and for the
reading of papers which form the subjects of the
publications of the association. In 1895 was founded
in New York the Ohole Shem Association to pro-
mote and fo.ster the study of Hebrew and other
Semitic languages and to encourage the study of
Jewish history and literature. Since its organiza-
tion the association has inaugurated a series of lec-
tures in Hebrew, German, and English. In 1895
and 1896 it published a Hebrew monthly entitled
"Ner ha-Ma'arabi"; in 1901, "Ha-Modia' le-Hoda-
shim " ; and for 1904 it issued an annual entitled
"Yalkut Ma'arabi."

J. ■ ■ I. Bu.


Founded by Alois Kaiser in Baltimore, Md., Ma}'
14, 1895. Its object is the elevation of the cantor's
profession, the furtherance of cohesion among its
members, and the improvement of musical services
in the synagogue. While its member.ship is open
to all, it is in fact an association of cantors of
both Con.servative and Reform congregations. The
society selected and arranged the music for the
"Union Hymnal," published by the Central Con-
ference of American Rabbis in 1897. On the oc-
casion of the hundredth anniversary of Solomon
Sulzcr's birthday (1904) the society published a Fri-
day evening service, with music, selected from
Sulzer's "Shir Ziyyon." On March 22, 1904 it held
a memorial service in New York city in honor of
the same event, at which addresses were delivered.

Bibliography: Aivericnn JewMi Yi'or-Book; Report of
the Society of Amrrirnji Caiitont for 19QU.
A. A. K.\i.


(Hebrew title, Marbe [or Mefijje] Haskalah be-
Yisrael) : Society founded at St. Petersburg in
Dec, 1863, by some of the most prominent Russian
Jews, e.ff., Joseph Yozel Giinzburg, who became
president; his son Horace Giinzburg, first vice-pres-
ident; Rabbi A. Neumann, second vice-president;

Leon Rosenthal, treasurer; Abraham Brodski; I.
Brodski ; and others. The aim of the society as set
forth ia ita constitution is as follows:

" To promote culture amonj? the Russian Jews and to infuse
Into them love therefor. To tiiis end the society will endeavor
to spread the knowledtje of the Russian Ian-
Objects, guage among them ; it will publish and assist
others in publishing useful works and journals
in Russian, as well as in Hebrew, that will aid in carrying out
the purposes of the society; and it will, further, the
young in devoting themselves to the pursuit of knowledge and
of the sciences" (Constitution, g li.

The idea of establishing sucii a .society in Russia
may have been suggested by the Alliance Israelite
Universelle, which was founded in 1860. The time
was ripe for such an organization in Russia, inas-
much as the awakening of the Jews of that coun-
try to their cultural needs was in progress. There
were, however, some drawbacks, on account of which
the society was tumble to carry out its program in
its entirety. Its scope of activity was necessarily
limited by the disabilities of the Russian Jews; and
there was, moreover, a lack of interest on the part of
the intellectual Jews themselves, the greater number
of whom strove to shake themselves free from every-
thing Jewish. The society thus iiad to struggle on
for some time and to satisfy its ambition with minor
achievements. For several years the number of its
members was less than 250, and in 1880 it was not
quite 350; the annual income was less than 12,000
rubles. From that year onward, however, the in-
terest in the society increased. The anti-Jewish
riots, on the one hand, and the restrictions imposed
by the government, on the other, impelled the Ru.s-
sian Jews to trust to self-help and to take thence-
forth more interest in their own institutions. In the
next year (1880) the society inaugurated a branch,
with a special fund, for the promotion of agricul-
ture and industry among the Russian
Branch Jews. The number of its members

Societies, increased to 552, and its yearly in-
come was more than doubleii (28,346
rubles). But here, again, the attitude of the Rus-
sian government toward the Jews checked the so-
ciety's operations, the prohibition against Jews en-
gaging in agriculture having become more strin-
gent with the accession of Alexander III., thus de-
feating the object of the new agricultural section.
In the other branches, however, the activity of the
society was considerable, the report of its twentieth
anniversary (1884) showing an expenditure from the
foundation of the society of 78.788 rubles for the
support of students at universities, academies, and
industrial institutions, and for the maintenance of
private and public .schools: in addition 35,556 ru-
bles were expended in connection with useful pub-
lications issued by the society itself or on its initia-
tive. At the same time, a greater interest in Hebrew
literature began to manifest itself among the mem-
bers, and a special fund for its promotion was voted
in 1884.

The operations of the society iiave since extended
far beyond St. Petersburg. As early as 1865 a
branch had been founded at Odessa, which issued
and maintained the newspaper "Den." Other
branches were later established at'ow, Riga, and
several other cities; but the most effective work has




been done by the Odessa branch. The chief lines of
tlie society's activity are the following: (1) assist-
ance of Jewish students at the Russian universities:
(2) maintenance of general and iudus-
Chief Lines trial schools for Jewisli children; (3)
of aid to Jewish libraries; (4) encour-

Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 11) → online text (page 101 of 160)